Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Veronicella cubensis
(Cuban slug)

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Datasheet

Veronicella cubensis (Cuban slug)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Veronicella cubensis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Cuban slug
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Mollusca
  •       Class: Gastropoda
  •         Subclass: Pulmonata
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • V. cubensis, the Cuban slug, can potentially invade, survive and reproduce in any humid tropical and subtropical environment. This species can cause severe damage to crops and native plants; transmit pathogens...

  • Principal Source
  • Draft datasheet under review

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Cuban slug (Veronicella cubensis); contracted specimen, showing mantle covering full length of its body.
TitleContracted specimen
CaptionCuban slug (Veronicella cubensis); contracted specimen, showing mantle covering full length of its body.
CopyrightUSDA-APHIS–Plant Protection and Quarantine/David Robinson - Public Domain
Cuban slug (Veronicella cubensis); contracted specimen, showing mantle covering full length of its body.
Contracted specimenCuban slug (Veronicella cubensis); contracted specimen, showing mantle covering full length of its body.USDA-APHIS–Plant Protection and Quarantine/David Robinson - Public Domain
Cuban slug (Veronicella cubensis); several immature specimens feeding on woody biomass.
TitleImmature specimens
CaptionCuban slug (Veronicella cubensis); several immature specimens feeding on woody biomass.
CopyrightUSDA-APHIS–Plant Protection and Quarantine/David Robinson - Public Domain
Cuban slug (Veronicella cubensis); several immature specimens feeding on woody biomass.
Immature specimensCuban slug (Veronicella cubensis); several immature specimens feeding on woody biomass.USDA-APHIS–Plant Protection and Quarantine/David Robinson - Public Domain

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Veronicella cubensis Pfeiffer

Preferred Common Name

  • Cuban slug

Other Scientific Names

  • Onchidium cubense Pfeiffer

International Common Names

  • English: two-striped slug
  • Spanish: babosa; babosa cubana

Local Common Names

  • Puerto Rico: lapa cubana

Summary of Invasiveness

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V. cubensis, the Cuban slug, can potentially invade, survive and reproduce in any humid tropical and subtropical environment. This species can cause severe damage to crops and native plants; transmit pathogens (via nematodes) to humans, dogs and cats and can also displace native mollusc species. The evolution of a polyphagous feeding nature should confer a high survival and reproductive rate for V. cubensis. This species, believed to be endemic to Cuba, has spread to tropical and subtropical regions in the Caribbean and Pacific islands, Hawaii and Guam. Its interception in the USA, may be indicative of a potential invasion and survival in the warmer climate of these North American regions. In the USA, V. cubensis is included in the ‘List of Pests of Economic and Environmental Importance’.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Mollusca
  •             Class: Gastropoda
  •                 Subclass: Pulmonata
  •                     Order: Systellommatophora
  •                         Unknown: Veronicelloidea
  •                             Family: Veronicellidae
  •                                 Genus: Veronicella
  •                                     Species: Veronicella cubensis

Description

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Species in the family Veronicellidae can be accurately distinguished from each other through dissection and observation of the genitalia (Thomé, 1989). The body colour of V.cubensis is variable. Various shades of brown with two lengthwise dorsal dark stripes occur. The lines may be solid or broken up into spots. An albino form of V. cubensis occurs. A midline thin pale white stripe is present. Body texture is either smooth or granular. V. cubensis can usually be distinguished from other species in the family Veronicellidae by its blue-gray eye tentacles and pale brown area around the eyespots. V. cubensis is a relatively large species with adults measuring between 50-70 mm with a maximum length of 120 mm (Thomé, 1993a; Robinson and Hollingsworth, 2005; Capinera et al., 2011; Molet, 2011).

Distribution

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The family Veronicellidae is widely distributed in tropical regions of South America, southern Asia, Africa, Madagascar and Indian Ocean Islands (Herbert and Kilburn, 2004).

V. cubensis is endemic to Cuba, The Greater Antilles in the Caribbean Sea (Thomé, 1993b). It has been intercepted in California, USA (McDonnell et al., 2008; McDonnell et al., 2009) and is found in the Pacific Island of Rota (United States of America Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands), Guam and Hawaii. In the Caribbean region, besides Cuba, it is found in Hispaniola, Puerto Rico (Aguayo, 1966), Saint Kitts-Nevis, Dominica and Barbados. Detailed distribution of V. cubensis is described by Maceira (2003).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

North America

USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-CaliforniaAbsent, intercepted only2006Introduced2006McDonnell et al., 2008Santa Barbara
-FloridaAbsent, intercepted onlyIntroducedThomé, 1993; USDA-APHIS, 2010
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced1985 Invasive Thomé, 1993; Cowie, 1997; Cowie, 1998Oahu
-LouisianaPresentThomé, 1993; USDA-APHIS, 2010New Orleans

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroducedUSDA-APHIS, 2010
BahamasPresentIntroducedUSDA-APHIS, 2010
BarbadosPresentIntroducedUSDA-APHIS, 2010
CubaWidespread2003Native Invasive Maceira-Filgueira, 2003
DominicaPresentIntroducedRobinson et al., 2009
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedBaker, 1925; Maceira-Filgueira, 2003
HaitiPresentIntroducedThomé, 1993
JamaicaPresentIntroduced1925Baker, 1925; Maceira-Filgueira, 2003
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedAguayo, 1966
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentIntroducedUSDA-APHIS, 2010
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedUSDA-APHIS, 2010St Croix

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroduced2004Robinson and Hollingsworth, 2005; Badilles et al., 2010; USDA-APHIS, 2010Tutuila; Olosega (Manu’a Islands)
GuamWidespreadIntroduced1994Gomes and Thomé, 2004; Badilles et al., 2010
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroduced2006Badilles et al., 2010; USDA-APHIS, 2010Pohnpei
Northern Mariana IslandsWidespreadIntroduced1996Robinson and Hollingsworth, 2005; Badilles et al., 2010Island of Rota

History of Introduction and Spread

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The spread of V. cubensis has been vaguely recorded in the literature (Cowie, 1998). V. cubensis is cited as endemic to Cuba (Thomé, 1993b) and introduced to Oahu, Hawaii in 1985. By 1998 however, establishment of V. cubensis in Oahu was unknown (Cowie, 1997; 1998).

During the period 1985 to 2009, V. cubensis was intercepted at USA ports of entry 56 times. Interceptions occurred in Louisiana, southern Florida and California (McDonnell et al., 2008; McDonnell et al., 2009). V. cubensis was identified on 25 plant hosts in the genera Eryngium, Heckeria, and Limnophila on shipments sent to 13 destinations from Hawaii, Puerto Rico and Dominica (Chun et al., 2004; USDA-APHIS, 2010b).

Risk of Introduction

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Introduction of V. cubensis into new areas typically occurs via contaminated material, for example, on plant material and machinery etc. V. cubensis was intercepted at USA ports of entry 56 times from 1985 to 2009 (McDonnell et al., 2008; McDonnell et al., 2009). Due to its polyphagous feeding habits, climate would be the principal limiting factor if V. cubensis ever invaded a new geographical region (Molet, 2011). In the USA, V. cubensis is included in the List of Pests of Economic and Environmental Importance (CAPS 2013; 2014). V. cubensis poses considerable risk in the USA because it has been found in isolated populations, has been associated with many plant genera, and can carry nematodes that can infect both humans and animals (USDA-APHIS, 2010a; 2010b).

Habitat

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V. cubensis displays a selective preference for humid and moist habitats; in gardens, forests, wetlands, greenhouses and near water bodies. In general, terrestrial slugs inhabit dark, humid places beneath rocks and logs on the forest floor, in leaf litter and under tree bark during daylight. V. cubensis is nocturnal, but may be found moving around during the day after rain (Molet, 2011, White-McLean and Redford, 2011). V. cubensis is found in all habitats ranging from natural systems to agricultural and suburban on the island of Rota (Robinson and Hollingsworth, 2005; Badilles et al., 2010).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Other
Soil Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

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In the Pacific Basin, V. cubensis is a serious pest of agricultural crops such as papaya in Hawaii. Other crops affected by V. cubensis include banana, cabbage, cassava, citrus, coffee, eggplant, mango, noni, pepper, pumpkin, star fruit, sweet potato, taro and yam. V. cubensis is also known as a serious pest of ornamental and garden crops in Hawaii (Furutani and Arita-Tsutsumi, 1998; USDA, 2006). In Hawaii, Rota, and Guam, V. cubensis is an agricultural and horticultural pest (McDonnell et al., 2009). 

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Annona muricata (soursop)AnnonaceaeMain
Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit)MoraceaeMain
Averrhoa bilimbi (bilimbi)OxalidaceaeMain
Averrhoa carambola (carambola)OxalidaceaeMain
Brassica oleracea (cabbages, cauliflowers)BrassicaceaeMain
Brassica spp.BrassicaceaeMain
Brugmansia spp.Main
Capsicum spp.SolanaceaeMain
Carica papaya (pawpaw)CaricaceaeMain
Cecropia peltata (trumpet tree)CecropiaceaeMain
Cecropia schreberiana (pumpwood)CecropiaceaeMain
Citrus spp.Main
Coffea (coffee)RubiaceaeMain
Colocasia esculenta (taro)AraceaeMain
Colocasia spp.Main
Crotalaria retusa (rattleweed)FabaceaeMain
Cucumis spp.Main
Cucurbita spp.Main
Cyanthillium cinereum (little ironweed)AsteraceaeMain
Cyanthillium spp.Main
Dioscorea spp.Main
Eulophia altaOrchidaceaeMain
Eupatorium odoratumAsteraceaeMain
Euphorbia cyathophoraEuphorbiaceaeMain
Hibiscus (rosemallows)MalvaceaeMain
Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato)ConvolvulaceaeMain
Lactuca spp.AsteraceaeMain
Lantana camara (lantana)VerbenaceaeMain
Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeMain
Manihot esculenta (cassava)EuphorbiaceaeMain
Mentha spicata (Spear mint)LamiaceaeMain
Miconia spp.MelastomataceaeMain
Mikania micrantha (bitter vine)AsteraceaeMain
Mimosa pellita (catclaw mimosa)FabaceaeMain
Mimosa pudica (sensitive plant)FabaceaeMain
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry)RubiaceaeMain
Musa (banana)MusaceaeMain
Neomarica caerulea (walking iris)IridaceaeMain
Nephrolepis biserrataNephrolepidaceaeMain
Nephrolepis multifloraNephrolepidaceaeMain
Ocimum basilicum (basil)LamiaceaeMain
Paspalum spp.Main
Passiflora spp.Main
Peperomia mariannensisPiperaceaeMain
Philodendron spp.Main
Piper aduncum (spiked pepper)PiperaceaeMain
Pipturus albidusUrticaceaeMain
Pteridium spp.Main
Sida rhombifoliaMalvaceaeMain
Solanum melongena (aubergine)SolanaceaeMain
Spermacoce laevisRubiaceaeMain
Tacca leontopetaloides (East Indian arrowroot)TaccaceaeMain
Thunbergia spp.Main
Trimezia spp.Main
Urena lobata (caesar weed)MalvaceaeMain
Vernonia cinereaAsteraceaeMain
Vernonia spp.Main
Vinca (periwinkle)ApocynaceaeMain

Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / external feeding
Whole plant / external feeding
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Sequences for 66 species new to science, with a special emphasis on sampling the Ellobiidae, Onchidiidae, and Veronicellidae were obtained by Dayrat et al., (2011). Relationships within Ellobiidae, Onchidiidae, and Veronicellidae were evaluated for the first time using molecular data. The current knowledge of phylogenetic relationships among pulmonate gastropods however is still uncertain.

Reproductive Biology

This species is hermaphroditic, as are the rest of the tropical terrestrial gastropods. However, it is likely that V. cubensis copulates rather than self-fertilizes (USDA-APHIS, 2010b).

Activity Patterns

V. cubensis is nocturnal and usually found near water bodies or moist soil (von Ellenrieder, 2004). In Rota, this pest is found in almost all habitats ranging from undisturbed natural habitats to agricultural areas (Robinson and Hollingsworth, 2005).

Population Size and Structure

A population density of 39.09 individuals per m2 was recorded from October to December 1997 in Cuba (Maceira-Filgueira, 2002).

Nutrition

Like many slugs, V. cubensis is a generalist and feeds primarily on a wide variety of vegetable and animal matter, including fruits, foliage, decaying vegetable matter, dead arthropods and earthworms, algae and fungi that grow on surfaces of plants, rocks, or wood. Herbivorous slugs generally prefer tender plant tissues, such as flowers, plant seedlings, and tender leaves or stems of mature plants. Feeding damage caused by V. cubensis reduces both the yield and quality of many crops. Occasionally, terrestrial slugs may feed on members of the same species or other species of mollusc and their eggs. V. cubensis may feed on calcareous substrate.

Twenty plants, belonging to 15 families, were reported as a food source for V. cubensis at two localities in Cuba (Maceira-Filgueira, 2002). V. cubensis showed a preference for herbaceous plants in comparison to woody plants and trees. Nephrolepidaceae and Asteraceae were the most utilized families (45.45 and 18.18%, respectively) at one site, whilst Rubiaceae (40.9%), Asteraceae (13.63%) and Iridiaceae (13.63%) were most utilized at the other (Maceira-Filgueira, 2002).

Environmental Requirements

V. cubensis is usually found near water bodies or moist soil (von Ellenrieder, 2004). This suggests that high atmospheric relative humidity and soil humidity of tropical environments are required for the survival of this slug. V. cubensis shows nocturnal behavior, but can become active during the day after rainfall in which cloud cover also reduces sunlight and temperature. Conversely, during hotter, sunnier and dryer days V. cubensis will hide in more humid and cooler places (USDA-APHIS, 2010b).

A study in Hawaii found that V. cubensis was most abundant at elevations of less than 300 m and in residential areas (Joe, 2006).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
23 23

Notes on Natural Enemies

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The invasive semi-slug Parmarion cf. martensi, was first discovered on Oahu, Hawaii, in 1996 and then on the island of Hawaii in 2004. This species, which is probably native to Southeast Asia, is reportedly displacing V. cubensis in some areas (Hollingsworth et al., 2007).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

V. cubensis may disperse naturally over very short distances (to neighbouring gardens etc.).

Accidental Introduction

V. cubensis may be accidentally introduced into new areas on contaminated objects such as plant material and intermodal containers. Inspections at entry ports in the USA recorded 56 instances in which V. cubensis was identified on imported plant material between 1986 and 2009.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Nursery trade Yes Yes USDA-APHIS, 2010

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Plants or parts of plants Yes Cowie et al., 2008

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Leaves adults Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Negative
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Human health Negative

Economic Impact

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V. cubensis is known as a serious pest of ornamental and garden crops in Hawaii (Furutani and Arita-Tsutsumi, 1998). V. cubensis serves as a potential threat to both the vegetable and floriculture industry in Hawaii valued circa at $104 million in 1997 (Hata et al., 1997). Some communities have taken drastic measures to control this pest. In the subtropical Los Tuxtlas Region in southern Veracruz, Mexico, many farmers stopped growing beans altogether in an effort to control Veronicellidae slugs (Naranjo-García et al., 2007).

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Biodiversity

V. cubensis displaces other native gastropods (USDA-APHIS, 2010a).

Social Impact

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V. cubensis acts as an important intermediate host in the life cycle of the human nematode (a round worm) Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Aguiar et al., 1981; Hollingsworth et al., 2007). A. cantonensis causes angiostrongyliasis which can lead to meningitis. V. cubensis is also a host to the nematodes A. costaricensis and A. malaysiensis (Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey, 2010). Vcubensis indirectly transmits these nematodes to humans, livestock and cats and dogs through faeces.

V. cubensis can become abundant and serve as a public nuisance in both urban and suburban areas (Cowie et al., 2009).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts forestry
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
  • Damages animal/plant products
  • Negatively impacts trade/international relations
Impact mechanisms
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Herbivory/grazing/browsing
  • Pathogenic
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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Environmental Services

In Cuba, V. cubensis naturally feeds on the weed species Lantana camara, in pasturelands (Maceira-Filgueira, 2002). 

Detection and Inspection

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A strong domestic agricultural pest detection system is an essential element in providing a continuum of checks from offshore preclearance programs, domestic port inspections, and surveys in rural and urban sites across the USA (USDA-APHIS, 2013).

The Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey programme conducts science-based national and state surveys. These surveys represent a second line of defense against the entry of harmful plant pests and weeds. These efforts support inspections of commodities, conveyances, and passenger baggage conducted by the Department of Homeland Security, Customs and Border Protection (CBP) at sea ports, airports, and land border crossings. Detection surveys increase the chance of early detection of new pest infestations.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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The structures of the genitalia are used for positive identification of species of Veronicella. Slugs belong to the genus Veronicella do not have the genital pore located between the breathing pore and the head, a notable exception among slugs. Their two genital openings are located ventrally. One opening allows access to the female portion of the genitalia and the other allows for the eversion of the male portion of the genitalia (Thomé, 1989; White-McLean and Redford, 2011).

The Florida leatherleaf, Leidyula floridana, is native to Florida and can also be distinguished from V. cubensis by the genitalia. The penis of L. floridana lacks the blade-like structure present in V. cubensis. L. floridana also possesses an accessory gland not present in V. cubensis (McDonnell et al., 2009).

‘The Terrestrial Mollusc Tool’ provides extensive information and a wide variety of images and illustrations to assist with the identification of mollusc species (White-McLean and Redford, 2011).

Prevention and Control

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Prevention

SPS Measures

Agricultural and ornamental product pathways should be thoroughly inspected and monitored for the presence of V. cubensis to prevent introduction of this invasive species into new areas (USDA-APHIS, 2010b).

Sanitation should be a constant process. Where possible, nursery stock should be shipped without soil or plant soil should be sterilized to kill any eggs (USDA-APHIS, 2010b).

Destroying slug microhabitats by clearing underbrush, eliminating organic trash piles and loose boards, and checking underneath stones are measures that suppress or eradicate slugs. All infested properties must be cleaned thoroughly to facilitate survey operations and to improve the effectiveness of control treatments.

Public Awareness

The most cost effective approach to control V. cubensis is to create public awareness to ensure that the introduction of this species into new areas can be rapidly identified and spread of this species prevented.

Control

Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures

Altering environmental conditions is as an effective control measure for V. cubensis (USDA-APHIS, 2010b). A combination of several cultural methods can be reliably applied which can be used in combination with other treatments.

In order to increase the efficacy of treatments, habitat modification or alteration is needed. Modification can range from extensive alteration of the landscape (removing vegetation and grading the site) to very basic alterations (keeping vegetation mowed in order to keep the snails closer to ground level for easy access to bait/treatments when treatments are applied).

Removal of trash, litter or debris must be done in such a way as to prevent the spread of an infestation. Equipment used for maintenance or roadwork should not be parked, stored or left idle in infested areas, but cleaned and returned to storage at the end of each workday. Idle equipment should be removed from the infested area, unless protected by barriers or stored inside buildings kept clear of any infestation.

Good watering techniques can also have an effect on slug populations. Avoid watering plants later in the day as this provides suitable habitat in the evening when slugs emerge from their refuge. Watering early in the morning and use of a drip irrigation system is advised.

The habitat can also be altered in a way that encourages predators such as mammals and birds. This can be done by planting hedges for shelter, shrubs with berries for food and adding a pond or bird bath for water (Weisenhorn, 2001).

In open fields, plowing the soil twice yearly will reduce small populations of slugs by exposing them to predators. Disking and cultipacking will help to reduce slug and snail populations in areas of thin topsoil or where erosion is a problem.

Physical/Mechanical Control

Collecting V. cubensis by hand is the simplest and most environmentally friendly control method available. Look for V. cubensis in areas where refuge is present (under rocks, vegetation, planks, etc.). Regular and extensive collection of V. cubensis should be carried out in tandem with other control methods. Community cooperation can help to reduce slug numbers significantly, particularly in newly infested areas.

Movement Control

There are a number of methods which can be used to treat the area around borders and prevent the movement and subsequent reintroduction of V. cubensis into an area. Strips of copper foil can be installed to repel slugs and prevent their access to tree foliage or planting beds for several years. Slugs will not cross the copper foil. Salt is also an effective barrier for slugs to safeguard items of risk or concern. Slugs limit their movement on bare soil. Consequently, a strip of bare earth about 1.5 m wide around cultivated areas will give some protection. This form of control is made more effective if combined with chemical means of control and regular hand collection of slugs. An effective barrier can also be obtained by heaping dry ash or other abrasives in a band one inch high and three inches wide. However, these are hard to maintain due to loss of effectiveness when damp or wet.

Chemical Control

Metaldehyde, carbaryl, and methiocarb are used in different molluscicide formulas. The efficacy of many molluscicides however declines over time and many are prone to moulding; liquid paste and formulations are more resistant. Thirteen molluscicides containing metaldehyde, three molluscicides containing metaldehyde and carbaryl, one molluscicide containing metaldehyde and methiocarb and one molluscicide containing methiocarb were tested for their efficacy against the slug V. cubensis. All molluscicides were found to cause significant mortalities.

Hollingsworth et al. (2003) found that caffeine served as a neurotoxin to tropical terrestrial gastropods when applied to foliage or plant growing media. Both 0.5% and 2% caffeine concentrations killed the majority of V. cubensis over a 48-hour period. However, in preliminary trials, the 2% solution caused leaf yellowing on ferns, bromeliads and lettuce, but this problem may be alleviated if mixed with an appropriate agricultural polymer. In the future, this method may be approved and recognized as an environmentally acceptable toxicant for slug control for food crops.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Studies on the biology, ecology, biological control and economic impact of V. cubensis are urgently needed to fill the knowledge gaps in relation to management focused on ecosystem and agricultural plant and animal health, and international trade (Cowie et al., 2009).

In terms of control/eradication methods and time of application, effective pest management is dependent on our understanding of development and growth stages of the species. Knowledge of the life cycle, physiology, reproductive biology and genetics of V. cubensis is scarce. Monitoring surveys using the plot technique can yield data on immature stages, phenology, density, seasonal activity, efficacy of treatments, behavioral or biological responses to treatments, and longevity (USDA-APHIS, 2010b).

The University of California-Davis, USA have developed weather models to predict population growth of plant pests (University of California Integrated Pest Management Program http://www.ipm.ucanr.edu/WEATHER). In the absence of an early warning system, a model for the invasive pest slug V. cubensis should be developed in advance of its introduction. 

References

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Aguayo CG, 1966. [English title not available]. (Una lista de los moluscos terrestres y fluviales de Puerto Rico.) Stahlia, 5:1-17.

Aguiar PH; Morera P; Pascual J, 1981. First record of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Cuba. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 30(5):963-965.

Badilles AE; Manglona J; Paeda NI; Richards B; Depalog E, 2010. Suppression to cuban slug (Veronicella cubensis) (Pfieffer) using selected practices. Pest Identification Workshop 2010., Saipan.

Baker HB, 1925. North American Veronicellidae. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences Philadelphia, 77:157-84.

Bouchet P; Rocroi JP, 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia, 47(1/2):397 pp.

Capinera JL; White J; Bernon G, 2011. Terrestrial slugs of Florida (Mollusca: Stylommatophora: Veronicellidae, Phylomycidae, Agrolimacidae and Limacidae). Florida, USA: University of Florida, EENY-493. http://manatee.ifas.ufl.edu/comm-hort/A-ZPublications/TerrestrialSlugs_IN89100.pdf

Chun S; Niino-DuPonte R; Hara AH; Jacobsen C, 2004. Quarantine pests commonly found in shipments from Hawaii. Quarantine pests commonly found in shipments from Hawaii. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: Univeristy of Hawaii. http://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/handle/10125/12303/IP-18

Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey (CAPS), 2013. 2014 National survey guidelines. USA: USDA. https://caps.ceris.purdue.edu/dmm/2080

Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey (CAPS), 2014. 2015 National Survey Guidelines. USA: USDA. https://caps.ceris.purdue.edu/survey_guidelines/2015

Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey, 2010. CAPS-approved methods. USA: USDA-APHIS. http://pest.ceris.purdue.edu/services/approvedmethods/sheet.php?v=31.

Cowie RH, 1997. Catalog and bibliography of the nonindigenous nonmarine snails and slugs of the Hawaiian Islands. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers, No. 50. 1-66.

Cowie RH, 1998. Patterns of introduction of non-indigenous non-marine snails and slugs in the Hawaiian Islands. Biodiversity and Conservation, 7(3):349-368.

Cowie RH, 1998. Patterns of introduction of non-indigenous non-marine snails and slugs in the Hawaiian Islands. Biodiversity and Conservation, 7(3):349-368.

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Cowie RH; Hayes KA; Tran CT; Meyer WM III, 2008. The horticultural industry as a vector of alien snails and slugs: widespread invasions in Hawaii. International Journal of Pest Management, 54(4):267-276.

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
New Pest Response Guidelines for Tropical Terrestrial Gastropodshttp://www.aphis.usda.gov/import_export/plants/manuals/emergency/downloads/nprg-tropicaltg.pdf
Terrestrial Mollusc Toolhttp://www.idtools.org/id/mollusc

Principal Source

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Draft datasheet under review

Contributors

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01/07/2014 Original text by:

Alberto García-Moll, Ph.D. Entomology Consultant, Puerto Rico

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