Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Lampropeltis californiae
(California kingsnake)

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Datasheet

Lampropeltis californiae (California kingsnake)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 08 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Lampropeltis californiae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • California kingsnake
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Reptilia
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Lampropeltis californiae is a non-venomous constrictor snake native to the western USA and northern Mexico. It was introduced to Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, either by accident or by deliberate release of captive bred individuals before...

  • Principal Source
  • Draft datasheet under review

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Lampropeltis californiae (california kingsnake); Adult. Rock City, California, USA. August 2014.
TitleAdult
CaptionLampropeltis californiae (california kingsnake); Adult. Rock City, California, USA. August 2014.
Copyright©Tony Iwane/via Flickr - CC BY-NC 2.0
Lampropeltis californiae (california kingsnake); Adult. Rock City, California, USA. August 2014.
AdultLampropeltis californiae (california kingsnake); Adult. Rock City, California, USA. August 2014.©Tony Iwane/via Flickr - CC BY-NC 2.0
Lampropeltis californiae (california kingsnake); Adult. California, USA. March 2020.
TitleAdult
CaptionLampropeltis californiae (california kingsnake); Adult. California, USA. March 2020.
Copyright©Zachary Cava/Flickr - CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
Lampropeltis californiae (california kingsnake); Adult. California, USA. March 2020.
AdultLampropeltis californiae (california kingsnake); Adult. California, USA. March 2020.©Zachary Cava/Flickr - CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
Lampropeltis californiae (california kingsnake); Adult. Monterey County, California, USA. April 2019.
TitleAdult
CaptionLampropeltis californiae (california kingsnake); Adult. Monterey County, California, USA. April 2019.
Copyright©J. Maughn/via Flickr - CC BY-NC 2.0
Lampropeltis californiae (california kingsnake); Adult. Monterey County, California, USA. April 2019.
AdultLampropeltis californiae (california kingsnake); Adult. Monterey County, California, USA. April 2019.©J. Maughn/via Flickr - CC BY-NC 2.0
Lampropeltis californiae (california kingsnake); Adult. Sacramento County, California, USA. April 2016.
TitleAdult
CaptionLampropeltis californiae (california kingsnake); Adult. Sacramento County, California, USA. April 2016.
Copyright©Connor Long (Connorlong90)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Lampropeltis californiae (california kingsnake); Adult. Sacramento County, California, USA. April 2016.
AdultLampropeltis californiae (california kingsnake); Adult. Sacramento County, California, USA. April 2016.©Connor Long (Connorlong90)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Lampropeltis californiae (california kingsnake); Adult. April 2013.
TitleAdult
CaptionLampropeltis californiae (california kingsnake); Adult. April 2013.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by 5snake5/via Wikimedia Commons - CC0 1.0
Lampropeltis californiae (california kingsnake); Adult. April 2013.
AdultLampropeltis californiae (california kingsnake); Adult. April 2013.Public Domain - Released by 5snake5/via Wikimedia Commons - CC0 1.0
Lampropeltis californiae (california kingsnake); Adult in habit. Quarry Trail, South Bay Blvd, California, USA. May 2008.
TitleAdult in habit
CaptionLampropeltis californiae (california kingsnake); Adult in habit. Quarry Trail, South Bay Blvd, California, USA. May 2008.
Copyright©Jerry Kirkhart/Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Lampropeltis californiae (california kingsnake); Adult in habit. Quarry Trail, South Bay Blvd, California, USA. May 2008.
Adult in habitLampropeltis californiae (california kingsnake); Adult in habit. Quarry Trail, South Bay Blvd, California, USA. May 2008.©Jerry Kirkhart/Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Lampropeltis californiae (california kingsnake); Adult head. Quarry Trail, South Bay Blvd, California, USA. May 2008.
TitleAdult head
CaptionLampropeltis californiae (california kingsnake); Adult head. Quarry Trail, South Bay Blvd, California, USA. May 2008.
Copyright©Jerry Kirkhart/Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Lampropeltis californiae (california kingsnake); Adult head. Quarry Trail, South Bay Blvd, California, USA. May 2008.
Adult headLampropeltis californiae (california kingsnake); Adult head. Quarry Trail, South Bay Blvd, California, USA. May 2008.©Jerry Kirkhart/Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Lampropeltis californiae (california kingsnake); Young. Coyote Hills Regional Park, San Francisco Bay, California, USA. September 2007.
TitleYoung
CaptionLampropeltis californiae (california kingsnake); Young. Coyote Hills Regional Park, San Francisco Bay, California, USA. September 2007.
Copyright©Calibas/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Lampropeltis californiae (california kingsnake); Young. Coyote Hills Regional Park, San Francisco Bay, California, USA. September 2007.
YoungLampropeltis californiae (california kingsnake); Young. Coyote Hills Regional Park, San Francisco Bay, California, USA. September 2007.©Calibas/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
California Kingsnake (Lampropeltis californiae); pale morph, found on Grand Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain.
TitleAdult
CaptionCalifornia Kingsnake (Lampropeltis californiae); pale morph, found on Grand Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain.
Copyright©Ramón Gallo Barneto - All Rights Reserved
California Kingsnake (Lampropeltis californiae); pale morph, found on Grand Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain.
AdultCalifornia Kingsnake (Lampropeltis californiae); pale morph, found on Grand Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain.©Ramón Gallo Barneto - All Rights Reserved

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Lampropeltis californiae Blainville, 1835

Preferred Common Name

  • California kingsnake

Other Scientific Names

  • Coluber (Ophis) californiae Blainville, 1835
  • Coronella californiae Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854
  • Lampropeltis getula californiae Blainville, 1835
  • Lampropeltis nitida Van Denburgh, 1895
  • Ophibolus boylii Baird & Girard, 1853
  • Ophibolus getulus californiae Cope, 1900

Summary of Invasiveness

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Lampropeltis californiae is a non-venomous constrictor snake native to the western USA and northern Mexico. It was introduced to Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, either by accident or by deliberate release of captive bred individuals before 1998.

Its naturalization in the east of Gran Canaria was recognized from 2004. Its naturalization was confirmed in 2007 in the east of Gran Canaria and it is likely to spread across the whole island.

There are no native snake species on the island and it poses a serious threat to native species.

A European Commission funded project ran from 2011-2015 to raise awareness and reduce the density and abundance of the snakes in Gran Canaria and with the aim of contributing to its eventual eradication.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Reptilia
  •                     Order: Serpentes
  •                         Family: Colubridae
  •                             Genus: Lampropeltis
  •                                 Species: Lampropeltis californiae

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Lampropeltis californiae, California kingsnake, was previously considered as one of the six subspecies of L. getula, namely L. getula californiae (Krysko et al., 2016; Wiseman et al., 2019). It has also been referred to as L. getula nigrita, L. getula nigritus and L. nitida (Uetz et al., 2019). Uetz et al. (2019) list 32 synonyms for the species.

Pyron and Burbrink (2009a) conducted phylogenetic analyses on L. getula subspecies using mitochondrial cyt-b and found that lineages did not follow designated subspecies taxonomy at that time. The study found that L. getula diverged from L. extenua during the late Miocene, with the basal geographic break in L. getula occurring at the Mississippi River followed by divergences across the Rocky Mountains, the Cochise Filter Barrier and the Apalachee Complex.

In a subsequent study using phylogeographic analysis, the same authors recognized five distinct species that were commonly referred to as subspecies (Pyron and Burbrink, 2009b). The proposed species were: Eastern lineage (L. getula, Eastern Kingsnake); Mississippi lineage (L. nigra, Black Kingsnake); Central lineage (L. holbrooki, Speckled Kingsnake); Desert lineage (L. splendida, Desert Kingsnake); and the Western lineage (L. californiae, California Kingsnake).

Pyron and Burbrink (2009b) consider that the subspecies L. getula getula, L. getula floridana, L. getula meansi, L. getula goiniand L. getula sticticeps belong to L. getula. They consider that the subspecies L. getula nigrita and L. getula californiae are synonyms of L. californiae.

The separation of L. californiae from L. getula according to these investigations is followed in this datasheet.

Description

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Lampropeltis californiae is a smooth shiny snake with unkeeled scales and a head barely wider than the neck (Nafis, 2019). Length ranges from 76-122 cm with a maximum of 200 cm (Pyron and Burbrink, 2009b; Uetz et al., 2019). It is highly variable in appearance due to different colour and banding patterns (Nafis, 2019). It’s possible that there are more than 30 prominent colour patterns in the species (Nafis, 2019). Individuals may be: striped with white or yellow (coastal southern California); unbanded with a dark belly and lateral striping (San Joaquin Valley and Sacramento Valley); dark-banded with dark underside (coastal Los Angeles); Dark bands and narrow white bands (desert); and some variants have speckling in the bands (Nafis, 2019). Some unusual colour phases have been bred, including albino (Nafis, 2019).Along the Pacific coast from Los Angeles to San Diego, individuals with a black or dark brown background colour and a single thin, white dorsal stripe from neck to tail have been observed. Populations in the Mexican states of Sonora and Sinaloa may have ontogenetic darkening, with adults and occasionally sub-adults and juveniles turning jet-black, with almost no trace of pattern (Pyron and Burbrink, 2009b; Cabrera-Pérez et al., 2012; Uetz et al., 2019). Bartz (2012) described the species as often having a white head with a black top and some dark scales on the side of the head.

On Gran Canaria, many albino individuals have been identified in the wild, thought to have originated from possible deliberate and accidental introductions leading to naturalization (Mateo et al., 2011).

Distribution

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Lampropeltis californiae is a medium to large constrictor snake that is native to the USA and Mexico (Hammerson, 2019; Nafis, 2019; Uetz et al., 2019). In its natural range, it is found in California, south Oregon, west and south Nevada, south Utah, Arizona and Mexico (Baja California and Sonora) (Uetz et al., 2019).

Lampropeltis californiae was introduced to Gran Canaria, Canary Islands sometime before 1998 when it was first identified on the island (Mateo et al., 2011; Life Lampropeltis, 2018).

In the Canary Islands, L. californiae has spread to at least three disparate regions of Gran Canaria (Telde, Gáldar and San Bartolomé de Tirajana) and has spread to some of the other islands (Verzelen et al., 2017).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 05 Nov 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Europe

SpainPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroduced1998InvasivePresent in three disparate locations on Gran Canaria and has spread to other islands

North America

MexicoPresentNativeBaja California, Sonora
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresentNative
-ArizonaPresentNative
-CaliforniaPresentNativeWidespread although absent from the damp redwood zone of the extreme northwest coast, the northeast basin desert, and high elevation
-ColoradoPresentNativeExtreme southwest
-NevadaPresentNativeWest and south
-OregonPresentNativeSouth west
-UtahPresentNativeSouth

History of Introduction and Spread

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Lampropeltis californiae was introduced to Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, either by accident or deliberate release of captive bred individuals (Mateo et al., 2011; Cabrera-Pérez et al., 2012) sometime before 1998 when it was first identified there (Mateo et al., 2011; Life Lampropeltis, 2018).

The pet and terrarium trades are the likely sources of the individuals that were either deliberately released or escaped into the wild in Gran Canaria (Mateo et al., 2011).

It is thought that there were some deliberate releases of up to 300 individuals near La Solana in 1998, with most individuals that were subsequently caught being albino (Mateo et al., 2011).

By 2010, there was a naturalized population at Gáldar in the north that displayed more typical colouration, suggesting at least one other introduction event (Mateo et al., 2011).

The naturalization of L. californiae in Telde in the east of Gran Canaria was recognized from 2004 (Mateo et al., 2011; Life Lampropeltis, 2018) and it is likely to spread across the whole island (Cabrera-Pérez et al., 2012). The naturalization of L. californiae was confirmed in 2007 in the east of Gran Canaria (Cabrera-Pérez et al., 2012).

The colony near Telde may be expanding and increasing in range from 25 km2 in 2007 to 45 km2 in 2011 (Monzón-Argüello et al., 2015). This is possibly due to more reproduction here and the habitat being more suited to reptiles (Monzón-Argüello et al., 2015). It is suggested that efforts to eradicate the species at this location should be increased (Monzón-Argüello et al., 2015). By 2006, L. californiae was very common in the area of Royal Barranco de Telde from sea level up to 450 m above sea level (Mateo et al., 2011).

Genetic analysis showed that the two main populations (Gáldar and Telde) are different and so it is likely that they arose as a result of independent introductions (Monzón-Argüello et al., 2015). High inbreeding coefficients and degrees of relatedness within each population suggested that there were a small number of founders (Monzón-Argüello et al., 2015).

Snakes in the two populations differed in morphological characteristics, with more albino individuals in Telde (over 50% of the sample) and the snakes at Gáldar were longer, heavier and older (Monzón-Argüello et al., 2015).

From 2007 to 2011, the range of L. californiae on Gran Canaria increased to around 55 km² (3.52% of the island) (Verzelen et al., 2017). This area is divided into a 45 km² range in the east of the island, where the species was introduced around 1998 and a 10 km² range in the northwest, where an introduction event likely took place around 2009-2010 (Verzelen et al., 2017). A third population was discovered in the south of the island (San Bartolomé de Tirajana) and has spread to some of the other islands (Verzelen et al., 2017).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Canary Islands California 1998 Escape from confinement or garden escape (pathway cause) Yes No Monzón-Argüello et al. (2015) Two main populations in Telde and Gáldar, respectively. Unsure if escape or deliberate release
Canary Islands California Escape from confinement or garden escape (pathway cause) Yes No Cabrera-Pérez et al. (2012) Populations in Telde-Valsequillo and Gáldar

Risk of Introduction

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Lampropeltis californiae is widely kept as a pet in the EU, it escapes regularly (Mateo et al., 2011) and is regularly introduced (Verzelen et al., 2017). It has already established in the Canary Islands and distribution modelling predicts that establishment in the EU is possible through southern Iberia, Greece and small areas of Italy (Verzelen et al., 2017).

EU member states with suitable conditions for establishment of L. californiae include Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece, Malta and Cyprus (The Mediterranean and Steppic bioregions) (Verzelen et al., 2017).

There is a risk of deliberate or accidental introduction where L. californiae is traded as a pet, or where it is transported on ornamental trees (Verzelen et al., 2017). Given that it is a secretive species and fossorial in nature, a population may be quite large before it reaches a detection threshold (Verzelen et al., 2017).

Habitat

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In its native range, L. californiae lives in forest, woodland, chaparral, grassland, marshes, farmland, ranches, dessert and brushy suburban areas (Nafis, 2019; iNaturalist, 2019; Wiseman et al., 2019). It can be found to elevations of 1900 m in the Tehachapi Mountains and to over 2100 m in the south eastern Sierra Nevada (Lemm, 2013; Nafis, 2019; iNaturalist, 2019)

In California, USA, L. californiae is absent from the damp redwood zone of the far northwest coast, the northeast Great Basin Desert and high elevations in the Sierra Nevada and other mountain ranges (Nafis, 2019).

Lampropeltis californiae have small spatial ranges, significant home-range overlap and the ability to use urban edge habitat, which may explain their persistence in fragmented landscapes (Anguiano and Diffendorfer, 2015).

Lampropeltis species are secretive and can be found under boards, tin or other cover objects (Andrews and Wilson, 2018). L. californiae frequently use rodent burrows, cracks and other underground refugia for shelter (Wiseman et al., 2019).

Lampropeltis species can climb trees and swim (Bartz, 2012). L. californiae is mostly terrestrial but will climb low branches and shrubs (Rosamond Gifford Zoo, 2008).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Principal habitat
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Principal habitat
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Principal habitat
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Principal habitat
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Principal habitat
LittoralCoastal areas Principal habitat

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Snakes in the genus Lampropeltis have a chromosome number of 2n=36 (Baker et al., 1972).

Reproductive Biology

Snakes reach sexual maturity at 3-4 years (Nafis, 2019).

Breeding occurs a few weeks after emerging from hibernation and usually after the first shed (Nafis, 2019). It is thought that desert snakes may breed earlier, while those at lower elevations breed later (Nafis, 2019).

Male combat has been noted in the genus, with males competing for females and fighting by raising the foreparts of their bodies, entwining them and trying to push their rival to the ground (Bartz, 2012; Nafis, 2019). The losing male retreats or lays coiled in a prone position with his head flat to the ground (Bartz, 2012; Nafis, 2019). The winner returns to the waiting female and copulates (Bartz, 2012).

The mating ritual begins with the male vibrating vigorously (iNaturalist, 2019) and when mating, the male lies on top, biting the neck of the female (Bartz, 2012; Nafis, 2019). Males coil their tails under the females until their cloacae align and then uses his hemi-penis to enter the cloacae of the female (Bartz, 2012). Copulation duration varies from several minutes to several hours (Bartz, 2012).

Females lay eggs that they incubate before they hatch (Nafis, 2019). Eggs are laid from May-August, 42-63 days after mating (Nafis, 2019; iNaturalist, 2019).

Clutch size is 5-12 eggs, with an average of nine and with clutches of up to 20 being recorded (iNaturalist, 2019). Clutch size is 3-24 (with an average of eight to ten) (Nafis, 2019).

Eggs hatch after 40–65 days, with hatchlings being 20–33 cm long (iNaturalist, 2019). Eggs hatch earlier in warmer temperatures and later in cooler temperatures (Nafis, 2019). Hatchings are fully independent as soon as they emerge from the egg (Rosamond Gifford Zoo, 2008).

Physiology and Phenology

Ecdysis (shedding old skin) in Lampropeltis species lasts about 5 days (Cazalot et al., 2015).

The spectacle (a transparent and vascularized integument covering the cornea) is completely renewed during ecdysis (Cazalot et al., 2015). It is suggested metabolic activity associated with new spectacle formation may contribute to neovascularization and play an important role in the accumulation of fluid in the sub-spectacular space, facilitating the shedding of the old spectacle (Cazalot et al., 2015).

Lampropeltis species hibernate during winter in caves, rock crevices, mammal burrows, hollow logs, old stumps, root systems, old sawdust mounds and abandoned buildings (Bartz, 2012; Verzelen et al., 2017; iNaturalist, 2019).

Like all kingsnakes, L. californiae are not venomous (iNaturalist, 2019). They are resistant to the venom of rattlesnakes that form part of their diet, although they are not totally immune (iNaturalist, 2019).

Lampropeltis californiae are powerful constrictors, with a high squeeze proportionate to their body size (twice that of a similar-sized rat snakes) (Penning and Moon, 2017; iNaturalist, 2019).

Lampropeltis californiae will often coil their bodies, hide their heads, hiss and rattle their tails when disturbed (Nafis, 2019; iNaturalist, 2019). They may also show the vent with the lining exposed (Nafis, 2019). Lampropeltis species may flee when threatened, rather than hold their ground. L. californiae can give off a strong musk odour (Rosamond Gifford Zoo, 2008) that can serve as an alarm substance to other kingsnakes in the area (Bartz, 2012).

Lampropeltis species will rattle their tails, release musk and bite when captured, although they tame quickly and are often kept as pets (Andrews and Wilson, 2018).

Longevity

Lampropeltis species are thought to live up to 9 years (average 5.5 years) in the wild and up to 33.3 years in captivity (Bartz, 2012).

Activity Patterns

Lampropeltis species are active from April to early November (Bartz, 2012).

Lampropeltis californiae is a wide searching forager active in cooler weather during daylight and are active at night, dawn and dusk when temperatures are high (Nafis, 2019; Wiseman et al., 2019).

Lampropeltis species hibernate during winter in caves, rock crevices, mammal burrows, hollow logs, old stumps, root systems, old sawdust mounds and abandoned buildings (Bartz, 2012; Verzelen et al., 2017).

Nutrition

Lampropeltis species are generalist foragers with diverse prey (Ballard et al., 2018). They have a varied diet that includes rodents, small mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and eggs (Cabrera-Pérez et al., 2012; Life Lampropeltis, 2018). They detect prey by sensing movement and smell and look for them on the ground, under rocks and bushes (Life Lampropeltis, 2018). They usually capture their prey by pushing them against rocks or burrow walls to immobilize them, or by constriction (coiling around the prey and suffocating them) (Life Lampropeltis, 2018; iNaturalist, 2019; Wiseman et al., 2019).

In its native range, L. californiae feeds on snakes, lizards, turtles, birds, eggs and mammals, such as mice, gopher snakes (Pituophis), California alligator lizards (Elgaria multicarinata multicarinata) and racers (Coluber) (Bartz, 2012; Wiseman et al., 2019). It mostly swallows its prey head-first, although it will swallow small and thin prey rump-first (Wiseman et al., 2019).

A study of stomach contents of 2662 museum specimens plus several publications and unpublished observations, found that L. californiae consume at least 23 species of snake in its native range, including seven species of rattlesnake (Wisemen et al., 2019). It was noted that several sympatric species were not found as prey in the same study. Rodents were the primary mammalian prey in the study, and squirrels and chipmunks were rarely consumed despite being abundant. L. californiae was found to consume relatively few species of lizard. The percentages in the diet of L. californiae for mammals, snakes, lizards, birds, squamate eggs, squamates (unidentified) and amphibians, were 29, 29, 25,11, 4, 1 and 1%, respectively.

In Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, an analysis of L. californiae stomach content identified remains of Gran Canaria giant lizard (Gallotia stehlini), Gran Canaria skink (Chalcides sexlineatus), Boettger’s wall gecko (Tarentola boettgeri) and unidentified rodents (Monzón-Argüello et al., 2015).

Associations

In Gran Canaria, L. californiae could be acting as a paratenic host for parasites that affect geckos, cats, rats and owls (Rodríguez-Ponce et al., 2018b)

Environmental Requirements

Lampropeltis californiae is a fossorial (burrowing) and habitat generalist species (Cabrera-Pérez et al., 2012). It can be found anywhere in their distribution range, from 0 to 2100 m altitude (iNaturalist, 2019), although it is more prevalent under 900 m (Cabrera-Pérez et al., 2012).

The optimum temperature for L. californiae activity is 15.1-31.3°C and the critical maximum and minimum temperatures are 2 and 42°C, respectively (Cabrera-Pérez et al., 2012).

Natural Food Sources

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Food SourceFood Source DatasheetLife StageContribution to Total Food Intake (%)Details
Gallotia stehlini Other|All Stages
Chalcides sexlineatus Other|All Stages
Tarentola boettgeri Other|All Stages
Thamnophis sirtalis Thamnophis sirtalisOther|All Stages
Crotalus horridus Crotalus horridusOther|All Stages
Blarina carolinensis Other|All Stages
Chelydra serpentinae Other
Trachemys scripta Trachemys scriptaOther

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BW - Desert climate Preferred < 430mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Preferred Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)
Df - Continental climate, wet all year Preferred Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
40 28 0 2100

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 2
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 42

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Accipitridae Predator not specific Bartz (2012)
Alligator mississippiensis Predator not specific Bartz (2012)
Didelphis virginiana Predator not specific Bartz (2012)
Dipylidium acanthotetra Parasite Rodríguez-Ponce et al. (2018a)
Eimeria Parasite not specific Bartz (2012)
Hepatozoon eurytopis Parasite not specific Telford (2010)
Hepatozoon karyolysi Parasite not specific Telford (2010)
Hepatozoon rexi Parasite not specific Telford (2010)
Mephitis mephitis Predator not specific Bartz (2012)
ophidian paramyxovirus Pathogen Orós et al. (2001)
Procyon lotor Predator not specific Bartz (2012)
Sarcocystis Parasite not specific Bartz (2012)
Sarcocystis montanaensis Parasite not specific Lindsay et al. (1992)
Spirurida Parasite Rodríguez-Ponce et al. (2018a)

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Lampropeltis species generally exhibit small home ranges, have small spatial movement patterns and are a low perceptive range species (they do not readily disperse across barriers into unsuitable habitats) (Verzelen et al., 2017). Lampropeltis species do not appear to cross streets very often and pavements, railroads and open expanses of soil appear to act as physical barriers to movement (Verzelen et al., 2017).

Accidental Introduction

Lampropeltis species are widely kept as pets in the EU. They escape regularly (Mateo et al., 2011) and are also regularly introduced (Verzelen et al., 2017).

It may be accidentally introduced via ornamental trees (Verzelen et al., 2017).

Lampropeltis californiae is thought to have escaped from the pet and terrarium trade in Gran Canaria (Mateo et al., 2011).

Intentional Introduction

It is thought that there were some deliberate releases of up to 300 individuals near La Solana in Gran Canaria in 1998 (Mateo et al., 2011).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Botanical gardens and zoosAccidentally transported on ornamental trees. Escape from zoos Yes Yes Verzelen et al. (2017)
Escape from confinement or garden escapePossibly escape of animals bred in captivity Yes Mateo et al. (2011); Cabrera-Pérez et al. (2012)
HitchhikerStowaways on ships Yes Yes Verzelen et al. (2017)
HorticultureAccidentally transported on ornamental trees Yes Yes Verzelen et al. (2017)
Intentional releasePossibly intentional release of animals bred in captivity Yes Mateo et al. (2011); Cabrera-Pérez et al. (2012)
Pet trade Yes Yes Mateo et al. (2011); Cabrera-Pérez et al. (2012)

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Plants or parts of plantsAccidentally transported on ornamental trees Yes Yes Verzelen et al. (2017)
Ship structures above the water lineStowaways Yes Yes Verzelen et al. (2017)

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Economic Impact

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The total budget of the Lampropeltis Life+ Project that aimed to reduce the density and abundance of L. californiae on Gran Canaria and to minimize its impact on native biodiversity, was €1,025,863.00. Of that, €512,931.00 was from the EU, with the rest of the funding from local government (Life Lampropeltis, 2018).

The post-Life+ projects 2016-2020, have a total budget of €640k (Verzelen et al., 2017).

Environmental Impact

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Endemic species have been affected by the introduction of L. californiae to Gran Canaria and it poses the risk of biodiversity loss (Cabrera-Pérez et al., 2012). In Gran Canaria, L. californiae predates several endemic reptile species that have shown population declines (Verzelen et al., 2017).

There are two main populations in Gran Canaria (Monzón-Argüello et al., 2015). One near Telde on the east of the island and another near Gáldar in the north (Monzón-Argüello et al., 2015). The L. californiae population at Telde appears to predate on more endemic reptiles, whereas at Gáldar it predates on a higher number of non-native rodents (Monzón-Argüello et al., 2015).

It is suggested that efforts to eradicate the species at Telde should be increased since this population may be expanding and affecting biodiversity via predation of endemic reptiles such as Gran Canaria giant lizard (Gallotia stehlini) and Gran Canaria skink (Chalcides sexlineatus) and Boettger’s wall gecko (Tarentola boettgeri) (Monzón-Argüello et al., 2015).

Gran Canaria giant lizard (Gallotia stehlini) made up the largest portion of prey in both populations and it is suggested that a regular census should be conducted for endemic reptiles in both locations (Monzón-Argüello et al., 2015). G. stehlini is an important disperser of plant species with fleshy fruits, with some seeds germinating more readily after passage through the giant lizard’s gut (Verzelen et al., 2017). Therefore, predation on G. stehlini could affect the relative abundance of plant species and vegetation structure (Verzelen et al., 2017).

Lampropeltis californiae poses a serious threat to endangered species, such as the Gran Canaria blue chaffinch (Fringilla teydea) (Life Lampropeltis, 2018).

As well as predation, L. californiae may pose a threat to biodiversity through competition and the spread of diseases (Verzelen et al., 2017). 

Social Impact

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In Gran Canaria, the sight of L. californiae, a medium to large non-native snake, can cause social alarm, especially as snakes are not part of the native fauna (Cabrera-Pérez et al., 2012).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
Impact outcomes
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Predation
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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Economic Value

Lampropeltis species are popular in the pet trade (Rosamond Gifford Zoo, 2008; Mateo et al., 2011; Bartz, 2012).

Social Benefit

Lampropeltis californiae control venomous snakes that can pose a threat to humans (Rosamond Gifford Zoo, 2008; Bartz, 2012).

Lampropeltis species are widely kept as pets in the EU, it requires little specific care, has a low purchase price and is easy to handle (Verzelen et al., 2017).

King snake venom may neutralize rattlesnake venom (Philpot and Smith, 1950).

Environmental Services

In their native range, Lampropeltis species are beneficial for the ecosystem as they help keep rodent and frog populations in balance as well as other snakes like rattlesnakes (Crotalus) and cottonmouths (Agkistrodon piscivorus) (Rosamond Gifford Zoo, 2008; Bartz, 2012).

They are also prey for larger snakes and predatory birds and mammals (Bartz, 2012).

Uses List

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General

  • Botanical garden/zoo
  • Pet/aquarium trade

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Lampropeltis californiae can be distinguished from related snakes by colour pattern (Pyron and Burbrink, 2009b).

See ‘Description’ section for typical colouration and patterns for L. californiae.

Lampropeltis getula, Eastern Kingsnake, defined as comprising the previously recognized subspecies L. getula getula, L. getula floridana and L. getula meansi (and the historically recognized subspecies L. getula goini and L. getula sticticeps), is a medium to large constrictor, with an average adult length of 90-122 cm and a maximum length of 208.3 cm (Pyron and Burbrink, 2009b; Andrews and Wilson, 2018).

It has smooth scales, 19-25 scale rows at mid-body and a single anal plate (Pyron and Burbrink, 2009b). Both sexes have 200-223 ventral scales, while there are 45-58 subcaudals in males and 37-55 in females (Pyron and Burbrink, 2009b).

Lampropeltis getula can be distinguished from related snakes by colour pattern (Pyron and Burbrink, 2009b). From Northern Florida to New Jersey individuals are typically dark brown or black, broken up by 17-36 narrow crossbands of white, yellow or reddish yellow, giving the appearance of a chain pattern (Pyron and Burbrink, 2009b). In Florida, the bands increased in number (22-54) and width and the background colour is light brown with yellow stippling (Pyron and Burbrink, 2009b). Isolated populations with other colour patterns are found in the Florida panhandle (Pyron and Burbrink, 2009b). Individuals of L. getula from the Coastal Plain have wide bands while those from the mountains have very thin bands or are almost completely black (Andrews and Wilson, 2018).

Lampropeltis nigra (Black Kingsnake, as defined as the previously recognized subspecies Lampropeltis getula nigra and L. g. holbrooki) is on average 90-122 cm, with larger individuals of 147-183 cm, with smooth scales, 19-25 scale rows at mid-body and single anal plate (Pyron and Burbrink, 2009b). They have a black background colour with a black and white checkered venter and rarely have faint traces of dorsal crossbands (Pyron and Burbrink, 2009b).

Lampropeltis holbrooki, Speckled Kingsnake, is 51-132 cm, black with yellow specks on the scales, with a pale yellow to white underside with some black scales curling around the sides (Bartz, 2012). Described as the species L. holbrooki by Pyron and Burbrink (2009b), this snake is generally 90-122 cm long, with a maximum of 183 cm. It has a black background colour with a white or yellow speckle in the centre of each scale and occasional faint traces of dorsal crossbands.

Lampropeltis splendida, Desert Kingsnake, defined as being a synonym of the formerly recognized subspecies, L. getula splendida, is 90-114 cm, with a maximum of 152 cm, has a dark background colour with heavy yellow lateral and dorsolateral stippling forming remnant crossbands (Pyron and Burbrink, 2009b). The head is black or dark brown and the yellow dorsal pattern looks a bit like a collar (Pyron and Burbrink, 2009b).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

In 2008, the Canary Islands Government and the Cabildo of Gran Canaria launched a programme of control for L. californiae called LIFE+ Lampropeltis co-funded by the European Commission (Cabrera-Pérez et al., 2012; Life Lampropeltis, 2018). The project ran from 2011-2015 and aimed to limit its distribution, optimize capture, improve knowledge of its behaviour and promote awareness and citizen participation (Cabrera-Pérez et al., 2012; Life Lampropeltis, 2018).

The Life+ Lampropeltis project and new regulation regarding invasive species could reduce the California kingsnake population and lead to its gradual eradication in Gran Canaria (IRCF, 2012).

Prevention

The Life+ Lampropeltis Project on Gran Canaria had a mechanism in place for prevention and early action based on community members providing information through a website, phone or mobile app (Life Lampropeltis, 2018).

The Life+ Lampropeltis Project on Gran Canaria ran outreach workshops for pet owners, pet shops, general public, importers, schools, animal welfare organizations, environmental groups, colleges, Biologists and veterinarians as produces information leaflets (Life Lampropeltis, 2018).

Eradication

It is hoped that the findings of the Lampropeltis Life + Project will lead to eventual eradication of L. californiae on Gran Canaria (Cabrera-Pérez et al., 2012; Life Lampropeltis, 2018).

The Gran Canaria populations are subject to a control campaign aimed at

preventing the spread of the species to other islands of the Canary archipelago (Verzelen et al., 2017). As a result, nearly 4524 individuals (on average 646 snakes/year) were caught between 2011 and 2017 (Verzelen et al., 2017). This was possible thanks to the implementation of Lampropeltis Life + Project until 2015. However, this is not considered sufficient to achieve the eradication of the species (Verzelen et al., 2017).

Physical/Mechanical Control

Large numbers of traps were distributed strategically in areas where species numbers are high to capture and remove L. californiae in Gran Canaria (Life Lampropeltis, 2018).

Biological Control

It has been suggested that trained animals such as dogs and birds of prey could be used to capture L. californiae in Gran Canaria (Life Lampropeltis, 2018).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Information on the outputs from Project Lampropeltis Life + and the follow-on work since the project ended can be difficult to find.

Specific information on the impact of L. californiae on individual native species is lacking.

References

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Andrews, K, Wilson, JD, 2018. In: Eastern Kingsnake (Lampropeltis getula), Athens, Georgia, USA: Herpetology Program. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, University of Georgia.https://srelherp.uga.edu/snakes/lamget.htm

Anguiano, MP, Diffendorfer, JE, 2015. Effects of fragmentation on the spatial ecology of the California Kingsnake (Lampropeltis californiae). Journal of Herpetology, 49(3), 420-427.

Baker, RJ, Mengden, GA, Bull, JJ, 1972. Karyotypic studies of thirty-eight species of North American Snakes. Copeia, 257-265.

Ballard, A, Andrews, KM, Colbert, JE, 2018. Lampropeltis getula getula (Eastern kingsnake). Diet and habitat use. Natural History Notes. Herpetological Review, 49(2), 344-345. https://ssarherps.org/herpetological-review-pdfs/

Bartz, S., 2012. Lampropeltis getula Common Kingsnake. In: Animal Diversity Web, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA: University of Michigan Museum of Zoology.https://animaldiversity.org/site/accounts/information/Lampropeltis_getula.html

CABI, CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI.

Cabrera-Pérez, M. Á., Gallo-Barneto, R., Esteve, I., Patiño-Martínez, C., López-Jurado, L. F., 2012. The management and control of the California kingsnake in Gran Canaria (Canary Islands): project LIFE+ Lampropeltis. Aliens: The Invasive Species Bulletin, (No.32), 20-28. http://www.issg.org/pdf/aliens_newsletters/A32.pdf

California Herps, 2014. California Kingsnake. California Herps (online). http://www.californiaherps.com/snakes/pages/l.californiae.html

Cazalot, G., Rival, F., Linsart, A., Isard, P. F., Tissier, M., Peiffer, R. L., Dulaurent, T., 2015. Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography imaging of spectacular ecdysis in the corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus) and the California king snake (Lampropeltis getulus californiae). Veterinary Ophthalmology, 18(s1), 8-14. doi: 10.1111/vop.12174

Frick, W, Heady, P, Hollingsworth, B, 2016. Geographic Distribution: Lampropeltis californiae (California Kingsnake). Herpetological Review, 47(3), 427.

Hammerson, G.A., 2019. Lampropeltis californiae. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T67662524A67662576. IUCN.doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-2.RLTS.T67662524A67662576.en

iNaturalist, 2019. California King Snake (Lampropeltis californiae). https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/146199-Lampropeltis-californiae

IRCF, 2012. California Kingsnakes on Gran Canaria. Conservation Research Reports. 19(4) : IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians.288-290. http://www.ircf.org/journal/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/RA_288-290_19.4_CRRs_print.pdf

Krysgo, KL, Nuñez, LP, Newman, CE, Bowen, BW, 2017. Phylogenetics of Kingsnakes, Lampropeltis getula Complex (Serpentes: Colubridae), in Eastern North America. Journal of Heredity, 109(3), 226–238.

Krysko, K. L., Somma, L. A., Smith, D. C., Gillette, C. R., Cueva, D., Wasilewski, J. A., Enge, K. M., Johnson, S. A., Campbell, T. S., Edwards, J. R., Rochford, M. R., Tompkins, R., Fobb, J. L., Mullin, S., Lechowicz, C., Hazelton, D., Warren, A, 2016. New verified nonindigenous amphibians and reptiles in Florida, 1976 through 2015, with a summary of over 152 years of introductions. Reptiles & Amphibians, 23(2), 110–143. doi: https://doi.org/10.17161/randa.v23i2.14119

Lemm, JM, 2013. Lampropeltis getula californiae (California King-snake). Herpetological Review, 44(2), 331.

Life Lampropeltis, 2012. Control of the invasive species California kingsnake (Lampropeltis getula californiae) on the island of Gran Canaria. (Control de la especie invasora la culebra real de California (Lampropeltis getula californiae) en la isla de Gran Canaria.) Life Lampropeltis (online)

Life Lampropeltis, 2018. Control of the invasive alien species Lampropeltis getula californiae on the island of Gran Canaria. LIFE10 NAT/ES/565 AG11-003. Project Summary. http://www.lifelampropeltis.com/images/pdf/Summary_Project.pdf

Lindsay, D. S., Upton, S. J., Blagburn, B. L., Toivio-Kinnucan, M., Dubey, J. P., McAllister, C. T., Trauth, S. E., 1992. Demonstration that Sarcocystis montanaensis has a speckled kingsnake-prairie vole life cycle. Journal of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 59(1), 9-15.

Mateo, JA, Ayres, C, López-Jurado, LF, 2011. Los anfibios y reptiles naturalizados en España: Los anfibios y reptiles naturalizados en España: Historia y evolución de una problemática creciente. Biol. Asoc. Herpetol.Esp, 22, 2–42. https://www.lacerta.de/AS/Bibliografie/BIB_6100.pdf

Monzón-Argüello, C., Patiño-Martínez, C., Christiansen, F., Gallo-Barneto, R., Cabrera-Pérez, M. Á., Peña-Estévez, M. Á., López-Jurado, L. F., Lee, P. L. M., 2015. Snakes on an island: independent introductions have different potentials for invasion. Conservation Genetics, 16(5), 1225-1241. doi: 10.1007/s10592-015-0734-0

Nafis, G, 2019. California Herps - A Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of California. http://www.californiaherps.com/

Orós, J., Sicilia, J., Torrent, A., Castro, P., Déniz, S., Arencibia, A., Jacobson, E. R., Homer, B. L., 2001. Immunohistochemical detection of ophidian paramyxovirus in snakes in the Canary Islands. Veterinary Record, 149(1), 21-23.

Penning, DA, Moon, BR, 2017. The king of snakes: performance and morphology of intraguild predators (Lampropeltis) and their prey (Pantherophis). Journal of Experimental Biology, 220, 1154–1161. https://jeb.biologists.org/content/220/6/1154

Philpot, V. B., Smith, R. G., 1950. Neutralization of Pit Viper Venom by King Snake Serum. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 74(3), 521-3. doi: 10.3181/00379727-74-17959

Pyron, R. A., Burbrink, F. T., 2009. Lineage diversification in a widespread species: roles for niche divergence and conservatism in the common kingsnake, Lampropeltis getula. Molecular Ecology, 18(16), 3443-3457. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2009.04292.x

Pyron, RA, Burbrink, FT, 2009. Systematics of the Common Kingsnake (Lampropeltis getula; Serpentes: Colubridae) and the burden of heritage in taxonomy. Zootaxa, 2241, 22–32.

Rodríguez-Ponce, E, Santana, K, Gallo-Barnetto, R, Cabrera-Pérez, MA, Monzón-Argüello, C, 2018. A helminthological survey of invasor Californian kingsnake (Lampropeltis californiae) in Gran Canaria island, Spain. [XX Congreso Socepa 2017, XX Congreso de la Sociedad Española de Parasitologia. XV Meeting del European Veterinary Parasitology College]

Rodríguez-Ponce, E, Santana, KM, Jaber, JR, Baselga, A, Monzón-Argüello, C, 2018. The role of the invasor California kingsnake (Lampropeltis californiae) in the life cycle of local parasites in Gran Canaria, Spain. [13th EWDA Conference]

Rosamond Gifford Zoo, 2008. Syracuse, NY, USA: Rosamond Gifford Zoo.https://www.cool-small-pets.com/support-files/california-kingsnake.pdf

Telford, S. R., Jr., 2010. Three new Hepatozoon species (Apicomplexa: Hepatozoidae) infecting the Florida kingsnake, Lampropeltis getula floridana. Journal of Parasitology, 96(1), 162-169. doi: 10.1645/GE-2161.1

Uetz, P, Freed, P, Aguilar, R, Hošek, J, 2019. The Reptile Database. Zoological Museum Hamburg.http://www.reptile-database.org

Verzelen, Y, Adriaens, T, Scalera, R, Moore, N, Rabitsch, W, Chapman, D, Robertson, P, 2017. Study on Invasive Alien Species – Development of risk assessments to tackle propriety species and enhance prevention. Contract No 07.0202/2016/740982/ETU/ENV.D2. Final Report. Annex 4: Risk Assessment for Lampropeltis getula. https://circabc.europa.eu/sd/a/50ff938c-1017-4774-a530-8784f05b26a1/Lampropeltis_getula_final_20191120.pdf

Wiseman, KD, Greene, HW, Koo, MS, Long, DJ, 2019. Feeding Ecology of a generalist predator, the California kingsnake (Lampropeltis californiae): why rare prey matter. Herpetological Conservation Biology, 14(1), 1–30.

Distribution References

Bartz S, 2012. Lampropeltis getula Common Kingsnake. Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA: University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. https://animaldiversity.org/site/accounts/information/Lampropeltis_getula.html

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Cabrera-Pérez M Á, Gallo-Barneto R, Esteve I, Patiño-Martínez C, López-Jurado L F, 2012. The management and control of the California kingsnake in Gran Canaria (Canary Islands): project LIFE+ Lampropeltis. Aliens: The Invasive Species Bulletin. 20-28. http://www.issg.org/pdf/aliens_newsletters/A32.pdf

California Herps, 2014. California Kingsnake. In: California Herps, http://www.californiaherps.com/snakes/pages/l.californiae.html

Frick W, Heady P, Hollingsworth B, 2016. Geographic Distribution: Lampropeltis californiae (California Kingsnake). Herpetological Review. 47 (3), 427.

Lemm JM, 2013. Lampropeltis getula californiae (California King-snake). Herpetological Review. 44 (2), 331.

Life, Lampropeltis, 2012. Control of the invasive species California kingsnake (Lampropeltis getula californiae) on the island of Gran Canaria. (Control de la especie invasora la culebra real de California (Lampropeltis getula californiae) en la isla de Gran Canaria). In: Life Lampropeltis (online),

Mateo JA, Ayres C, López-Jurado LF, 2011. Los anfibios y reptiles naturalizados en España: Los anfibios y reptiles naturalizados en España: Historia y evolución de una problemática creciente. Biol. Asoc. Herpetol.Esp. 2–42. https://www.lacerta.de/AS/Bibliografie/BIB_6100.pdf

Monzón-Argüello C, Patiño-Martínez C, Christiansen F, Gallo-Barneto R, Cabrera-Pérez M Á, Peña-Estévez M Á, López-Jurado L F, Lee P L M, 2015. Snakes on an island: independent introductions have different potentials for invasion. Conservation Genetics. 16 (5), 1225-1241. DOI:10.1007/s10592-015-0734-0

Nafis G, 2019. California Herps - A Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of California. http://www.californiaherps.com/

Uetz P, Freed P, Aguilar R, Hošek J, 2019. The Reptile Database. Zoological Museum Hamburg. http://www.reptile-database.org

Verzelen Y, Adriaens T, Scalera R, Moore N, Rabitsch W, Chapman D, Robertson P, 2017. Study on Invasive Alien Species – Development of risk assessments to tackle propriety species and enhance prevention. Contract No 07.0202/2016/740982/ETU/ENV.D2. Final Report. Annex 4: Risk Assessment for Lampropeltis getula., https://circabc.europa.eu/sd/a/50ff938c-1017-4774-a530-8784f05b26a1/Lampropeltis_getula_final_20191120.pdf

Principal Source

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Draft datasheet under review

Contributors

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21/12/2018 Original text by:

Vicki Cottrell, Consultant, UK

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