Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Ludwigia palustris
(marsh seedbox)

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Datasheet

Ludwigia palustris (marsh seedbox)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 March 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ludwigia palustris
  • Preferred Common Name
  • marsh seedbox
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Ludwigia palustris is a cosmopolitan species that is widely cultivated as an aquatic ornamental and aquarium plant. It has escaped cultivation to become a highly invasive weed of permanent freshwater wetlands, ponds, waterways and riparia...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Ludwigia palustris; Flowering habit. Corsica. October 2019.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionLudwigia palustris; Flowering habit. Corsica. October 2019.
Copyright©Muriel Bendel/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Ludwigia palustris; Flowering habit. Corsica. October 2019.
Flowering habitLudwigia palustris; Flowering habit. Corsica. October 2019.©Muriel Bendel/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Ludwigia palustris; Flowering habit. U Cavu, Corsica. October 2019.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionLudwigia palustris; Flowering habit. U Cavu, Corsica. October 2019.
Copyright©Muriel Bendel/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Ludwigia palustris; Flowering habit. U Cavu, Corsica. October 2019.
Flowering habitLudwigia palustris; Flowering habit. U Cavu, Corsica. October 2019.©Muriel Bendel/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Ludwigia palustris; Habit. Lake Wahapo, Westland, New Zealand. November 2017.
TitleHabit
CaptionLudwigia palustris; Habit. Lake Wahapo, Westland, New Zealand. November 2017.
Copyright©Krzysztof Ziarnek (Kenraiz)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Ludwigia palustris; Habit. Lake Wahapo, Westland, New Zealand. November 2017.
HabitLudwigia palustris; Habit. Lake Wahapo, Westland, New Zealand. November 2017.©Krzysztof Ziarnek (Kenraiz)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Ludwigia palustris; Habit. Hoomaluhia Botanical Garden, Oahu, Hawaii. May 2007.
TitleHabit
CaptionLudwigia palustris; Habit. Hoomaluhia Botanical Garden, Oahu, Hawaii. May 2007.
Copyright©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 2.0
Ludwigia palustris; Habit. Hoomaluhia Botanical Garden, Oahu, Hawaii. May 2007.
HabitLudwigia palustris; Habit. Hoomaluhia Botanical Garden, Oahu, Hawaii. May 2007.©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 2.0
Ludwigia palustris; Habit. Poznań Botanical Gardens, Poland. July 2014.
TitleHabit
CaptionLudwigia palustris; Habit. Poznań Botanical Gardens, Poland. July 2014.
Copyright©Krzysztof Ziarnek (Kenraiz)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Ludwigia palustris; Habit. Poznań Botanical Gardens, Poland. July 2014.
HabitLudwigia palustris; Habit. Poznań Botanical Gardens, Poland. July 2014.©Krzysztof Ziarnek (Kenraiz)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Ludwigia palustris; Habit. Poznań Botanical Gardens, Poland. July 2014.
TitleHabit
CaptionLudwigia palustris; Habit. Poznań Botanical Gardens, Poland. July 2014.
Copyright©Krzysztof Ziarnek (Kenraiz)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Ludwigia palustris; Habit. Poznań Botanical Gardens, Poland. July 2014.
HabitLudwigia palustris; Habit. Poznań Botanical Gardens, Poland. July 2014.©Krzysztof Ziarnek (Kenraiz)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Ludwigia palustris; Habit. Hoomaluhia Botanical Garden, Oahu, Hawaii. May 2007.
TitleHabit
CaptionLudwigia palustris; Habit. Hoomaluhia Botanical Garden, Oahu, Hawaii. May 2007.
Copyright©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 2.0
Ludwigia palustris; Habit. Hoomaluhia Botanical Garden, Oahu, Hawaii. May 2007.
HabitLudwigia palustris; Habit. Hoomaluhia Botanical Garden, Oahu, Hawaii. May 2007.©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 2.0
Ludwigia palustris; Habit. Hoomaluhia Botanical Garden, Oahu, Hawaii. May 2007.
TitleHabit
CaptionLudwigia palustris; Habit. Hoomaluhia Botanical Garden, Oahu, Hawaii. May 2007.
Copyright©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 2.0
Ludwigia palustris; Habit. Hoomaluhia Botanical Garden, Oahu, Hawaii. May 2007.
HabitLudwigia palustris; Habit. Hoomaluhia Botanical Garden, Oahu, Hawaii. May 2007.©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 2.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ludwigia palustris (L.) Elliott

Preferred Common Name

  • marsh seedbox

Other Scientific Names

  • Cubospermum palustre (L.) Lour.
  • Dantia palustris (L.) Des Moul.
  • Isnardia palustris L.
  • Quadricosta palustris (L.) Dulac
  • Tiphogeton palustre (L.) Ehrh.

International Common Names

  • English: Hampshire-purslane; marsh ludwigia; marsh-purslane; water-purslane
  • Spanish: ludwigia rastrera; verdolaga de agua; verdolaga de pantano

Summary of Invasiveness

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Ludwigia palustris is a cosmopolitan species that is widely cultivated as an aquatic ornamental and aquarium plant. It has escaped cultivation to become a highly invasive weed of permanent freshwater wetlands, ponds, waterways and riparian habitats. L. palustris is a prolific seeder that may grow as an aquatic or semiaquatic herb. It also spreads easily by rooting at nodes and by stem fragments dispersed in water flow. Currently, it is listed as invasive in Australia and Guadeloupe, but it is also regarded as a weed in Bermuda, Hawaii and New Zealand.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Myrtales
  •                         Family: Onagraceae
  •                             Genus: Ludwigia
  •                                 Species: Ludwigia palustris

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Onagraceae comprises 22 genera and about 656 species distributed worldwide. Ludwigia is a cosmopolitan genus with 83 species of herbs and shrubs currently placed in 23 sections and it is the only member of the subfamily Ludwigioideae (Wagner et al., 2007; Pesamosca and Boldrini, 2015; Liu et al., 2017; Stevens, 2020). The most recent study evaluating the molecular phylogeny of Ludwigia suggested that polyploidy is extremely common in this genus and species can be arranged in two groups: the North Temperate haplostemonous (NTH) group and a second group including all other species of Ludwigia (clade B) (Liu et al., 2017).

Description

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Perennial herbs with prostrate or ascending stems, rooting at the nodes, up to 50 cm or longer, well-branched and forming mats. Leaves 0.55-4.5 cm long, 0.25-2.3 cm, narrowly to broadly elliptic or ovate elliptic, glabrous, margin entire and minutely strigillose, hairs 0.05-0.1 mm long, apex subacute, base abruptly attenuated into narrowly winged petioles 1.2-25 mm long, bracteoles minute, 0.25-1(-1.8) mm long, 0.05-0.8 mm wide, ± linear, flanking ovary base or attached up to 2.5 mm above base, sometimes on very short pedicels. Flowers axillary and usually paired, sepals green, ovate deltate, 1.1-2 mm long, 1-2.1 mm wide, ascending, glabrous, apex acuminate, sometimes with a blunt tip, margin finely serrulate and minutely strigillose, the hairs 0.02-0.05 mm long, petals absent, anthers 0.2-0.4 mm long, 0.3-0.6 mm wide, staminal filaments translucent, 0.4-0.6 mm long, pollen shed singly, nectary disc green, elevated 0.15-0.3 mm on ovary apex, 1-2 mm across, 4-lobed, glabrous, style pale green, 0.35-0.7 mm long, glabrous, stigma whitish, subglobose, 0.2-0.4 mm across. Fruit a capsule irregularly dehiscent, (1.6-)2-5 mm long, 1.5-3(-3.5) mm in diameter, oblong obovoid or oblong with abruptly constricted base, minutely strigillose, the hairs ca. 0.05 mm long, with a green, longitudinal band 0.4-1 mm wide on the central part of each side of the capsule, representing the thinnest part of the fruit wall, obscurely 4-angled, dull light brown, subsessile or with pedicels up to 0.5 mm long. Seeds numerous, pluriseriate and free, 0.5-0.7 mm long, 0.3-0.35 mm wide, ellipsoid, yellowish-brown, the surface cells transversely elongate, with inconspicuous raphe (Wagner et al., 2005).

Plant Type

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Aquatic
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed / spore propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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Ludwigia palustris is a cosmopolitan aquatic herb with a still uncertain native distribution range. Currently, it is considered to be native to Africa, most of Europe, western Asia, North America, Central America (Costa Rica and Guatemala), the Greater Antilles and northern South America. It is regarded as an alien aquatic herb on the islands of Bermuda, Guadeloupe, Hawaii, New Zealand and Australia (Wagner et al., 2005; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; UICN-CF, 2016; Online Atlas of the British & Irish Flora, 2020; POWO, 2020; USDA-ARS, 2020; USDA-NRCS, 2020).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Feb 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentNative
AngolaPresentNative
BotswanaPresentNative
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentNative
LesothoPresentNative
MoroccoPresentNative
NamibiaPresentNative
South AfricaPresentNative
ZambiaPresentNative
ZimbabwePresentNative

Asia

GeorgiaPresentNative
IranPresentNative
IsraelPresentNative
JordanPresentNative
LebanonPresentNative
SyriaPresentNative
TurkeyPresentNative

Europe

AlbaniaPresentNative
AustriaPresentNative
BelgiumPresentNative
BulgariaPresentNative
CzechiaPresentNative
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentNative
FrancePresentNative
GermanyPresentNative
GreecePresentNative
HungaryPresentNative
ItalyPresentNative
NetherlandsPresentNative
PolandPresentNative
PortugalPresentNative
RomaniaPresentNative
SpainPresentNative
SwitzerlandPresentNative
UkrainePresentNative
United KingdomPresentNative

North America

BermudaPresentIntroduced
Canada
-British ColumbiaPresentNative
-New BrunswickPresentNative
-Nova ScotiaPresentNative
-OntarioPresentNative
-QuebecPresentNative
Costa RicaPresentNative
CubaPresentNative
Dominican RepublicPresentNative
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedInvasive
GuatemalaPresentNative
HaitiPresentNative
JamaicaPresentNative
MexicoPresentNative
Puerto RicoPresentNative
United StatesPresentNative
-AlabamaPresentNative
-ArizonaPresentNative
-ArkansasPresentNative
-CaliforniaPresentNative
-ConnecticutPresentNative
-DelawarePresentNative
-District of ColumbiaPresentNative
-FloridaPresentNative
-GeorgiaPresentNative
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced1934
-IdahoPresentNative
-IllinoisPresentNative
-IndianaPresentNative
-IowaPresentNative
-KansasPresentNative
-KentuckyPresentNative
-LouisianaPresentNative
-MainePresentNative
-MarylandPresentNative
-MassachusettsPresentNative
-MichiganPresentNative
-MinnesotaPresentNative
-MississippiPresentNative
-MissouriPresentNative
-NebraskaPresentNative
-New HampshirePresentNative
-New JerseyPresentNative
-New MexicoPresentNative
-New YorkPresentNative
-North CarolinaPresentNative
-OhioPresentNative
-OklahomaPresentNative
-OregonPresentNative
-PennsylvaniaPresentNative
-South CarolinaPresentNative
-TennesseePresentNative
-TexasPresentNative
-VermontPresentNative
-VirginiaPresentNative
-WashingtonPresentNative
-West VirginiaPresentNative
-WisconsinPresentNative

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedInvasive
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedInvasive
-South AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-VictoriaPresentIntroducedInvasive
New ZealandPresentIntroducedNaturalized. Widespread and common

South America

ColombiaPresentNative
VenezuelaPresentNative

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of new introductions of L. palustris is very high. This species can be found on most continents and spreads easily by seeds and stem fragments to become naturalized in both aquatic and semiaquatic habitats. It is also widely cultivated and commercialized as an aquarium plant and aquatic ornamental (Queensland Government, 2018NZPCN, 2020; Online Atlas of the British & Irish Flora, 2020).

Habitat

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Ludwigia palustris can be found growing in aquatic and semiaquatic habitats. This species may form free-floating rafts, or be submerged in permanently deep water, or grow along the margins of water bodies. It is a common species in slow-flowing, shallow water bodies, marshes, swamps, lake margins, muddy borders of ponds, river sandbars, ditches and seasonally flooded pits and pastures. Sometimes, it can be also found in backwaters in riparian woodland (Wunderlin and Hansen, 2003; NZPCN, 2020; Online Atlas of the British & Irish Flora, 2020).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
FreshwaterLakes Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
FreshwaterLakes Present, no further details Natural
FreshwaterLakes Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
FreshwaterRivers / streams Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
FreshwaterRivers / streams Present, no further details Natural
FreshwaterRivers / streams Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
FreshwaterPonds Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
FreshwaterPonds Present, no further details Natural
FreshwaterPonds Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for Lugwidia palustris is n=8 (Peng et al., 2005).

Reproductive biology

L. palustris produces inconspicuous axillary flowers that are probably self-pollinated and plants produce large numbers of seeds (Online Atlas of the British & Irish Flora, 2020).

Physiology and phenology

In the UK, L. palustris has been reported flowering and setting seed from June to August (Online Atlas of the British & Irish Flora, 2020). In Florida, USA, it blooms from spring to autumn (Wunderlin and Hansen, 2003). In New Zealand it produces flowers from November to April (NZPCN, 2020).

Longevity

L. palustris usually behaves as a perennial herb, but it may also grow as an annual pioneer on disturbed exposed muds (Online Atlas of the British & Irish Flora, 2020).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
55 45

Rainfall Regime

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Bimodal
Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Water pH (pH) 6.5 7.5
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 15 25

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Ludwigia palustris spreads by seeds and vegetatively by rooting at nodes and by stem fragments dispersed in water flow (NZPCN, 2020). It readily grows from fragments and it is common to find small populations in the vicinity of large permanent populations (Online Atlas of the British & Irish Flora, 2020). The tiny seeds of this species can also adhere to the feathers or muddy feet of ducks and geese and in this way, seeds are probably spread to new wetlands (Hilty, 2019).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Aquarium tradeAquatic ornamental, aquarium plant Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2020)
DisturbanceCommon in disturbed exposed muds Yes Yes Online Atlas of the British & Irish Flora (2020)
Escape from confinement or garden escapeEscaped from cultivation. Stem fragments and seeds Yes Yes Queensland Government (2018)
Garden waste disposalAquatic ornamental. Planted in ponds Yes Yes NZPCN (2020)
HorticultureAquatic ornamental, aquarium plant Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2020)
Intentional releaseAquatic ornamental, aquarium plant Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2020)
Internet salesPlants sale online Yes Yes
Nursery tradeAquatic ornamental, aquarium plant Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2020)
Ornamental purposesAquatic ornamental, aquarium plant Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2020)

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesEscaped from cultivation. Stem fragments and seeds Yes Yes Queensland Government (2018)
MailPlants sale online Yes Yes
WaterStem fragments, seeds Yes Yes NZPCN (2020)

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

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Ludwigia palustris is listed as invasive in Australia and Guadeloupe, but it is also regarded as an environmental weed in Bermuda, Hawaii and New Zealand (Wagner et al., 2005; UICN-CF, 2016; Queensland Government, 2018NZPCN, 2020; Online Atlas of the British & Irish Flora, 2020POWO, 2020; USDA-NRCS, 2020). In Australia, L. palustris has escaped cultivation as an aquatic ornamental and become a highly invasive weed of permanent freshwater wetlands, waterways and riparian areas where it often displaces and outcompetes native vegetation (Queensland Government, 2018).

L. palustris is also listed as a problematic species in areas within its native distribution range (e.g. USA, South Africa and Mexico) because it can overgrow and obstruct water flow. It also competes with other native aquatic vegetation and easily becomes the dominant species in native habitats (CONABIO, 2006; Hoch and Grewell, 2012; USDA-NRCS, 2020).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

Uses

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Ludwigia palustris is used as ornamental for aquariums and ponds (NZPCN, 2020; USDA-ARS, 2020).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Ludwigia palustris might be confused with L. repens except that L. repens has more rounded, spatula-shaped leaves which are reddish underneath, and has yellow petalled flowers (NZPCN, 2020; Online Atlas of the British & Irish Flora, 2020).

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Campos JA, Herrera M, 2009. (Análisis de la flora alóctona de Bizkaia, País Vasco (España)). LAZAROA, 30, 7-33.

CONABIO, 2006. (Programa de especies invasoras. Especies invasoras plantas de Mexico). https://www.biodiversidad.gob.mx/especies/Invasoras

Hilty J, 2019. Wetland Wildflowers of Illinois. https://www.illinoiswildflowers.info/wetland/wetland_index.htm#msh_purslane

Hoch PC, Grewell BJ, 2012. Ludwigia. In: The Jepson Manual, Vascular Plants of California, 2nd edn, [ed. by Baldwin BG]. Berkeley, California, USA: University of California. 948-951.

Kikodze D, Memiadze N, Kharazishvili D, Manvelidze Z, Mueller-Schaerer H, 2010. The Alien Flora of Georgia. Second Edition, Switzerland: Swiss National Science Foundation, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation and SCOPES.

Liu ShihHui, Hoch, P. C., Diazgranados, M., Raven, P. H., Barber, J. C., 2017. Multi-locus phylogeny of Ludwigia (Onagraceae): insights on infra-generic relationships and the current classification of the genus. Taxon, 66(5), 1112-1127. doi: 10.12705/665.7

NZPCN, 2020. New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. In: New Zealand Plant Conservation Network Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Plant Conservation Network.http://www.nzpcn.org.nz/

Online Atlas of the British & Irish Flora, 2020. Online Atlas of the British & Irish Flora. In: Online Atlas of the British & Irish Flora : Botanical Society of the British Isles; Biological Records Centre; Joint Nature Conservation Committee; Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.http://www.brc.ac.uk/plantatlas/

Peng ChingI, Schimdt, C. L., Hoch, P. C., Raven, P. H., 2005. Systematics and evolution of Ludwigia section Dantia (Onagraceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 92(3), 307-359.

Pesamosca SC, Boldrini II, 2015. Ludwigia litoranea (Onagraceae), a new species from coastal southern Brazil. Phytotaxa, 230, 183. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.230.2.5

POWO, 2020. Plants of the World Online. In: Plants of the World Online London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org

Queensland Government, 2018. Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition. In: Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition , Australia: Queensland Government.http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/media/Html/search.html

Stevens, P. F., 2020. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14. In: Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14 . St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

UICN-CF, 2016. (Espèces exotiques envahissantes dans les collectivités Françaises d’outre-mer). montreuil, France: UICN-CF.https://especes-envahissantes-outremer.fr/

USDA-ARS, 2020. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2020. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team.https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Wagner WL, Hoch PC, Raven PH, 2007. Revised classification of the Onagraceae. Syst. Bot. Monogr, 83, 1-240.

Wagner, WL, Herbst, DR, Lorence, DH, 2005. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/index.htm

Wunderlin RP, Hansen BF, 2003. Guide to the vascular plants of Florida, USA: University Press of Florida.

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Campos JA, Herrera M, 2009. (Análisis de la flora alóctona de Bizkaia, País Vasco (España)). LAZAROA. 7-33.

CONABIO, 2006. (Programa de especies invasoras. Especies invasoras plantas de Mexico)., Mexico: CONABIO. https://www.biodiversidad.gob.mx/especies/Invasoras

Kikodze D, Memiadze N, Kharazishvili D, Manvelidze Z, Mueller-Schaerer, 2010. The alien flora of Georgia. In: Swiss National Science Foundation, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation and SCOPES, 40 pp. http://www.unifr.ch/biol/ecology/muellerschaerer/group/mueller/webpage/pdf/research/Invasives_GE.pdf

NZPCN, 2020. New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. In: New Zealand Plant Conservation Network, Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. http://www.nzpcn.org.nz/

POWO, 2020. Plants of the World Online. In: Plants of the World Online, London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org

Queensland Government, 2018. Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition. In: Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition. Australia: Queensland Government. http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/media/Html/search.html

Seebens H, Blackburn T M, Dyer E E, Genovesi P, Hulme P E, Jeschke J M, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger H, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A (et al), 2017. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications. 8 (2), 14435. http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14435

UICN-CF, 2016. (Espèces exotiques envahissantes dans les collectivités Françaises d’outre-mer)., France: UICN-CF. https://especes-envahissantes-outremer.fr/

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10/05/20 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Institute of the Environment, University of Connecticut, USA

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