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Aristolochia elegans
(elegant Dutchman’s pipe)

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Datasheet

Aristolochia elegans (elegant Dutchman’s pipe)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Aristolochia elegans
  • Preferred Common Name
  • elegant Dutchman’s pipe
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A. elegans is listed in the Global Compendium of Weeds as “agricultural weed, cultivation escape, environmental weed, garden thug, naturalized, noxious weed, sleeper weed, weed” (...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Aristolochia elegans Mast.

Preferred Common Name

  • elegant Dutchman’s pipe

Other Scientific Names

  • Aristolochia littoralis sensu Pfeifer, non Parodi

International Common Names

  • English: calico flower; Dutchman’s pipe vine; Dutchman's pipe; pipe vine
  • Spanish: patito
  • Chinese: ma dou ling shu

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: jarrinha-pintada
  • Cook Islands: mokora
  • Cuba: flor de pato; patico
  • Dominican Republic: flor de cisne; flor de pato; patico; pato
  • Germany: Strand-Pfeifenwinde
  • Haiti: fleur cygne
  • Lesser Antilles: duck vine
  • Mexico: guaco-ak
  • Tonga: fue paipa holani
  • USA/Hawaii: birthwort; calico flower

Summary of Invasiveness

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A. elegans is listed in the Global Compendium of Weeds as “agricultural weed, cultivation escape, environmental weed, garden thug, naturalized, noxious weed, sleeper weed, weed” (Randall, 2012). It received a very high PIER risk score of 13 (reject for import) (PIER, 2015). The species is invasive in several parts of Asia Pacific and Cuba (Oviedo-Prieto et al, 2012; Randall, 2012), is known to be detrimental to native biodiversity in Australia, where it is one of the 50 worst invaders in Queensland (Queensland DAFF, 2015), and is a Category II invasive species in Florida (Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2013). It is used in traditional medicine but, like other Aristolochia species, is associated with an increased incidence of cancer (Debelle et al, 2008; Krell and Stebbing, 2013; Michl et al., 2013). The light seeds are easily spread by wind and water (Weeds of Australia, 2015).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Aristolochiales
  •                         Family: Aristolochiaceae
  •                             Genus: Aristolochia
  •                                 Species: Aristolochia elegans

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The type genus of the family Aristolochiaceae, Aristolochia is a tropical genus of about 350 species, mostly herbaceous or woody vines, less frequently herbs or shrubs, with greatest diversity of species in Central and South America (Mesler and Lu, 1993; Kiew, 1999; Acevedo-Rodriguez, 2005; Wagner et al., 2015). The name Aristolochia is derived from the Greek words ‘aristos’ meaning ‘best’, and ‘locheia’ meaning ‘birth’, in reference to the Greeks’ use of the plants in childbirth, and from this reference came the common name for the genus, ‘birthwort’ (Melser and Lu, 1993).

The Plant List (2013) lists A. elegans as a synonym of Aristolochia littoralis Parodi. Other databases including USDA-ARS (2015), USDA-NRCS (2015) and PIER (2015) have A. elegans as a preferred name and Aristolochia littoralis auct. as a synonym. Gonzalez (1990) considers Aristolochia elegans Mast. and A. littoralis Parodi to be separate species, with A. littoralis endemic to Argentina and usage of the name A. littoralis outside Argentina an error referring to A. elegans (Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez, personal communication). For the purposes of this datasheet, invasive records listed as A. littoralis (e.g. Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2013) are treated as referring to A. elegans. Weeds of Australia (2015) treats these two names as synonyms with A. elegans as the preferred name, and a weed risk assessment of A. elegans for Biosecurity Queensland uses data published on A. littoralis towards the risk assessment.

The common name Dutchman’s pipe refers to the showy flowers, which are shaped like a traditional Dutch pipe.
 

Description

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The following description comes from Acevedo-Rodriguez (2005):

Woody vine, twining, attaining 7 m in length. Stems glabrous, cylindrical. Leaves alternate; blades 7-9 × 6-10 cm, reniform or broadly ovate, chartaceous, the venation palmate, the apex obtuse or rounded, the base cordiform, the margins entire; upper surface glabrous, shiny; lower surface with prominent venation, glaucous; petioles 1-3 cm long, glabrous; pseudostipules reniform, 1-1.5 cm long, amplexicaulous. Flowers solitary, pendulous; peduncle ca. 5 cm long; utricle ellipsoid-cylindrical, ca. 3 cm long, the tube 2.5-3.5 cm long, curved at the base, ascending, the limb asymmetrically peltate, crateriform, the lower margin retuse, 5-7 cm in diameter, light green or cream-coloured with a cardinal red reticulum. Capsule cylindrical with 5 longitudinal ribs, 5-6 cm long; seeds membranaceous, triangular or ovate, 6-7 mm long. 

Distribution

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A. elegans is generally considered to be of South American origin. It is exotic in North America, Mexico, Central America, and, in the Old World tropics, Africa and Asia (Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012; Weeds of Australia, 2015). Although the species is known to be widely distributed in Asia-Pacific and in some parts highly invasive (Randall, 2012; PIER, 2015; Weeds of Australia, 2015), many floras from countries in Asia-Pacific do not list the species, and it is reportedly only found in cultivation in Singapore (Chong et al., 2009) and Pakistan (Flora of Pakistan, 2015). In Hawaii it is naturalized on Kaua’I, O’ahu and Maui (Starr et al., 2003).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

Christmas Island (Indian Ocean)PresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2015; Weeds of Australia, 2015
PakistanPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFlora of Pakistan, 2015Cultivated in gardens
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedPIER, 2015
SingaporePresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al., 2009Cultivated only
TaiwanPresentTaiwan Plant Names, 2014

Africa

South AfricaPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012; Weeds of Australia, 2015
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedWeeds of Australia, 2015Naturalised

North America

MexicoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012; Flora Mesoamericana, 2015
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroducedLiogier and Martorell, 2000; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012; Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2013; USDA-NRCS, 2015
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2015; Wagner et al., 2015; Weeds of Australia, 2015Invasive on Maui

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
CubaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012; Oviedo et al., 2012
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
El SalvadorPresentFlora Mesoamericana, 2015
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
GuatemalaPresentFlora Mesoamericana, 2015
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
HondurasPresentFlora Mesoamericana, 2015
NicaraguaPresentFlora Mesoamericana, 2015; Flora of Nicaragua, 2015
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedLiogier and Martorell, 2000; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012; USDA-NRCS, 2015
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez, 2005; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012; USDA-NRCS, 2015‘Naturalised on St. John and Tortola, cultivated on St. Croix.’

South America

ArgentinaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015; Weeds of Australia, 2015Corrientes, Entre Rios, Jujuy, Misiones, Santa Fe
BoliviaPresentNativeBolivia Checklist, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015; Weeds of Australia, 2015
BrazilPresentNativeForzza, 2010; USDA-ARS, 2015; Weeds of Australia, 2015‘Norte (RO), Nordeste (CE), Centro-Oeste (MT, MS), Sudeste (MG, SP, RJ), Sul (PR, SC); Mata Atlântica’
-CearaPresentNativeForzza, 2010
-Mato GrossoPresentNativeForzza, 2010
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentNativeForzza, 2010
-Minas GeraisPresentNativeForzza, 2010
-ParanaPresentNativeForzza, 2010
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNativeForzza, 2010
-RondoniaPresentNativeForzza, 2010
-Santa CatarinaPresentNativeForzza, 2010
-Sao PauloPresentNativeForzza, 2010
ColombiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015; Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2015; Weeds of Australia, 2015
EcuadorPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015; Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2015; Weeds of Australia, 2015
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2015
ParaguayPresentParaguay Checklist, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015; Weeds of Australia, 2015Amambay
PeruPresentNativePeru Checklist, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015Cuzco, Junín, Lima

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979; Weeds of Australia, 2015Present as a weed
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012; PIER, 2015; Weeds of Australia, 2015
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012; PIER, 2015; Weeds of Australia, 2015‘cultivation escape, environmental weed, naturalized’
Cook IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2015; Weeds of Australia, 2015
FijiPresentIntroducedPIER, 2015; Weeds of Australia, 2015
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2015; Weeds of Australia, 2015
GuamPresentIntroducedWagner et al., 2014; PIER, 2015
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentWagner et al., 2014; PIER, 2015Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Yap
New CaledoniaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2015; Weeds of Australia, 2015
NiuePresentIntroducedPIER, 2015
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2015
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2015
TongaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2015
VanuatuPresentPIER, 2015

History of Introduction and Spread

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A. elegans is native to South America, and has been widely introduced to other tropical regions, naturalized, and in some regions such as Asia-Pacific, become invasive (PIER, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015). Date of introduction to the West Indies is uncertain; it was not included in Macfadyen’s (1837) flora of Jamaica or Bello’s (1881; 1883) work on Puerto Rico, but by 1918 it was reportedly ‘occasionally planted’ in Bermuda (Britton, 1918). As of 2005 the species was still considered an uncommon species outside of cultivation in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (Acevedo-Rodriguez, 2005), but it is increasingly present in the area and is now considered invasive in Cuba (Oviedo-Prieto et al., 2012). 

Risk of Introduction

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Risk of introduction for this species is high. A risk assessment prepared for Hawaii gave the species a high risk score of 13, indicating its high invasive potential and recommending that it should be rejected for import (PIER, 2015). It is a climbing vine that is known to outcompete native flora by smothering (PIER, 2015; Queensland DAFF, 2015) and can reproduce both vegetatively and by its many small, lightweight, flat seeds (Bailey and Bailey, 1976; Starr et al., 2003). Considering that it is currently listed as one of Queensland’s 50 worst invasive species (Queensland DAFF, 2015) and is a Category II invasive species in Florida (Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2013), and that it is known to disrupt ecosystems, reduce native biodiversity, and threaten the survival of at least one insect species (Weeds of Australia, 2015), risk of introduction of A. elegans is high. 

Habitat

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A. elegans is cultivated in gardens and has been introduced beyond its native range for this purpose. Outside of cultivation in its native South America, A. elegans is known to occur in humid premontane forests of the Rio Porce valley and in semi-deciduous forests of the Bolivian lowlands, while in Peru it has been reported for the Andean region forests (Bolivia Checklist, 2015; Peru Checklist, 2015; Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2015). In Puerto Rico, where it has escaped from cultivation, A. elegans has been found on the edge of dry secondary forests (Acevedo-Rodriguez, 2005).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Sporophytic count of this species is 14 (IPCN Chromosome Reports, 2015).

Associations

Aristolochia species are important as larval foodplants for swallowtail butterflies of the genera Battus and Parides, which feed exclusively on leaves and young shoots of Aristolochia; ingestion and storage of the toxic aristolochic acid in turn makes the butterflies unpalatable to predators (Kiew, 1999; Meerman, 2003).

Environmental Requirements

Aristolochia prefers moist, fertile soils so long as the soil is well-drained, and can tolerate some shade although it prefers full sun (Llamas, 2003; PIER, 2015; Queensland DAFF, 2015).

A. elegans generally occurs at low to mid-level elevations. In Bolivia it has been reported growing at elevations under 500 m (Bolivia Checklist, 2015) while in Ecuador, Peru, and Colombia it has been reported growing at higher elevations, between 1000 and 2000 m (Peru Checklist, 2015; Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2015; Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2015).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Although caterpillars of various butterfly species feed on the leaves of Aristolochia (see Biology and Ecology- Associations section), they are rarely reported to cause extensive defoliation (Kiew, 1999). The species is known to be toxic to animals and butterflies (Sands and New, 2013; PIER, 2015; Weeds of Australia, 2015).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

The seeds are small and flat, c. 6 mm long (Wagner et al., 2015). Seeds are borne in dehiscent capsules that split upon maturity, and as the seeds are winged they are easily dispersed by the wind. They are small and lightweight, and so may also be dispersed by water (Starr et al., 2003).

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

The roots are used by humans in traditional medicine. Animals have been known to ingest the toxic leaves of Aristolochia, but no information has been found regarding consumption of the vine’s fruits.

Accidental Introduction

The species is capable of regenerating vegetatively (Bailey and Bailey, 1976; Starr et al., 2003), and may be dispersed by soil if any roots or cuttings are accidentally transported through soil that may be attached to the bottoms of vehicles or shoes, for example. The propagules are also reportedly likely to disperse as a produce contaminant (PIER, 2015).

Intentional Introduction

The species has been introduced beyond its native South America to other tropical regions for cultivation as an ornamental. It is known to have escaped into the wild in at least Florida, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and South Africa (Liogier and Martorell, 2000; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012; Randall, 2012).

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Environment (generally) Negative
Human health Negative

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Habitats

This species is a climbing vine which grows and spreads its seeds quickly, smothers native flora and reduces local biodiversity, and is considered one of the worst 50 invasive species of Queensland, Australia (Weeds of Australia, 2015). This species poses an overall negative environmental impact on non-native environments.

Impact on Biodiversity

Several Aristolochia species including A. ringens and A. elegans that have been introduced to Australia now threaten the Richmond birdwing butterfly Ornithopterarichmondia, which mistakenly lays its eggs on these plants instead of its sole foodplant, Pararistolochia praevenosa; the larvae are then poisoned by the toxic leaves, resulting in such a decline of population that the Richmond birdwing is now extinct in over two thirds of its range (Sands and Scott, 2002; Sands and New, 2013; Weeds of Australia, 2015). Removal of A. elegans is one of the primary strategies of the Richmond Birdwing Recovery Network (Weeds of Australia, 2015).

As a rapid-growing, climbing vine, A. elegans has a negative impact on biodiversity by outcompeting and smothering native flora (Sands and Scott, 2002; Starr et al., 2003; Sands and New, 2013; Weeds of Australia, 2015).

Social Impact

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The species is used by humans in traditional medicine, but it is also linked with carcinogenic  effects (Debelle et al., 2008; Michl et al., 2013). The species is known to be toxic to animals and butterflies (Sands and New, 2013; PIER, 2015; Weeds of Australia, 2015).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - smothering
  • Poisoning
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

Uses

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The use of various Aristolochia species as an alexiteric has been known since antiquity; its use for snake bites was praised by Theophrastus, Cicero, and Pliny, and it was also known to counter venom in Arab and Indian medicine, as well as Native American medicine (Hance, 1873).

The species is used medicinally in its native South America (Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2015). However, there is increasing evidence of the renal toxicity of various Aristolochia species, which contain aristolochic acid and have been associated with aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN), a renal interstitial fibrosis and upper urinary tract cancer (UUC) that is likely to be particularly underestimated among populations that rely heavily on traditional medicines (Debelle et al., 2008; Krell and Stebbing, 2013; Michl et al., 2013).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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A. elegans is similar to some of its’ closely related species including A. ringens. Both A. elegans and A. ringens have a small ear-like structure (i.e. auriculate pseudo-stipule) at the base of each leaf stalk, but the flowers of A. elegans are broad (up to 7.5 cm long and 10 cm wide) while those of A. ringens are longer (10-25 cm long), narrow, and are split into an upper and lower lobe (Weeds of Australia, 2015). A. elegans is also similar to Aristolochia gigantea and A. grandiflora, but these two species do not have the small ear-like structure at the base of each leaf stalk.

Most species of the Aristolochia genus produce foul-smelling, showy flowers, and all produce the toxic aristolochic acid which evidence suggests is carcinogenic.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Physical/Mechanical Control

According to the Queensland Department of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry (Queensland DAFF, 2015), “manual removal may be the only suitable method of control available for this weed. Small plants can be pulled or dug out, ensuring that the crown and the roots are removed. Vigorous growth may be cut down using a brush hook or other such tool, preferably before seeds set. Trace vines to their main crown and cut with a knife well below this growing point, removing all parts of the plant from the soil.” However, once the species is established mechanical control will be difficult, as Aristolochia species are capable of vegetative propagation (Bailey and Bailey, 1976; Starr et al., 2003).

Biological Control

There are no known biological control methods for this species (Starr et al., 2003).

Chemical Control

Aristolochia species can apparently be controlled with herbicides (Queensland DAFF, 2015), but established plants require multiple applications.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2005. Vines and climbing plants of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 51:483 pp.

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Bailey LH; Bailey EZ, 1976. Hortus third: a concise dictionary of plants cultivated in the United States and Canada. Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. New York, USA: Macmillan.

Bello D, 1883. [English title not available]. (Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. Segunda parte. Monoclamídeas.) Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, 12:103-130.

Bello Espinosa D, 1881. [English title not available]. (Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. Primera parte.) Anal. Soc. Española de Hist. Nat, 10:231-304.

Bolivia Checklist, 2015. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Bolivia, Tropicos website. St. Louis, MO, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/BC

Britton NL, 1918. Flora of Bermuda. New York, USA: Charles Scribner's Sons. 585 pp.

Chong KY; Tan HTW; Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/pdf/PUBLICATION/LKCNH%20Museum%20Books/LKCNHM%20Books/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Debelle FD; Vanherweghem JL; Nortier JL, 2008. Aristolochic acid nephropathy: a worldwide problem. Kidney International, 74(2):158-169.

Duke JA, 2015. Dr Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. Beltsville, USA: Germplasm Resources Information Network, National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. http://www.ars-grin.gov/duke/

Flora Mesoamericana, 2015. Flora Mesoamericana. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/fm

Flora of Nicaragua, 2015. Flora of Nicaragua, Tropicos website. St. Louis, MO, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/FN

Flora of Pakistan, 2015. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website. USA: St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2013. List of Invasive Plant Species., USA: Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council. http://www.fleppc.org/list/list.htm

Forzza R, 2010. List of species of the Flora of Brazil (Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil). http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2012/

Gonzalez FA, 1990. Aristolochiaceae. Flora de Colombia, 12:1-185.

Hance HF, 1873. On the ch'ing muh hsiang, or "green putchuk," of the Chinese. With some remarks on the antidotal virtues ascribed to Aristolochiae. Journal of Botany, British and Foreign, XI:72-79.

Holm LG; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DL, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 391 pp.

IPCN Chromosome Reports, 2015. Index to Plant Chromosome Numbers (IPCN), Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/IPCN

Kiew R, 1999. Aristolochia L. In: Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA) No. 12(1): Medicinal and poisonous plants 1 [ed. by Padua, L. S. de \Bunyapraphatsara, N. \Lemmens, R. H. M. J.]. Leiden, The Netherlands: Backhuys Publisher, 133-139. http://proseanet.org/prosea/e-prosea_detail.php?frt=&id=160

Krell D; Stebbing J, 2013. Aristolochia: the malignant truth. The Lancet: Oncology, 14(1):25-26.

Liogier HA; Martorell LF, 2000. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis, 2nd edition revised. San Juan, Puerto Rico: La Editorial, University of Puerto Rico, 382 pp.

Llamas KA, 2003. Tropical flowering plants: a guide to identification and cultivation. Portland, OR, USA: Timber Press.

MacFadyen J, 1837. The flora of Jamaica: A description of the plants of that island. London, UK: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green & Longman, 351 pp.

Meerman JC, 2003. Aristolochia's native to Belize. Biodiversity in Belize online database. http://biological-diversity.info/

Mesler MR; Lu K, 1993. Aristolochiaceae- Pipevine family. Treatment from the Jepson Manual. http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?575,576

Michl J; Jennings HM; Kite GC; Ingrouille MJ; Simmonds MSJ; Heinrich M, 2013. Is aristolochic acid nephropathy a widespread problem in developing countries?: A case study of Aristolochia indica L. in Bangladesh using an ethnobotanical-phytochemical approach. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 149(1):235-244. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874113004480

Oviedo Prieto R; Herrera Oliver P; Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96.

Paraguay Checklist, 2015. Paraguay Checklist, Tropicos website. St. Louis, MO, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/Paraguay

Peru Checklist, 2015. The Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PEC

PIER, 2015. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Queensland DAFF, 2015. Dutchman's pipe (Aristolochia spp. other than native species)., Australia: Queensland Department of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry. https://www.daff.qld.gov.au/plants/weeds-pest-animals-ants/weeds/a-z-listing-of-weeds/photo-guide-to-weeds/dutchmans-pipe

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Sands DPA; New TR, 2013. Conservation of the Richmond Birdwing Butterfly in Australia. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer Press, 209 pp.

Sands DPA; Scott S, 2002. Conservation of Birdwing Butterflies. Queensland, Australia: Science Communication and Education Services.

Starr F; Starr K; Loope L, 2003. Aristolochia littoralis. Maui, Hawaii, USA: United States Geological Survey- Biological Resources Division. http://www.hear.org/pier/pdf/pohreports/aristolochia_littoralis.pdf

Taiwan Plant Names, 2014. Taiwan Plant Names, eFloras website. St. Louis, MO and Cambridge, MA, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=101

The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.theplantlist.org

USDA-ARS, 2015. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

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Contributors

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08/10/2015 Original text by:

Marianne Jennifer Datiles, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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