Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Odontonema cuspidatum
(Cardinal’s guard)

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Datasheet

Odontonema cuspidatum (Cardinal’s guard)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Odontonema cuspidatum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Cardinal’s guard
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • O. cuspidatum is a shrub commonly planted as an ornamental for its attractive red tubular flowers. It has escaped from cultivation and can be found naturalized in disturbed areas as well as in relatively unalte...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Odontonema cuspidatum (Cardinal’s guard); habit. El Yunque National Forests, Puerto Rico. November 2012.
TitleHabit
CaptionOdontonema cuspidatum (Cardinal’s guard); habit. El Yunque National Forests, Puerto Rico. November 2012.
Copyright©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo
Odontonema cuspidatum (Cardinal’s guard); habit. El Yunque National Forests, Puerto Rico. November 2012.
HabitOdontonema cuspidatum (Cardinal’s guard); habit. El Yunque National Forests, Puerto Rico. November 2012.©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo
Odontonema cuspidatum (Cardinal’s guard); flowers. El Yunque National Forests, Puerto Rico. November 2012.
TitleFlowers
CaptionOdontonema cuspidatum (Cardinal’s guard); flowers. El Yunque National Forests, Puerto Rico. November 2012.
Copyright©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo
Odontonema cuspidatum (Cardinal’s guard); flowers. El Yunque National Forests, Puerto Rico. November 2012.
FlowersOdontonema cuspidatum (Cardinal’s guard); flowers. El Yunque National Forests, Puerto Rico. November 2012.©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Odontonema cuspidatum (Nees) Kuntze

Preferred Common Name

  • Cardinal’s guard

Other Scientific Names

  • Odontonema strictum Sensu West Indian authors, non (Nees) Kuntze
  • Thyrsacanthus cuspidatus Nees

International Common Names

  • English: cardinal flower; cardinal’s crest; fire spike; mottled toothedthread; odontonema; red justicia; scarlet firespike

Local Common Names

  • Ecuador: lava botellas
  • Mexico: coral de jardín; flor de chupa miel; flor de chuparrosa
  • Paraguay: clavo de fuego
  • Saint Lucia: firespike

Summary of Invasiveness

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O. cuspidatum is a shrub commonly planted as an ornamental for its attractive red tubular flowers. It has escaped from cultivation and can be found naturalized in disturbed areas as well as in relatively unaltered forests (Lorence et al., 1995; Space and Flynn, 2002; Meyer and Lavergne, 2004). O. cuspidatum represents a serious problem due to its ability to invade the understory of native forests. O. cuspidatum is included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall , 2012), and it is also listed as invasive in Hawaii, French Polynesia, Samoa, the Galápagos Islands, and Cuba (Lorence et al., 1995; Meyer and Lavergne, 2004; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; PIER, 2014). It is considered as potentially invasive in Puerto Rico (Rojas-Sandoval and Acevedo-Rodríguez, unpublished data).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Scrophulariales
  •                         Family: Acanthaceae
  •                             Genus: Odontonema
  •                                 Species: Odontonema cuspidatum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Acanthaceae includes about 221 genera and 4000 species widespread in both New and Old World Tropics (Scotland and Vollesen, 2000; Stevens, 2012). Species within this family are herbs or woody shrubs, lianas and trees. Member of the Acanthaceae may be recognized by their fruit: a few-seeded, explosively dehiscent capsule within which seeds are borne on hook-like structures called retinacula (the lignified derivatives of the funiculus) (McDade et al., 2008).

The genus Odontonema is native to the New World and includes about 20-30 species distributed in Mexico, Central and South America and the Caribbean (Daniel, 1995). Several Odontonema species are commonly cultivated as ornamentals in nurseries, greenhouses, and gardens in tropical and subtropical regions (Daniel, 1995; Francis, 2005).

Francis (2005) lists Odontonema tubiforme (Bertol.) Kuntze as a synonym of O. cuspidatum, and states that some authors propose separating O. cuspidatum and O. tubiforme into individual species or using only the name O. tubiforme. The ITIS database, however, says that I. tubiforme is an orthographic variant (misspelling) of the accepted species Odontonema tubaeforme (Bertol.) Kuntze. Odontonema strictum has been listed by various authorities as a synonym of both O. cuspidatum and O. tubaeforme.

Plant Type

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Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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O. cuspidatum is native to Mexico (Daniel, 1995; USDA-ARS, 2014). It has been widely cultivated as an ornamental and can now be found naturalized in the southern United States (Florida), Central and South America, West Indies and several islands in the Pacific Ocean (see distribution table for details, Daniel 1995, 2001, 2005; PIER, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-MaharashtraPresentIntroducedJogdand and Dhabe, 2013
SingaporePresentIntroducedChong et al., 2009Cultivated

Africa

TanzaniaPresentIntroducedBrunken et al., 2008Cultivated as ornamental

North America

MexicoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroducedWunderlin and Hansen, 2008Escaped from cultivation
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresentIntroducedINBio, 2014Cultivated/escaped
CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive Oviedo et al., 2012Reported for this island as Odontonema strictum
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedDaniel, 2001
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
HondurasPresentIntroducedDaniel, 2005Cultivated/naturalized
MartiniquePresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
PanamaPresentIntroducedDaniel and McDade, 1995
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Potentially invasive
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedGraveson, 2012Escaped/naturalized

South America

EcuadorPresentIntroducedJørgensen and León-Yànez, 1999
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Guézou et al., 2010
ParaguayPresentIntroducedZuloaga et al., 2008

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroduced Invasive Space and Flynn, 2000
French PolynesiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Florence et al., 2013
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedVander, 2003Cultivated
SamoaPresentIntroduced Invasive Space and Flynn, 2002

History of Introduction and Spread

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According to Meyer and Lavergne (2004), O. cuspidatum (under the name O. strictum) was first collected in 1927 in Tahiti (French Polynesia) and in 1937 in Hawaii. Wagner et al. (1990) reported this species for Hawaii (under the name O. strictum) as “sometimes observed in disturbed areas” and concluded that the species “does not appear to be naturalized”. In the website treatment for the flora of Hawaii, Wagner et al. (2005) correct the name of the Hawaiian plants to O. cuspidatum and report the species as naturalized. In the West Indies, the occurrence of O. cuspidatum was reported as early as 1900 for Cuba (Urban, 1901). In 1925, Britton and Wilson reported O. cuspidatum as a strictly garden plant. By 1997, O. cuspidatum was reported as escaped (Liogier, 1997) in Puerto Rico, and in 1999 Acevedo-Rodríguez and Axelrod reported it as an “aggressive exotic, very common in the understory of secondary forests and plantations” for areas of the Rio Abajo Forest Reserve. Currently, O. cuspidatum is widespread along roadsides and understory of secondary forest in numerous localities across Puerto Rico and in areas of the El Yunque National Forest (Acevedo- Rodríguez unpublished data). In the Dominican Republic O. cuspidatum is known to occur since 1921 as a roadside plant (US Herbarium Collection). The species is considered as escaped in the most recent flora of Hispaniola (Liogier, 1995). In summary, these sources indicate that O. cuspidatum has the capacity of becoming naturalized and abundant in a relatively short period of time after being introduced as a garden plant.

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of O cuspidatum is high. It has been widely cultivated as an ornamental in tropical and subtropical regions of the world where it has escaped and become naturalized in natural habitats (Daniel, 1995; Lorence et al., 1995; Meyer and Lavergne 2004; Liogier, 1995, 1997). The ability of this species to tolerate shaded conditions and spread vegetatively by root-suckers means that it has a high potential to colonize new areas and spread much further than it has to date (Meyer and Lavergne, 2004).

Habitat

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O. cuspidatum can be found naturalized in wet open areas, secondary forests, forest edges, along roadsides, lowland rainforests, montane forests, pine-oak forests, and cloud forests from sea level to 1950 m (Lorence et al., 1995; Space and Flynn, 2002; Meyer and Lavergne, 2004; PIER, 2014). Because it is shade tolerant, it is able to colonize the understory of both disturbed and mature forests (Space and Flynn, 2002; Meyer and Lavergne, 2004).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number for the species O. cuspidatum is unknown. However, for the genus Odontonema the chromosome number reported is n=21 (Daniel, 1995). 

Reproductive Biology

Flowers in O. cuspidatum are heterostylous and require specialized pollinators to set fruits. Within its native distribution range, it is visited and possibly pollinated by hummingbirds (Daniel, 1995). 

Physiology and Phenology

In warm and moist climates, O. cuspidatum has been reported flowering and fruiting throughout the year (Daniel, 1995), but in temperate climates it flowers in the autumn (Watkins, 1975; Francis, 2005). 

Environmental Requirements

O. cuspidatum grows best on fertile and moderately fertile soils, with neutral pH, that are continually moist. It is shade tolerant but does not tolerate salty soils or freezing conditions and plants generally die if the ground is frozen (Watkins, 1975; Francis, 2005). O. cuspidatum grows in wet, montane, rain, and cloud forests from sea level to 1950 m in elevation (Daniel, 1995).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -1
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 10 35

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Notes on Natural Enemies

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The cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has been recorded on leaves of O. cuspidatum plants (Baker et al., 2012). Plants can also be attacked by mealy bugs belonging to the genus Pseudococcidae (Francis, 2005).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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O. cuspidatum spreads by seeds and vegetatively by stem segments or root-suckers. Seeds are produced in capsules that fall off before drying, liberating the seeds (Francis, 2005). In Puerto Rico, although O. cuspidatum is common, plants produce few viable seeds and most of the stands of this species have originated from abandoned gardens or stem segments and/or roots that have been transported by streams or dumped in the woods with garden disposals. Once established, O. cuspidatum spreads mostly by root suckers. The stems also layer (root) easily when they become prostrate (Francis, 2005).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Escape from confinement or garden escapeCommonly cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes Daniel, 1995
Garden waste disposalStems and roots Yes Yes Francis, 2005
HorticultureCommonly cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes Daniel, 1995
Nursery trade Yes Daniel, 1995
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes Daniel, 1995

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesPieces of stems and roots from gardens Yes Yes Francis, 2005
Land vehiclesPieces of stems and roots from gardens Yes Yes Francis, 2005
Machinery and equipmentPieces of stems and roots from gardens Yes Yes Francis, 2005
Soil, sand and gravelPieces of stems and roots from gardens Yes Yes Francis, 2005
WaterStems and roots may be transported by steams Yes Yes Francis, 2005

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

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O. cuspidatum is an aggressive species that can grow forming dense thickets in the understory of secondary and relatively unaltered forests. For example, Meyer and Lavergne (2004) reported dense monospecific stands of this species (between 100 m2 and 500 m2) in the understory of secondary low- and mid-elevation wet forest in Hawaii, Tahiti, and Samoa; a similar pattern has been reported for Puerto Rico (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Axelrod, 1999). O. cuspidatum is also invading native montane rainforest in Tahiti (Meyer and Lavergne, 2004). In Cuba, O. cuspidatum is listed as one of the 100 most noxious plants invading natural habitats (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

Uses

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O. cuspidatum is an economically important species in the horticultural and nursery trade. It is widely cultivated as an ornamental in tropical and subtropical areas for its conspicuous red flowers (Watkins, 1975; Daniel, 1995; Francis, 2005). It is also popular in gardens because it attracts butterflies and hummingbirds that feed on the nectar (Watkins, 1975).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Invertebrate food

Ornamental

  • Potted plant
  • Propagation material
  • Seed trade

References

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Acevedo-Rodriguez P; Axelrod FS, 1999. Annotated checklist for the tracheophytes of Río Abajo Forest Reserve, Puerto Rico. Caribbean Journal of Science, 35(3/4):265-285.

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Baker CA; Webster CG; Adkins S, 2012. Odontonema cuspidatum and Psychotria punctata, two new hosts of Cucumber mosaic virus in the United States. Plant Disease, 96(9):1384. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Britton NL; Wilson P, 1925. Botany of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico & Virgin Islands, Volume 6

Brunken U; Schmidt M; Dressler S; Janssen T; Thiombiano A; Zizka G, 2008. West African plants - A Photo Guide. Frankfurt/Main, Germany: Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg. www.westafricanplants.senckenberg.de

Chong KY; Tan HTW; Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species., Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp.

Daniel TF, 1995. Revision of Odontonema (Acanthaceae) in Mexico. Contributions of the University of Michigan Herbarium, 20:147-171.

Daniel TF, 2001. Catalog of Acanthaceae in El Salvador. Contributions from the University of Michigan Herbarium, 23:115-137.

Daniel TF, 2005. Catalog of Honduran Acanthaceae with taxonomic and phytogeographic notes. Contributions from the University of Michigan Herbarium, 24:51-108.

Daniel TF, 2010. Catalog of Guatemalan Acanthaceae: taxonomy, ecology, and conservation. Proceedings of the California Academy of Science, 61:289-377.

Daniel TF; McDade LA, 1995. Additions to the Acanthaceae of Panama. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 82:542-548.

Florence J; Chevillotte H; Ollier C; Meyer J-Y, 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP) (Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia). http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

Francis JK, 2005. Odontonema cuspidatum (Nees) Kuntze. Wildland Shrubs of the United States and its Territories: Thamnic Descriptions. General Technical Report IITF-WB-1. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service International Institute of Tropical Forestry and Shrub Sciences Laboratory. http://www.fs.fed.us/global/iitf/pdf/shrubs/Odontonema%20cuspidatum.pdf

Graveson R, 2012. The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). http://www.saintlucianplants.com

Guézou A; Trueman M; Buddenhagen E; Chamorro S; Guerrero AM; Pozo P; Atkinson R, 2010. An extensive Alien Plan Inventory from the Inhabited Areas of Galapagos. Plos One, 5(4):e10276.

INBio, 2014. PLANTAE Database., Costa Rica: Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad de Costa Rica. http://www.inbio.ac.cr/bims/PLANTAE.html

Jogdand VR; Dhabe AS, 2013. Odontonema cuspidatum (Nees) Kuntze (Acanthaceae): Addition to exotic record for Maharashtra. BIOINFOLET-A Quarterly Journal of Life Sciences, 10:1098-1099.

Jørgensen PM; León-Yànez S, 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard, 75. i-viii, 1-1182.

Liogier AH, 1995. La Flora de La Española. VII ([English title not available]). San Pedro de Macoris, Dominican Republic: Ediciones de la UCE, 491 pp.

Liogier HA, 1997. Descriptive flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent Islands: Spermatophyta-Dicotyledoneae Vol. 5: Acanthaceae to Compositae. Puerto Rico: Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico.

Lorence DH; Flynn TW; Wagner WL, 1995. Contributions to the flora of Hawai'i. III. New additions, range extensions, and rediscoveries of flowering plants. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers [Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 1994. Part 1: articles.], No. 41:19-58.

McDade LA; Daniel TF; Kiel CA, 2008. Toward a comprehensive understanding of phylogenetic relationships among lineages of Acanthaceae S.L. (Lamiales). American Journal of Botany, 95(9):1136-1152. http://www.amjbot.org/

Meyer JY; Lavergne C, 2004. Beautés fatales: Acanthaceae species as invasive alien plants on tropical Indo-Pacific islands. Diversity and Distributions, 10(5/6):333-347.

Oviedo Prieto R; Herrera Oliver P; Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y pontencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011.) Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantad del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):24-96.

PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

PROTA, 2014. PROTA4U web database. Grubben GJH, Denton OA, eds. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Scotland RW; Vollesen K, 2000. Classification of Acanthaceae. Kew Bulletin, 55:513-589.

Space JC; Flynn T, 2000. Observations on invasive plant species in American Samoa. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu, 51.

Space JC; Flynn T, 2002a. Report to the Government of Samoa on invasive plant species of environmental concern. Honolulu, USA: USDA Forest Service, 83 pp.

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Urban I, 1901. Symbolae Antillanae. Volumen II. Lipsiae, Germany: Fratres Borntraeger, 860 pp.

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

Vander VN, 2003. The vascular plants of Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin, 503:1-141.

Wagner WL; Herbst DR; Lorence DH, 2005. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands. Smithsonian Institution, unpaginated. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/index.htm

Wagner WL; Herbst DR; Sohmer SH, 1990. Manual of Flowering Plants of Hawaii. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Special Publication 83. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii.

Watkins JV, 1975. Florida landscape plants, native and exotic. Gainesville, FL., USA: The University Presses of Florida, 420 pp.

Wunderlin RP; Hansen BF, 2008. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. Florida, USA: University of South Florida. http://www.plantatlas.usf.edu/

Zuloaga FO; Morrone O; Belgrano MJ, 2008. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur: (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay) ([English title not available])., USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 3348 pp.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territorieshttp://www.fs.fed.us/global/iitf/wildland_shrubs.htm

Contributors

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05/03/14 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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