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Nelsonia canescens
(blue pussyleaf)

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Datasheet

Nelsonia canescens (blue pussyleaf)

Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Nelsonia canescens (blue pussyleaf); habit. Barrio Colón, La Chorrera, Panamá. March, 2012.
TitleHabit
CaptionNelsonia canescens (blue pussyleaf); habit. Barrio Colón, La Chorrera, Panamá. March, 2012.
Copyright©Andres Hernandez-2012/CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
Nelsonia canescens (blue pussyleaf); habit. Barrio Colón, La Chorrera, Panamá. March, 2012.
HabitNelsonia canescens (blue pussyleaf); habit. Barrio Colón, La Chorrera, Panamá. March, 2012.©Andres Hernandez-2012/CC BY-NC-SA 2.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng.

Preferred Common Name

  • blue pussyleaf

Other Scientific Names

  • Acanthodium spicatum Nees
  • Dianthera tomentosa Roxb. ex C.B. Clarke
  • Hemigraphis brunelloides (Lam.) Bremek.
  • Justicia bengalensis Spreng.
  • Justicia brunelloides Lam.
  • Justicia canescens Lam.
  • Justicia hirsuta Vahl
  • Justicia lamiifolia Roxb.
  • Justicia nummulariifolia Vahl
  • Justicia origanoides Vahl
  • Justicia vestita Roem. & Schult.
  • Nelsonia albicans Kunth
  • Nelsonia brunelloides (Lam.) Kuntze
  • Nelsonia brunelloides var. canescens (Lam.) Kuntze
  • Nelsonia campestris R.Br.
  • Nelsonia campestris var. vestita (Roem. & Schult.) C.B. Clarke
  • Nelsonia hirsuta (Vahl) Roem. & Schult.
  • Nelsonia lamiifolia (Roxb.) Spreng.
  • Nelsonia nummulariaefolia (Vahl) Roem. & Schult.
  • Nelsonia origanoides (Vahl) Roem. & Schult.
  • Nelsonia pohlii Nees
  • Nelsonia senegalensis Oerst.
  • Nelsonia tomentosa A. Dietr.
  • Nelsonia villosa Oerst.
  • Origanum lanatum Bojer ex Nees

International Common Names

  • Chinese: liu zi cao

Local Common Names

  • Bangladesh: paramul
  • Gambia: cow's knee; ninsikumbalin; rice-farm grass
  • India: bada rasna
  • Nigeria: baali; damdun makiyaya; ítúmba bùá; manda mbaala; sheep's salt; tsaamiyar makiyaayaa
  • Senegal: bukobatané; ékolingéol; ékolinko; ganány; konikadlo; mbodahâ; nokoto

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Scrophulariales
  •                         Family: Acanthaceae
  •                             Genus: Nelsonia (plants)
  •                                 Species: Nelsonia canescens

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Acanthaceae includes about 221 genera and 4000 species widespread in both New and Old World Tropics (Scotland and Vollesen, 2000; Stevens, 2012). Species within this family are herbs or woody shrubs, lianas and trees. Member of the Acanthaceae may be recognized by their fruit: a few-seeded, explosively dehiscent capsule within which seeds are borne on hook-like structures called retinacula (the lignified derivatives of the funiculus) (McDade et al., 2008).

The genus Nelsonia is usually treated in the subfamily Nelsonioideae within the Acanthaceae. This subfamily has been repeatedly shown to be monophyletic and to comprise the basal lineage among clades of Acanthaceae (McDade et al., 2008). In a recent molecular phylogenetic study McDade et al. (2012) suggest that only a single species of N. canescens should be recognized. According to these authors, the variation in vegetative traits likely reflected plasticity rather than distinct species and they doubted the validity of recognizing more than one highly variable species (McDade et al., 2012).

Description

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Herbs 10-20 cm tall, annual or perennial, creeping, sprawling, prostrate, or decumbent. Stems villous, often rooting at nodes. Petioles 0.2-3 (-4) cm, villous; leaf blade elliptic to ovate, 1-2 × 0.4-1.2 cm but basal ones sometimes 6-12 × 3.5-5 cm, both surfaces villous, base cuneate, margin entire, apex acute. Spikes 1.5-4 cm long; bracts elliptic, overlapping, 6-7.5 × 3-4 mm, 5-7 veined. Calyx abaxial lobe approximately 2 × 0.6 mm, apex 2-lobed; adaxial lobe approximately 3 × 1 mm; lateral lobes approximately 2 × 0.5 mm. Corolla bluish purple or white, externally glabrous; tube cylindric for approximately 1.5 mm, contracted near midpoint then expanded into throat; lower lip approximately 2.3 mm; upper lip approximately 2 mm. Stamens inserted at base of throat; filaments 0.5 mm, glabrous. Ovary glabrous with 4-8 ovules per locule. Fruit a capsule of approximately 5 × 2 mm, 8 to 16 seeds. Seeds broadly ellipsoid and granulate (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014).

Plant Type

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Annual
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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Although the genus Nelsonia appears to be native to Africa, Asia, and Australia (Daniel, 2001; 2005), the origin of the species N. canescens is uncertain. It is not known with confidence whether this species is native or introduced to the New World (Daniel 2001). Currently N. canescens occurs in tropical Africa, Madagascar, southern Asia, Australia, southern North America, Central America, tropical South America, and Puerto Rico (McDade et al., 2012; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; PROTA, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014). Some authors consider that until additional data is presented on the taxonomy and distribution of this species, it should be treated as native in the American tropics (Daniel, 2001, 2005; Profice et al., 2014).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentNative
BotswanaPresentNative
BurundiPresentNative
CameroonPresentNative
Central African RepublicPresentNative
Côte d'IvoirePresentNative
Equatorial GuineaPresentNative
EthiopiaPresentNative
GambiaPresentNative
GhanaPresentNative
GuineaPresentNative
LiberiaPresentNative
MadagascarPresentNativeAntsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara
MaliPresentNative
MozambiquePresentNative
NamibiaPresentNative
NigeriaPresentNative
SenegalPresentNative
Sierra LeonePresentNative
South AfricaPresentNative
SudanPresentNative
TanzaniaPresentNative
UgandaPresentNative
ZambiaPresentNative
ZimbabwePresentNative

Asia

BangladeshPresentNativeWeed
BhutanPresentNative
CambodiaPresentNative
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-GuangxiPresentNative
-YunnanPresentNative
IndiaPresentNative
IndonesiaPresentNative
LaosPresentNative
MalaysiaPresentNative
MyanmarPresentNative
NepalPresentNative
PhilippinesPresentNative
ThailandPresentNative
VietnamPresentNative

North America

Costa RicaPresent
El SalvadorPresent
HondurasPresent
MexicoPresent
PanamaPresent
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedInvasiveWeed
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroduced2011NaturalizedNaturalized

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-QueenslandPresentReported as Nelsonia campestris R.Br.
-Western AustraliaPresentReported as Nelsonia campestris R.Br.

South America

BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AcrePresent
-AmazonasPresent
-BahiaPresent
-GoiasPresent
-MaranhaoPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-ParaPresent
ColombiaPresent
French GuianaPresentReported as N. campestris

History of Introduction and Spread

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It remains uncertain whether N. canescens is native or introduced in the New World (Daniel, 2001; McDade et al., 2012). In 1994, K. Vollesen suggested that N. canescens was introduced in the New World (Vollesen, 1994). On the other hand, there are collections made by Humboldt and Bonpland from northern South America in the early nineteenth century, suggesting an extended presence of the species within this continent (Daniel, 2001). Therefore, if N. canescens was introduced into the New World by human activities, it must have been at a relatively early time (Daniel 2001, 2005). In the West Indies, N. canescens is only recorded for Puerto Rico since 1899 (US National Herbarium). This late record (by the 1880s the flora of Puerto Rico was well collected) and its isolated distribution within the West Indies suggest N. canescens has been introduced in this area. In the United States, N. canescens was first collected in the wild in 2011 in the state of Florida where it was considered weedy (Frank and Daniel, 2011).

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of N. canescens is high. It commonly grows as a weed in disturbed and open habitats as well as in agricultural lands (Ekeleme and Chikoye, 2003; Essandoh et al., 2011; Mahbubur, 2013). N. canescens has high dispersal ability (i.e., spreads by seeds and ramets) and can grow in a wide range of habitats (McDade et al., 2012). Therefore, the potential of this species to spread much further than it has to date is high.

Habitat

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N. canescens can be found growing in secondary wet evergreen forests, savannah woodlands, grassy places, and open and disturbed habitats, especially in moist areas along roadsides, trails, and streambeds (Durkee, 1986; Daniel 2001; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; PROTA, 2014). It also grows as a weed in agricultural lands (Daniel, 2001; Randall, 2012).  

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalArid regions Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalArid regions Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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N. canescens has been recorded growing as a weed in rice, maize, melon, and oil palm plantations (Ekeleme and Chikoye, 2003; Essandoh et al., 2011; Mahbubur, 2013).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Cucumis melo (melon)CucurbitaceaeMain
    Elaeis guineensis (African oil palm)ArecaceaeMain
      Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeMain
        Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeMain

          Growth Stages

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          Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

          Biology and Ecology

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          Genetics

          The chromosome number reported for N. canescens is 2n = 34 or 2n = 36 (Daniel and Chuang, 1993). 

          Reproductive Biologyand Phenology

          In Asia, within its native distribution ranges, N. canescens has been recorded flowering from October to March and fruiting from March to May (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). In Costa Rica, it has been recorded flowering from February through May (Durkee, 1986). 

          Environmental Requirements

          N. canescens grows best in moist and warm habitats. In China, this species has been recorded growing in wet and open forests in elevations from 400 to 2000 m (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). In Madagascar, N. canescens grows in dry, semiarid, and subhumid places from sea level to 1499 m (Madagascar Catalogue, 2014). In Africa, N. canescens grows in habitats including dark sandy soil with rocks, in savannas and forests, and on rocks (PROTA, 2014).

           

          Climate

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          ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
          Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
          Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
          As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
          Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
          Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
          Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

          Soil Tolerances

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          Soil drainage

          • free
          • seasonally waterlogged

          Soil reaction

          • acid
          • neutral

          Soil texture

          • light
          • medium

          Means of Movement and Dispersal

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          N. canescens spreads by seeds and vegetatively by producing ramets (Daniel, 2001; Chidumayo, 2006). Seeds are small (2-5 mm) and can be dispersed by wind and water (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). Ramets can remain dormant and buried and resprout when environmental conditions are suitable for establishment (Chidumayo, 2006).

          Pathway Causes

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          CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
          Crop productionWeed in agricultural land Yes Yes Randall (2012)
          DisturbanceCommon weed in open and disturbed places Yes Yes Daniel (2001)
          Medicinal useUsed in African traditional medicine Yes Yes PROTA (2014)

          Pathway Vectors

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          VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
          Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds and ramets Yes Yes Chidumayo (2006)
          Land vehiclesSeeds and roots Yes Yes Mahbubur (2013)
          Machinery and equipmentSeeds and roots Yes Yes Mahbubur (2013)
          Soil, sand and gravelSeeds and roots Yes Yes Mahbubur (2013)
          WaterSeeds Yes Daniel (2001)
          WindSeeds Yes Daniel (2001)

          Impact Summary

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          CategoryImpact
          Cultural/amenity Positive
          Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
          Environment (generally) Positive and negative
          Human health Positive

          Environmental Impact

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          N. canescens is a fast-growing species that can grow as a weed in native and secondary wet forests as well as in agricultural land (Daniel, 2001; Ekeleme and Chikoye, 2003; Essandoh et al., 2011; Randall, 2012; Mahbubur, 2013). Consequently, it is outcompeting native and crop plants for common resources such as water, mineral nutrients, space and light (Ekeleme and Chikoye, 2003; Essandoh et al., 2011). In Puerto Rico, N. canescens is listed as invasive in riparian forests, secondary wet forests and disturbed grassy areas (US National Herbarium; Rojas-Sandoval and Acevedo, unpublished data).

          Risk and Impact Factors

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          Invasiveness
          • Proved invasive outside its native range
          • Has a broad native range
          • Abundant in its native range
          • Highly adaptable to different environments
          • Is a habitat generalist
          • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
          • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
          • Fast growing
          • Reproduces asexually
          Impact outcomes
          • Damaged ecosystem services
          • Negatively impacts agriculture
          • Reduced native biodiversity
          Impact mechanisms
          • Competition - monopolizing resources
          • Competition (unspecified)
          • Rapid growth
          • Rooting
          Likelihood of entry/control
          • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
          • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

          Uses

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          N. canescens is used in African and Asian traditional medicine. In Africa, it is used to reduce fever and as an analgesic in a wide range of conditions including colds, flu, and viral infections (PROTA, 2014). In India, it is called “Bada Rasna” and it is used in traditional medicine to treat pain and inflammation (Acharya et al., 2012; Mohaddesi et al., 2013). N. canescens is also reported to be used as a cover crop to suppress the growth of weeds in banana plantations. Here this species can invade large areas of the plantation with no visible adverse effects on the banana crop but limiting the possibility of other weeds to invade (Fongod et al., 2010).

          References

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          Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

          Atlas of Living Australia, 2014. Atlas of Living Australia. http://www.ala.org.au

          Behzad Mohaddesi; Ravindra Dwivedi; Ashok BK; Hetal Aghera; Rabinarayan Acharya; Shukla VJ, 2013. Analgesic activity of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng. root in albino rats. AYU, 34(2):226-228. http://www.ayujournal.org/article.asp?issn=0974-8520;year=2013;volume=34;issue=2;spage=226;epage=228;aulast=Mohaddesi

          Chidumayo EN, 2006. Fitness implications of clonal integration and leaf dynamics in a stoloniferous herb, Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng (Nelsoniaceae). Evolutionary Ecology, 20(1):59-73. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100160

          Daniel TF, 2001. Catalog of Acanthaceae in El Salvador. Contributions from the University of Michigan Herbarium, 23:115-137.

          Daniel TF, 2005. Catalog of Honduran Acanthaceae with taxonomic and phytogeographic notes. Contributions from the University of Michigan Herbarium, 24:51-108.

          Daniel TF; Chuang TI, 1993. Chromosome Numbers of New World Acanthaceae. Systematic Botany, 18:283-289.

          Durkee LH, 1986. Family Acanthaceae. Fieldiana, 18:1-87. [Flora Costaricensis.]

          Ekeleme F; Chikoye D, 2003. A survey of weed flora of arable fields in the moist savanna zone of Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment, 5(2):228-240.

          Essandoh PK; Armah FA; Odoi JO; Yawson DO; Afrifa EKA, 2011. Floristic composition and abundance of weeds in an oil palm plantation in Ghana. Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science, 6(1):20-31. http://www.arpnjournals.com/jabs/research_papers/rp_2011/jabs_0111_229.pdf

          Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

          Fongod AGN; Focho DA; Mih AM; Fonge BA; Lang PS, 2010. Weed management in banana production: the use of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng as a non-leguminous cover crop. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 4(3):167-173. http://www.academicjournals.org/ajest/PDF/pdf%202010/Mar/Fongod%20et%20al.pdf

          Franck AR; Daniel TF, 2011. Florida Nelsonia canescens, a Genus and Species New to the Adventive Flora of the United States. Castanea, 76:429-431.

          Funk V; Hollowell T; Berry P; Kelloff C; Alexander SN, 2007. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 584 pp.

          Gibbs Russell GE; Welman WG; Reitief E; Immelman KL; Germishuizen G; Pienaar BJ; Wyk Mvan; Nicholas A, 1987. List of species of southern African plants. Memoirs of the Botanical Survey of South Africa, 2(1 & 2):1-152 & 1-270.

          Madagascar Catalogue, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Madagascar. St. Louis, Missouri, USA and Antananarivo, Madagascar: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/project/mada

          Mahbubur RAHM, 2013. A Checklist of Common Angiosperm Weeds of Rajshahi District, Bangladesh. International Journal of Agricultural and Soil Science, 1:1-6. http://internationalinventjournals.org/journals/IJASS/Archive/2013/December_vol-1-issue-1/Fulltext/Rahman.pdf

          McDade LA; Daniel TF; Kiel CA, 2008. Toward a comprehensive understanding of phylogenetic relationships among lineages of Acanthaceae S.L. (Lamiales). American Journal of Botany, 95(9):1136-1152. http://www.amjbot.org/

          McDade LA; Daniel TF; Kiel CA; Borg AJ, 2012. Phylogenetic placement, delimitation, and relationships among genera of the enigmatic Nelsonioideae (Lamiales: Acanthaceae). Taxon, 61(3):637-651. http://www.botanik.univie.ac.at/iapt/s_taxon.php

          Pickering H; Roe E, 2009. Wild Flowers of the Victoria Falls Area. London, UK: Helen Pickering, 128 pp.

          Profice SR; Kameyama C; Côrtes ALA; Braz DM; Indriunas A; Vilar T; Pessoa C; Ezcurra C; Wasshausen D, 2014. Acanthaceae. (Acanthaceae.) Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB21673

          PROTA, 2014. PROTA4U web database. Grubben GJH, Denton OA, eds. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp

          Rabinarayan Acharya; Padiya RH; Patel ED; Rudrapa HC; Shukla VJ; Chauhan MG, 2012. Pharmacognostical evaluation of leaf of Bada Rasna [Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng.; Acanthaceae]. Ancient Science of Life, 31(4):194-197. http://www.ancientscienceoflife.org/article.asp?issn=0257-7941;year=2012;volume=31;issue=4;spage=194;epage=197;aulast=Acharya

          Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

          Scotland RW; Vollesen K, 2000. Classification of Acanthaceae. Kew Bulletin, 55:513-589.

          Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

          USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

          Vollesen K, 1994. Taxonomy, ecology and distribution of Nelsonia (Acanthaceae) in Africa. Zomba, Malawi. In: Proceedings of the XIII Meeting AETFAT, 1 [ed. by Seyani, J. H. \Chikuni, A. C.]. Zomba, Malawi: Association for the Taxonomic Study of the Flora of Tropical Africa, 315-325.

          Distribution References

          Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

          Atlas of Living Australia, 2014. Atlas of Living Australia., http://www.ala.org.au

          CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

          Daniel T F, 2001. Catalog of Acanthaceae in El Salvador. Contributions from the University of Michigan Herbarium. 115-137.

          Daniel T F, 2005. Catalog of Honduran Acanthaceae with taxonomic and phytogeographic notes. Contributions from the University of Michigan Herbarium. 51-108.

          Durkee LH, 1986. Family Acanthaceae. In: Fieldiana, 18 1-87.

          Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

          Franck AR, Daniel TF, 2011. Florida Nelsonia canescens, a Genus and Species New to the Adventive Flora of the United States. In: Castanea, 76 429-431.

          Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Alexander S N, 2007. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. 55, 584 pp.

          Madagascar Catalogue, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Madagascar., St. Louis, Missouri and Antananarivo, USA, Madagascar: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/project/mada

          Mahbubur RAHM, 2013. A Checklist of Common Angiosperm Weeds of Rajshahi District, Bangladesh. In: International Journal of Agricultural and Soil Science, 1 1-6. http://internationalinventjournals.org/journals/IJASS/Archive/2013/December_vol-1-issue-1/Fulltext/Rahman.pdf

          Pickering H, Roe E, 2009. Wild Flowers of the Victoria Falls Area., London, UK: Helen Pickering. 128 pp.

          Profice SR, Kameyama C, Côrtes ALA, Braz DM, Indriunas A, Vilar T, Pessoa C, Ezcurra C, Wasshausen D, 2014. (Acanthaceae. (Acanthaceae.) Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil)., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB21673

          PROTA, 2014. PROTA4U web database., [ed. by Grubben GJH, Denton OA]. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp

          Rabinarayan Acharya, Padiya R H, Patel E D, Rudrapa H C, Shukla V J, Chauhan M G, 2012. Pharmacognostical evaluation of leaf of Bada Rasna [Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng.; Acanthaceae]. Ancient Science of Life. 31 (4), 194-197. http://www.ancientscienceoflife.org/article.asp?issn=0257-7941;year=2012;volume=31;issue=4;spage=194;epage=197;aulast=Acharya DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.107359

          Russell Gibbs G E, Welman W G, Reitief E, Immelman K L, Germishuizen G, Pienaar B J, Wyk M van, Nicholas A, 1987. List of species of southern African plants. Memoirs of the Botanical Survey of South Africa. 2 (1; 2), 1-152; 1-270.

          USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

          Vollesen K, 1994. Taxonomy, ecology and distribution of Nelsonia (Acanthaceae) in Africa. [Proceedings of the XIII Meeting AETFAT], 1 [ed. by Seyani JH, Chikuni AC]. Zomba, Malawi: Association for the Taxonomic Study of the Flora of Tropical Africa. 315-325.

          Links to Websites

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          WebsiteURLComment
          JSTOR Global Plantshttp://plants.jstor.org/
          Plant Resources of Tropical Africahttp://www.prota.org
          Tropicoshttp://www.tropicos.org/

          Contributors

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          05/03/14 Original text by:

          Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

          Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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