Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Zinnia peruviana
(Peruvian zinnia)

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Datasheet

Zinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Zinnia peruviana
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Peruvian zinnia
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Zinnia peruviana is a subtropical and tropical, fast-growing, annual herb of American origin. It occurs in gardens, roadsides, disturbed places, wastelands and pastures. It was listed in the Global Compendium o...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Zinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia); flowering habit. Puu o Kali, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2004.
TitleHabit
CaptionZinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia); flowering habit. Puu o Kali, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2004.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Zinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia); flowering habit. Puu o Kali, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2004.
HabitZinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia); flowering habit. Puu o Kali, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2004.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Zinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia); habit, flowering at roadside. Lualailua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
TitleHabit
CaptionZinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia); habit, flowering at roadside. Lualailua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Zinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia); habit, flowering at roadside. Lualailua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
HabitZinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia); habit, flowering at roadside. Lualailua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Zinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia); flowering habit. Puu o Kali, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2003.
TitleHabit
CaptionZinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia); flowering habit. Puu o Kali, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2003.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Zinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia); flowering habit. Puu o Kali, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2003.
HabitZinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia); flowering habit. Puu o Kali, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2003.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Zinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia); invasive habit. Nuu, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionZinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia); invasive habit. Nuu, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Zinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia); invasive habit. Nuu, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2009.
HabitZinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia); invasive habit. Nuu, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Zinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia); habit, showing leaves and flower. Wailea 670, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2003.
TitleHabit
CaptionZinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia); habit, showing leaves and flower. Wailea 670, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2003.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Zinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia); habit, showing leaves and flower. Wailea 670, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2003.
HabitZinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia); habit, showing leaves and flower. Wailea 670, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2003.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Zinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia); flower head. S121 Road east of Berg-en-Dal, Kruger NP, South Africa. January 2014.
TitleFlower
CaptionZinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia); flower head. S121 Road east of Berg-en-Dal, Kruger NP, South Africa. January 2014.
Copyright©Bernard Dupont/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.0
Zinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia); flower head. S121 Road east of Berg-en-Dal, Kruger NP, South Africa. January 2014.
FlowerZinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia); flower head. S121 Road east of Berg-en-Dal, Kruger NP, South Africa. January 2014.©Bernard Dupont/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.0
Zinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia); flowers and fruits. Puu o Kali, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2003.
TitleFlowers and fruits
CaptionZinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia); flowers and fruits. Puu o Kali, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2003.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Zinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia); flowers and fruits. Puu o Kali, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2003.
Flowers and fruitsZinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia); flowers and fruits. Puu o Kali, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2003.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Zinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia); seeds.
TitleSeeds
CaptionZinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia); seeds.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/original image by Tracey Slotta
Zinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia); seeds.
SeedsZinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia); seeds.Public Domain - Released by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/original image by Tracey Slotta
Zinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia); seedlings sprouting after rains. Puu Moaulaiki, Kahoolawe, Hawaii, USA. December 2010.
TitleSeedlings
CaptionZinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia); seedlings sprouting after rains. Puu Moaulaiki, Kahoolawe, Hawaii, USA. December 2010.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Zinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia); seedlings sprouting after rains. Puu Moaulaiki, Kahoolawe, Hawaii, USA. December 2010.
SeedlingsZinnia peruviana (Peruvian zinnia); seedlings sprouting after rains. Puu Moaulaiki, Kahoolawe, Hawaii, USA. December 2010.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Zinnia peruviana (L.) L.

Preferred Common Name

  • Peruvian zinnia

Other Scientific Names

  • Chrysogonum peruvianum L.
  • Crassina multiflora (L.) Kuntze
  • Zinnia multiflora L.
  • Zinnia pauciflora L. (illegit. later homonym)
  • Zinnia tenuiflora Jacq.
  • Zinnia verticillata Andrews

International Common Names

  • English: field zinnia; kaffir daisy; red spider zinnia; redstar zinnia; wild zinnia; zinnia

Local Common Names

  • Argentina: chinita
  • Bolivia: llog'alla llog'alla; lloqualla t'ika
  • Dominican Republic: celia; escopeta; mariela
  • Guatemala: margarita; mulata
  • Haiti: bouton d’or
  • Honduras: ambolia
  • Mexico: clavel; hierba del indio; mal de ojo; ojo de gallo
  • Puerto Rico: cabrón; clavelón; escopetón; eterno; zinnia del monte
  • South Africa: wildejakobregop
  • USA/Hawaii: puapihi

Summary of Invasiveness

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Zinnia peruviana is a subtropical and tropical, fast-growing, annual herb of American origin. It occurs in gardens, roadsides, disturbed places, wastelands and pastures. It was listed in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012) as a naturalized agricultural and environmental weed, casual alien and cultivation escape. It is a weed in parts of America including Mexico and Ecuador, where it is native. It is also a weed and an escape from cultivation in other parts of the world such as the Galapagos Islands, Queensland in Australia, China, Swaziland and Ethiopia. In South Africa it was reported as one of the top 28 invasive species in the Kruger National Park. A weed risk assessment for Hawaii concluded that further evaluation was necessary to determine whether the species is invasive there.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Asterales
  •                         Family: Asteraceae
  •                             Genus: Zinnia
  •                                 Species: Zinnia peruviana

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Asteraceae is one of the largest families of flowering plants, containing approximately 1620 genera and more than 23,600 species (Stevens, 2012). In their vegetative state, the members of this family are extremely variable, but they are easily recognized by their flowers (florets) in heads (capitula) surrounded by an involucre of bracts. The small, single-seeded fruit (cypsela), often with a plumose pappus, aids wind dispersal (Stevens, 2012). However, Z. peruviana has awns instead of a pappus.

The genus Zinnia contains approximately 22 species, with Mexico having the highest concentration of these. Z. peruviana is the type for the genus and has had a confusing nomenclatural history, clarified by the revision of the genus by Torres (1963). The genus Zinnia was named in honour of the 18th century German professor and master botanist Johann Gottfried Zinn (1727-1759) of the University of Göttingen. The species name peruviana refers to its American region of origin (Smith, 1971).

Description

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Annual herbs 0.3-0.5(-1) m tall, with a short weak taproot. Stems solitary, erect, branching distally, ascending, strigose, purplish-green. Basal leaves obsolete. Cauline leaves sessile, opposite with 3-5 veins, ovate to lanceolate; 25-70 mm long, 6-35 mm wide, entire, scabrous, gland-dotted; bases cuneate; margins; apices acute. Synflorescences single capitula on peduncles 10-70 mm tall, inflated distally, each with 6-15(-21) ligulate (ray) florets and 12-50 tubular (disc) florets. Involucres campanulate, 9-18 mm long, 10-20 mm diameter; phyllaries 12-30 obovate, graduated, 4-16 mm long; paleae linear, 12-50, red to purple. Ligulate florets 8-25 mm long, narrowly obovate, maroon-red to orange, sometimes yellow. Tubular florets, 8-25 mm long, narrowly obovate, yellow, sometimes with purple lobes. Cypselae tan to light brown, obconical, 3-sided to compressed 7-10 mm long, with striate ribs. Pappus of disc cypselae with a single awn 4-6 mm long; ray cypselae awnless (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2016; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017; C Puttock, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA, personal observation).

Plant Type

Top of page Annual
Herbaceous
Seed propagated

Distribution

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Z. peruviana is the only species of the genus with a native range that extends outside North America. The three species of subgenus Zinnia section Zinnia have their centre of origin in the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico at elevations from 900 m to 3000 m above sea level. Aside from the mountainous region of Mexico, it is also found in “large uniform populations along the roadsides”, “along which sheep, burros [donkeys], cattle and dogs frequently move” (Torres, 1963).

Although Z. peruviana is native to the Americas, it is not prevalent everywhere. For example, it was not listed in work carried out by Funk et al. (2007) on the Guiana Shield and is reportedly uncommon in Nicaragua, where specimens have been collected from the western side of the country’s mountainous region (Flora of Nicaragua, 2016).

There are some discrepancies in reports of the native status of Z. peruviana. In the Caribbean, the species has been introduced and is naturalized in Puerto Rico (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012), but the USDA-NRCS (2016) reports it as native to Puerto Rico as well as the continental states of the USA. However, the USDA-ARS (2016) records this species as naturalized in all of these locations except Arizona in the USA, where it is native.

Z. peruviana is naturalized and in some places is weedy or invasive in eastern Australia, Hawaii and parts of French Polynesia. However, the species does not have a significant presence in the Asia-Pacific region, suggesting it may remain confined to ornamental cultivation. It was not included in the Smithsonian Flora of Micronesia (Wagner et al., 2016) or Flora of the Marquesas Islands (Wagner and Lorence, 2016), although the related species Z. violacea is reported in these places. Neither was it included in work by Chong et al. (2009) on Singapore, Kress et al. (2003) on Myanmar or Leonard Co’s Flora of the Philippines (Pelser et al., 2016).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BotswanaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2016)Naturalized
EritreaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2016)Naturalized
EswatiniPresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2016)Naturalized
EthiopiaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2016)Naturalized
KenyaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2016)Naturalized
LesothoPresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2016)Naturalized
MauritiusPresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2016)Naturalized
RéunionPresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2016)Naturalized
South AfricaPresentIntroducedInvasiveReinhardt (2002); Randall (2012); USDA-ARS (2016); CABI (Undated)One of top 28 non-native invasive species in Kruger National Park
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedInvasiveWitt and Luke (2017)
UgandaPresentIntroducedWitt and Luke (2017)
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2016)Naturalized

Asia

BhutanPresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2016)Naturalized
ChinaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2017)Naturalized
-GansuPresentIntroducedNaturalizedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2017); USDA-ARS (2016)Naturalized
-HebeiPresentIntroducedNaturalizedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2017); USDA-ARS (2016)Naturalized
-HenanPresentIntroducedNaturalizedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2017); USDA-ARS (2016)Naturalized
-SichuanPresentIntroducedNaturalizedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2017); USDA-ARS (2016)Naturalized
-YunnanPresentIntroducedNaturalizedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2017); USDA-ARS (2016)Naturalized
NepalPresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2016)Naturalized

Europe

United KingdomPresentIntroducedRandall (2012)Casual alien

North America

BahamasPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); USDA-ARS (2016)
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); USDA-ARS (2016); USDA-NRCS (2016)Virgin Gorda
CubaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); USDA-ARS (2016)
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
GuatemalaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016); PIER (2016)
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
HondurasPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
JamaicaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2016)Naturalized
MexicoPresentNativeFlora Mesoamericana (2016); USDA-ARS (2016); CABI (Undated);
NicaraguaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016); Flora of Nicaragua (2016)
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedNaturalizedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); USDA-ARS (2016); USDA-NRCS (2016)Naturalized; Acevedo-Rodríguez personal communication, 2015.
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution
-ArizonaPresentNativeCABI (Undated); USDA-ARS (2016); USDA-NRCS (2016)Southeastern Arizona; Original citation: Wagner et al. (2016)
-FloridaPresentUSDA-ARS (2016); USDA-NRCS (2016)
-GeorgiaPresentUSDA-ARS (2016); USDA-NRCS (2016)
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCABI (Undated); USDA-ARS (2016); USDA-NRCS (2016)Naturalized on Molokai, Lanai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Hawaii; Original citation: Wagner et al. (2016)
-North CarolinaPresentUSDA-ARS (2016); USDA-NRCS (2016)
-South CarolinaPresentUSDA-ARS (2016); USDA-NRCS (2016)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasiveRandall (2012); PIER (2016)Weed
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedNaturalizedWeeds of Australia (2016); USDA-ARS (2016)Naturalized in Queensland and New South Wales
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2016); Batianoff and Butler (2002); Randall (2012); USDA-ARS (2016); Weeds of Australia (2016)
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2016); USDA-ARS (2016)

South America

ArgentinaPresentNativeCABI (Undated); USDA-ARS (2016)Original citation: Wagner et al. (2016)
BoliviaPresentNativeBolivia Catalogue (2017); USDA-ARS (2016)Chuquisaca; La Paz; Santa Cruz; Tarija; Beni; Cochabamba
ColombiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
EcuadorPresentNative and IntroducedCharles Darwin Foundation (2016); USDA-ARS (2016); Vascular Plants of Ecuador (2017)Recorded as native and introduced in the country
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2016)
ParaguayPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016); CABI (Undated)
PeruPresentNativeCABI (Undated); USDA-ARS (2016); Ancash; Apurí; Ayacucho; Cajamarca; Cuzco; Huánuco; Lambayeque; Lima; Moquegua; Piura; Original citation: Peru Checklist (2017)
VenezuelaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)Aragua; Distrito Federal

History of Introduction and Spread

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It is likely that Z. peruviana spread northward into the USA and southward into Guatemala from its Mesoamerican centre of origin due to the movement of humans and their domesticated animals over the past several millennia. Considering there is a gap in the species’ distribution across the isthmus and it reappears in the Andes from Colombia to Argentina, bird migration may have been a pre-human distributor of the species. This would explain the absence of the species’ natural distribution from the Sierra Madres to the Andes. Its dispersal by this route would avoid the Caribbean.

Evidence suggests Z. peruviana may be a relatively recent introduction to the Caribbean, perhaps more recent than its introduction to Europe. It was reported as present in Puerto Rico by 1881 (as Z. multiflora; Bello y Espinosa, 1881), possibly the first report of its presence in the region. The species was not included in the Flora of Jamaica (Macfadyen, 1837), but specimens indicate that it was present by 1914. It was present in the Dominican Republic by 1910 and in Haiti by 1929 (US National Herbarium).

Z. peruviana was introduced to England from Louisiana by Philip Miller in 1753 (Curtis’s Botanical Magazine, 1796). From there it became popular in European horticultural trade and was introduced to the Asia-Pacific region, where it eventually escaped cultivation in suitable climates and habitats, such as the Australian wet tropics and subtropics and Pacific high islands, such as Hawaii.

Risk of Introduction

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The Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012) categorizes Z. peruviana as a cultivation escape and an environmental, agricultural and disturbance weed. In its native range, the species is a common, but rarely dominant, weed (CONABIO, 2017). However, the species is invasive in parts of Ecuador, eastern Australia, French Polynesia and Hawaii (PIER, 2016; Weeds of Australia, 2016). Since the 18th century, it has been repeatedly introduced to places beyond its native range due to its continued popularity as an ornamental species. Its invasive traits include seeds that are adapted for wind and animal dispersal, a relatively short generative time of one year, tolerance of a range of soil types, the ability to grow in heavily disturbed areas and the ability to thrive in tropical climates (Torres, 1963; Johnson and Kessler, 2007; PlantPono, 2014). Traits that lower its potential as an invasive species include non-toxicity, a requirement for full sun and well-drained soil and an inability to regenerate vegetatively (Johnson and Kessler, 2007; PlantPono, 2014). Considering these factors, the risk of introduction for this species is medium, but further evaluation is required.

Habitat

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Z. peruviana in its natural habitat occupies mountain slopes and valleys, woodlands and grasslands. In addition to these, it is a common weed in disturbed areas, rocky roadsides, ravines, particularly growing on calcareous soils, from 1200-1600 m above sea level.

In Peru, where it is native, samples of the species have been collected from the Amazonian, coastal and lower Andean parts of the country, up to 3500 m (Peru Checklist, 2017). In the Andean lowland regions of Bolivia, the species grows up to 3000 m in semi-deciduous forest, secondary forests, abandoned fields and dry valleys (Bolivia Catalogue, 2017). It has also been reported in Madidi National Park in the upper Amazon river basin (Madidi Checklist, 2017). Specimens have also been collected in northwestern Paraguay, near the Bolivian border (Paraguay Checklist, 2017). In parts of China where it was cultivated and has naturalized, the species has been found up to 1300 m (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Natural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rocky areas / lava flows Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Z. peruviana is diploid with a chromosome number of 2n = 24 (Torres, 1963).

Reproductive biology

Z. peruviana florets are pollinated by bees and flies and are visited by hummingbirds. Although it is usually an outcrossing species, it is self-compatible (Torres, 1963).

Environmental requirements

Z. peruviana requires full sun to light shade and several days of moderate water availability to grow. The plant favours neutral to slightly alkaline soils and can tolerate all soil types except for wet, poorly aerated soils, which can cause root rot (Johnson and Kessler, 2007).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Preferred Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
1200 3500

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Alternaria zinniae Pathogen not specific
Botrytis cinerea Pathogen not specific
Golovinomyces cichoracearum Pathogen not specific
Xanthomonas campestris pv. zinniae Pathogen not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Z. peruviana is susceptible to insects such as aphids, thrips and whiteflies, as well as horticultural diseases such as Alternaria zinniae (alternaria leaf spot), Botrytis cinerea (botrytis blight), Xanthomonas campestris pv. zinniae (bacterial leaf spot) and Golovinomyces cichoracearum var. chichoracearum (powdery mildew) (Johnson and Kessler, 2007).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Z. peruviana spreads via seed, which have a well-developed awn that readily attaches to fur and clothing. Dispersal is largely passive by humans and their domesticated animals; it also disperses locally via the wind.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Botanical gardens and zoos Yes Yes
Cut flower trade Yes Yes
Disturbance Yes
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes
Garden waste disposal Yes Yes
HitchhikerSeeds have awns that attach to fur and clothing Yes Yes Torres, 1963
Horticulture Yes Yes
Internet sales Yes Yes
Nursery trade Yes Yes
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsSeeds have awns that attach to fur and clothing Yes Yes Torres, 1963
Mail Yes Yes
WindSeeds adapted for wind dispersal Yes PlantPono, 2014

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Negative

Impact

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Z. peruviana does not have any significant recorded impacts. However, as it is a common environmental and agricultural weed and is also recorded as invasive in non-native regions, further investigation is needed to assess the potential negative environmental impact of its spread.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Fast growing
  • Gregarious
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

Uses

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Z. peruviana is cultivated and highly valued as an ornamental flowering plant around the world. It is also used in traditional Mexican medicine where an infusion of the bark is ingested to treat diarrhoea, vomiting and various stomach pains (UNAM, 2009). Other Zinnia species have also been used medicinally. In Native American medicine, for example, Z. grandiflora is used to treat stomach pain, kidney trouble, nose and throat problems and heartburn (Robinson, 2007; Pennacchio et al., 2010).

Uses List

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General

  • Botanical garden/zoo
  • Sociocultural value

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Cut flower
  • Potted plant
  • Seed trade

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Chemical Control

Members of the Zinnia genus can be controlled or weakened by chemicals and nutrient adjustment. Certain pesticides burn Zinnia leaves and excess soil nitrogen levels lead to weakened stems (Johnson and Kessler, 2007).

Biological Control

The invasiveness of Z. peruviana in a disturbed habitat may be facilitated by overgrazing (PlantPono, 2014). In a case report from Pretoria, South Africa, van Hoven et al. (2009) identified Z. peruviana as an alien invasive plant species that influences the occurrence of palatable grasses. They reported that Z. peruviana “should be outcompeted by grasses once overgrazing has been minimised”. This information may be useful for biological control in certain situations.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Z. peruviana has been reported as invasive in some parts of the world, but there is little data regarding the extent of its potential ecological, economic or social impacts. Due to its use as an ornamental, this species will continue to be introduced around the globe. Considering this, and the invasive traits of this species, further risk assessment is needed.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Batianoff GN, Butler DW, 2002. Assessment of invasive naturalized plants in south-east Queensland. Plant Protection Quarterly, 17(1), 27-34.

Bello y Espinosa D, 1881. Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico, first part. Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, 10:233-304

Bolivia Catalogue, 2017. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Bolivia. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/BC

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2016. Galapagos Species Checklist of the Charles Darwin Foundation. http://darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/#plants

Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

CONABIO, 2017. Lista de Malezas de México. http://www.conabio.gob.mx/malezasdemexico/2inicio/home-malezas-mexico.htm

Curtis’s Botanical Magazine, 1796. Zinnia multiflora, Many-flowered Zinnia. Curtis’ Botanical Magazine, 5:149. https://books.google.com/books?id=7g9fAAAAcAAJ&dq=zinia+multiflora&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Flora Mesoamericana, 2016. Flora Mesoamericana, Tropicos website. St. Louis, MO, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/FM

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Nicaragua, 2016. Flora of Nicaragua, Tropicos website. St. Louis, MO, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Name/34500581?projectid=7

Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of North America North of Mexico. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1

Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Alexander SN, 2007. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 55, 584 pp.

Johnson CN, Kessler JR, 2007. Greenhouse protection of bedding plant Zinnias. Alabama, USA: Alabama A&M and Auburn Universities, ANR-1311. http://www.aces.edu/pubs/docs/A/ANR-1311/ANR-1311.pdf

Kress J, DeFilipps RA, Farr E, Yin Kyi D, 2003. A checklist of the trees, shrubs, herbs, and climbers of Myanmar. Washington DC, USA: National Museum of Natural History, 590 pp

Macfadyen J, 1837. The Flora of Jamaica; a description of the plants of that island, arranged according to the natural orders. London, UK: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green and Longman

Madidi Checklist, 2017. Listado de la Flora del Parque Nacional Madidi, Bolivia. Tropicos website. St. Louis, MO, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/MDICHK

Paraguay Checklist, 2017. Paraguay Checklist. Tropicos website. St. Louis, MO, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/Paraguay

Pelser PB, Barcelona JF, Nickrent DL, eds., 2016. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines. www.philippineplants.org

Pennacchio M, Jefferson LV, Havens K, 2010. Uses and abuses of plant-derived smoke: Its ethnobotany as hallucinogen, perfume, incense, and medicine. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press

Peru Checklist, 2017. Peru Checklist. Tropicos website. St. Louis, MO, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/PEC

PIER, 2016. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. www.hear.org/pier

PlantPono, 2014. Hawaii-Pacific Weed Risk Assessment (HPWRA) for Zinnia peruviana. Hawaii, USA: Coordinating Group on Alien Pest Species (CGAPS), Hawai‘i Invasive Species Council and the Hawai‘i Biological Information Network. http://plantpono.org/hpwra.php

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.hear.org/gcw/

Reinhardt C, 2002. Alien invader plants in South Africa: management and challenges. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Current Trends in Plant Protection, Belgrade, Serbia, 25-28 September 2012. 20-26. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133296707.pdf

Robinson A, 2007. Zinnia peruviana. Native plants of Arizona. Flagstaff, USA: Northern Arizona University. http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/plants-c/bio414/species%20pages/zinia%20grandiflora.htm

Smith AW, 1971. A Gardener’s Dictionary of Plant Names: A Handbook on the Origin and Meaning of Some Plant Names, revised and enlarged by William T. Stearn. London, UK: Cassell and Co., 391 pp

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Torres AM, 1963. Taxonomy of Zinnia. Brittonia, 15:1-25

UNAM, 2009. Biblioteca digital de la medicina tradicional Mexicana. Mexico: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. http://www.medicinatradicionalmexicana.unam.mx/index.php

USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. http://www.ars-grin.gov/

USDA-NRCS, 2016. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

van Hoven W, Orban B, Deutschla¨nder M, Kurpershoek C, 2009. An Ecological Study of the Plant Communities and Animal Populations of Sable Hills Waterfront Estate, with Management Recommendations. Pretoria, South Africa: Centre for Wildlife Management, University of Pretoria. http://www.sablehillsestate.co.za/images/SableHillsEnvManPlan.pdf

Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2017. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/CE

Villaseñor Ríos JL, Espinosa García FJ, 1998. Catálogo De Malezas De México. Mexico: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Lorence DH, 2016. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands website. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/index.htm

Wagner WL, Lorence DH, 2016. Flora of the Marquesas Islands website. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/marquesasflora/index.htm

Weeds of Australia, 2016. Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition. http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/03030800-0b07-490a-8d04-0605030c0f01/media/Html/Index.htm

Witt, A., Luke, Q., 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa, [ed. by Witt, A., Luke, Q.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI.vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 doi:10.1079/9781786392145.0000

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Batianoff G N, Butler D W, 2002. Assessment of invasive naturalized plants in south-east Queensland. Plant Protection Quarterly. 17 (1), 27-34.

Bolivia Catalogue, 2017. (Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Bolivia)., St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/BC

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2016. Galapagos Species Checklist of the Charles Darwin Foundation., http://darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/#plants

Flora Mesoamericana, 2016. (Flora Mesoamericana, Tropicos)., St. Louis, MO, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/FM

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Nicaragua, 2016. Flora of Nicaragua, Tropicos website., St. Louis, MO, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Name/34500581?projectid=7

PIER, 2016. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds., Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia. 1124 pp. http://www.hear.org/gcw/

Reinhardt C, 2002. Alien invader plants in South Africa: management and challenges. [Proceedings of the International Symposium on Current Trends in Plant Protection, Belgrade, Serbia, 25-28 September 2012], 20-26. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133296707.pdf

USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2016. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2017. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador., St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/CE

Weeds of Australia, 2016. Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition., http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/03030800-0b07-490a-8d04-0605030c0f01/media/Html/Index.htm

Witt A, Luke Q, 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa. [ed. by Witt A, Luke Q]. Wallingford, UK: CABI. vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 DOI:10.1079/9781786392145.0000

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indieshttp://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm
Flora of Zimbabwehttps://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/index.php
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global Compositae Checklist http://compositae.landcareresearch.co.nz/Default.aspx
Pacific Island Environments at Riskhttp://www.hear.org/pier/index.html
Tropicoshttp://www.tropicos.org

Contributors

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30/03/17 Updated by:

Marianne Jennifer Datiles, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Original text by:

Christopher F Puttock, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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