Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Solanum erianthum
(potato tree)

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Datasheet

Solanum erianthum (potato tree)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Solanum erianthum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • potato tree
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • S. erianthum is a shrub listed as ‘cultivation escape’, ‘environmental weed’, ‘naturalised’ and ‘weed’ in the Global Compendium of Weeds (

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Solanum erianthum D. Don

Preferred Common Name

  • potato tree

Other Scientific Names

  • Solanum adulterinum Buch.-Ham. ex Wall.
  • Solanum verbascifolium sensu Britton & Millsp., non L
  • Solanum verbascifolium L. var. adulterinum G. Don

International Common Names

  • English: big eggplant; black nightshade; China flowerleaf; flannel bush; mullein nightshade; tobacco tree; tropillo; turkey berry; wild tobacco
  • French: amourette marron
  • Chinese: jia yan ye shu

Local Common Names

  • Bahamas: salve-bush
  • Cuba: tabaco cimarrón
  • Dominican Republic: friega platos; tabacón; tabacuelo
  • Haiti: amorette; samourette male; tabac marron; tabace marron; zamorette male; zamourette; zamourette batard; zamourette marron
  • India: vidari
  • Jamaica: wild susumber
  • Japan: tabakugii; yanbaru-nasubi
  • Mexico: berenjena; samacanteca
  • Myanmar: daung-satpya
  • Philippines: hierba de San Pedro; kasungog; kayok; liuangkag; malatabako; malatalong; noog-noog; pangau; saca manteca; salvadora; ungali
  • Puerto Rico: berenjena de paloma; tabacón afelpado
  • Vietnam: ca hoi; co sa lang; ngoi
  • West Africa: ewuro ijebu; ijebu kogbin; openiniwuni

Summary of Invasiveness

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S. erianthum is a shrub listed as ‘cultivation escape’, ‘environmental weed’, ‘naturalised’ and ‘weed’ in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012). The species reproduces both by seeds, which are numerous (Acevedo-Rodriguez, 1996), and by adventitious roots which form colonies (Roe, 1979). It is known to be an invasive cultivation escape in Queensland, Australia and is naturalized in parts of the tropics including New South Wales and Northern Territory, Australia (Randall, 2007; 2012). Other places where the species is a known weed include Puerto Rico (Liogier and Martorell, 2000; Randall, 2012), West Africa (Jaeger and Hepper, 1986), New Guinea (Symon, 1986), China and Taiwan (Randall, 2012).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Solanales
  •                         Family: Solanaceae
  •                             Genus: Solanum
  •                                 Species: Solanum erianthum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Solanaceae, the Nightshade family, consists of 90 genera and 3000-4000 species with great variation in habit and distribution on all continents except Antarctica, with the majority of species diversity in Central and South America (PBI Solanum Project, 2014).

Solanum is one of the largest genera of vascular plants with 1000-1500 species, around 1000 of which are speculated to be of American origin (Hunziker, 1979). Taxonomy of the genus and its seven subgenera have undergone many revisions, but the overall genus consists of herbs, shrubs, trees, or herbaceous or woody vines, usually with spines or prickles, glabrous or pubescent with simple or stellate hairs (Acevedo-Rodriguez, 1996). The Solanum genus includes the wild potato, S. tuberosum, the tomato, S. lycopersicum, and the eggplant, S. melongena, with many other members cultivated for medicinal and ornamental uses. While the etymology of the genus’ scientific name is unclear, it may be derived from the Latin word “sol”, meaning "sun," referring to its affinity for sunlight, or from the Latin word “solare”, meaning "to soothe”, the Latin word “solamen”, meaning "a comfort", or the Akkadian word “sululu”, meaning “happy”, in reference to the narcotic effects of some Solanum species after ingestion (Smith, 1971; Wiart, 2006; Quattrocchi, 2012; NZPCN, 2014).

The genus Solanum has been divided into seven subgenera, which are further divided into sections and subsections. S. erianthum belongs to the subsection Brevantherum, within the subgenus Solanum. This species was originally named Solanum verbascifolium by Linnaeus in 1753, but during revisions of the genus Roe (1968, 1972) discovered that the type specimen for the species did not actually belong within the subsection Brevantherum or even within the subgenus Solanum. Roe applied the next prior name, S. erianthum D . Don (Roe, 1972). The name S. verbascifolium continued to be erroneously used within publications and herbaria, however, until D’Arcy proposed to reject the name in favour of the current name, S. erianthum, in 1986 (D’Arcy, 1986a). The species name erianthum is derived from the Greek words “eryon” meaning “wooly” and “anthos” meaning “flower”, referring to the dense hairs found on its flowers (Smith, 1971; Harrison, 2012).

Description

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Evergreen shrub 1.5-2.5 m tall; stems stellate-tomentulose, nearly cylindrical, becoming glabrous. Leaf blades 6-20 x 4-12 cm, ovate to nearly lanceolate, chartaceous, stellate-tomentulose, especially beneath, the apex acute, obtuse, or seldom rounded, the base obtuse to rounded, usually unequal, the margins entire; petioles 1.5-5.5 cm long, stout, stellate-tomentulose. Flowers in terminal (appearing as axillary) bifid cymes; pedicels stout, 3-5, 4-6 mm long, stellate-tomentulose. Calyx bell-shaped, ca. 5 mm long, stellate-tomentulose, the sepals triangular; corolla white, widely bell-shaped, ca. 5 mm long, deeply lobed, stellate-tomnetulose without, the tube greenish within, the lobes ovate, spreading to reflexed; anthers connivent, yellow, oblong, ca. 2.7 mm long; style exerted beyond the anthers, slender, the stigma nearly capitate. Berry leathery, globose, 1-1.2 cm long, sparsely to densely covered with minute, stellate hairs, turning from green to yellowish, with brown spots. Seeds numerous, reddish brown, lenticular, ca. 1.7 mm long. [Acevedo-Rodriguez, 1996].

Plant Type

Top of page Perennial
Shrub
Tree
Woody

Distribution

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S. erianthum is widely distributed across both Old and New World tropics, and is considered native to the southern United States (Florida and Texas), Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (USDA-NRCS, 2014), as well as Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Trinidad, and parts of South America (Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012). According to Deb (1979), the species is considered to be native in India and Nigeria, although D’Arcy (1986b) and Jain and Borthakur (1986) reported it to be an introduction to India. It is now also present in Asia, Africa, and Asia-Pacific, and is known to be weedy in some of these places (Randall, 2012). Although native to the Americas, it has been reported to hardly penetrate into South America (Flora of Panama, 2014); the species is not included, for example, in Forzza et al.’s (2010) flora of Brazil or Funk et al.’s (2007) flora of the Guiana Shield.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

LiberiaPresentPlants of Nimba Mountains (2014)Nimba Mountains
NigeriaPresentNativeGbile (1979)

Asia

BhutanPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)
ChinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014); CABI (Undated)
-FujianPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
-GuangxiPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
-HainanPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
-SichuanPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
-TibetPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
-YunnanPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
IndiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentIntroducedJain and Borthakur (1986)
-AssamPresentIntroducedJain and Borthakur (1986)
JapanPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)
MyanmarPresentKress et al. (2003)
NepalPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014); CABI (Undated)
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedModise and Mogotsi (2008)
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)
TaiwanPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014); CABI (Undated);

North America

BahamasPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); USDA-ARS (2014)Probably native
BelizePresentFlora Mesoamericana (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)
British Virgin IslandsPresentAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)Tortola
Costa RicaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014); Flora of Nicaragua (2014)
CubaPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); USDA-ARS (2014)Probably native
Dominican RepublicPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); USDA-ARS (2014)Probably native
El SalvadorPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); USDA-ARS (2014)Probably native
GuatemalaPresentFlora Mesoamericana (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)
HaitiPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)Probably native
HondurasPresentFlora Mesoamericana (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)
JamaicaPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)Probably native
MexicoPresentFlora Mesoamericana (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)Yucatan, Chiapas, Campeche, Quintana Roo
NicaraguaPresentFlora of Nicaragua (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)Common across country
PanamaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
Puerto RicoPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); USDA-ARS (2014)Probably native
Trinidad and TobagoPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)Probably native. Trinidad
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)Probably native. St. Croix, St. John, St Thomas
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
-TexasPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedInvasiveRandall (2012)
-Northern TerritoryPresentIntroducedInvasiveRandall (2012)
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedInvasiveRandall (2012)
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedInvasiveSymon (1986)

South America

ColombiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014); Vascular Plants of Antioquia (2014)
EcuadorPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Galapagos IslandsPresentVascular Plants of Ecuador (2014)Concepción
ParaguayPresentCABI (Undated)Concepcion; Original citation: Paraguay Checklist (2014)

History of Introduction and Spread

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The origin of the species S. erianthum is unclear, but it is considered native to the Americas and naturalized in the Old World (Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012: USDA-ARS, 2014). It was spread in the sixteenth century by the Spanish galleons across tropical regions around the world including Southeast Asia, mainland Asia and Australia via the Philippines (Symon, 1979; Hanelt et al., 2001; Modise and Mogotsi, 2008). It may have been introduced to West Africa at the time of the slave trade (Modise and Mogotsi, 2008).

Taxonomic changes make it difficult to trace the species’ history of introduction, as literature prior to the revisions of Roe (1972) and D’Arcy (1986a) had used the name S. verbascifolium to describe both S. erianthum and other Solanum species (D’Arcy, 1986a). However, D’Arcy (1986a) listed several key publications in which he identified descriptions for S. erianthum. In the West Indies, the species was present in St. John by 1852 as it was included in Knox’s (1852) work on the West Indies. The species was recorded for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands by 1926 (Britton and Wilson, 1926), and for Trinidad and Tobago by 1953 (Baker and Simmonds, 1953). In Asia the species was present in the ‘East Indies’ by 1837 (Nees von Esenbeck, 1837), having apparently been introduced across Southeast Asia by Portuguese and Spanish traders via the Philippines (Symon, 1979). In Australia, the species may have been introduced from Southeast Asia to northern Australia (Symon and Clarkson, 1985) and was present in the country by 1869 (Bentham and Mueller, 1869). It was observed growing in Siam (Thailand) by 1954 (Craig and Kerr, 1954).

Risk of Introduction

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Risk of introduction for S. erianthum is moderate to high, as the species has demonstrated a history of invasiveness, cultivation escape, and weediness (Randall, 2012). It is included in the Taiwan Invasive Species Database (2014) and possesses invasive traits including self-compatibility and reproduction by both seed and adventitious shoots that form large colonies (Roe, 1979), as well as prolific seed production and a widespread distribution across both Old and New World tropics.

Habitat

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Members of the section Brevantherum are colonizers of open ground including forest clearings, stream borders, and disturbed areas (Roe, 1979). S. erianthum seems adapted to a range of diverse habitats as it can be found in wet lowlands of Mexico as well as on dry coral limestone in southern Florida (Roe, 1979). The species occurs in sunny localities, in brushwood, roadsides, gardens, fields, on waste ground, and in edges of fields and forests, and prefers a well-drained soil and lower elevations (Roe, 1979; Modise and Mogotsi, 2008). In Pakistan the species is sometimes found growing as a small tree in the sub-Himalayan tract and adjacent plains (Flora of Pakistan, 2014).

In St. John (Virgin Islands) S. erianthum is an occasional shrub of open disturbed areas (Acevedo-Rodriguez, 1996), and in Ghana it is frequently encountered as one of the pioneer species of degraded mining sites (Modise and Mogotsi, 2008). In Nigeria the species habitat is similar to that of S. torvum, growing quickly in abandoned clearings and thus can be commonly found in exploited parts of forest reserves, old farmland and cocoa plantations (Gbile, 1979). Likewise in Nicaragua and New Guinea, the species can be found in disturbed sites, rough pasture, and forestry areas (Symon, 1986; Flora of Nicaragua, 2014). In Taiwan, it is found both along roadsides and riverbanks (Flora of Taiwan Editorial Committee, 2014) and in China it can be found in waste places and thickets (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Wetlands Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome count for S. erianthum is 2n=24 (Modise and Mogotsi, 2008; IPCN Chromosome Reports, 2014). The species does not appear to hybridize with other species within its section; as of 1979, in places of overlapping habitats such as in southern Mexico, S. erianthum reportedly maintained ecological isolation from a relative,S. axillifolium, with only one putative hybrid between the two collected (Roe, 1979).

Reproductive Biology and Phenology

S. erianthum is self-compatible and reproduction is both by seed and by adventitious shoots from shallow roots, which can result in the formation of large colonies (Roe, 1979). In some places the species flowers and fruits nearly throughout the year (Flora of Pakistan, 2014; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014).

Environmental Requirements

S. erianthum prefers well-drained soil (Modise and Mogotsi, 2008) but has been observed growing in a diverse range of soil types, from volcanic talus to wet lowlands to dry coral limestone (Roe, 1979). Solanum species appear to adapt to a huge diversity of environments, ranging from some of the wettest forests in the world to the driest deserts, and likewise have a huge altitudinal range, from sea level to over 4500 m (PBI Solanum Project, 2014). In Nigeria, S. erianthum is restricted to low altitudes and moist forest zones (Gbile, 1979), and in Colombia, it can be found at altitudes of 0-1000 m in humid tropical forests (Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014). Likewise in Galapagos the species is found at 0-1000 m (Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014). In Pakistan it has been found in plains and submontane environments at altitudes up to 1600 m (Flora of Pakistan, 2014), in Nepal, at slightly higher ranges of 200-1400 m (Nepal Checklist, 2014), and in China, between 300 and 2100 m (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014).

According to the USDA Plants Database, in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain and the Great Plains of North America, S. erianthum is a ‘facultative hydrophyte’, meaning it can occur in both wetlands and non-wetlands, but in the Caribbean it is an ‘obligate nonhydrophyte’, meaning it almost never occurs in wetlands (USDA-NRCS, 2014).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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S. erianthum has been intentionally cultivated for food and medicine (Hanelt et al., 2001) and unintentionally as a cultivation escape (Randall, 2012). The species S. erianthum produces bright yellow berries, which may suggest birds as a vector of seed dispersal across the species’ wide distribution range (Roe, 1979). It may have been dispersed to northem Australia by fruit pigeons or flying foxes following an early Spanish or Portuguese introduction from Central America to the Philippines (Symon, 1979; Symon and Clarkson, 1985).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Disturbance Yes Yes
Escape from confinement or garden escapeKnown to have escaped cultivation Yes Randall, 2012
Flooding and other natural disastersGrows along riverbanks in Taiwan Yes Flora of Taiwan Editorial Committee, 2014; Roe, 1979
Hitchhiker Yes Roe, 1979
Medicinal useUsed in local folk medicine, especially in South-east Asia and Asia-Pacific Yes Modise and Mogotsi, 2008; Wiart, 2006

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Floating vegetation and debrisGrows along riverbanks in Taiwan Yes Flora of Taiwan Editorial Committee, 2014; Roe, 1979
Soil, sand and gravelSpecies can spread by adventitious shoots Yes Roe, 1979
WaterGrows along riverbanks in Taiwan Yes Flora of Taiwan Editorial Committee, 2014; Roe, 1979

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Environment (generally) Negative
Human health Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

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S. erianthum has a negative environmental impact in places where it is known to be an alien weed, such as Australia (Randall, 2007; 2012), West Africa (Jaeger and Hepper, 1986), and New Guinea (Symon, 1986). It is a pioneering species, spreads quickly, and has the ability to form large colonies, as it reproduces by both seed and adventitious shoots (Roe, 1979), thus competing for space and resources. It is also highly adaptable to different environments, as it has been found in both dry deserts and wet forests (Roe, 1979). Considering its worldwide distribution, the species poses a threat to native biodiversity.

Social Impact

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S. erianthum contains alkaloids which have both medicinal and toxic properties, and can thus positively and negatively impact human activity and health.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition (unspecified)
  • Poisoning

Uses

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Various Solanaceae species are used for food, medical, and ritual purposes around the world. Like many members of the Solanaceae family, S. erianthum contains bioconstituents which are both highly toxic to humans and medicinally useful. This particular species possesses steroidal saponins and steroidal alkaloids that are used in the pharmaceutical industry as steroid precursors to produce anti-inflammatory corticosteroids, contraceptive steroids, and anabolic steroids (Modise and Mogotsi, 2008). Extreme caution must be taken, as many Solanaceae species are known to be acutely toxic due to these alkaloidal properties and have a long history of use as both human poisons and hallucinogens, especially in shaman and witch lore (PBI Solanum Project, 2014).

Essential oils in the fruits and leaves of S. erianthum have been studied for their cytotoxicity (Essien et al., 2012) as well as their traditional uses in medicine, especially for skin diseases and stomach-related ailments. Medicinal purposes of the plant in Asia-Pacific include treatment for dysentery in the Philippines and Taiwan, intestinal pain relief in Taiwan and Malaysia, and a poison antidote and mouth sore treatment in the Solomon Islands (Wiart, 2006). In India, among tribes in the Madurai District of Tamil Nadu, a decoction of boiled fruit is used for toothache, and raw fruits are crushed and applied topically to avoid leech-bites (Ignacimuthu et al., 2006), while in Assam the roots have reportedly been used in a paste combined with Manihot esculenta for skin sores (Jain and Borthakur, 1986). In West Africa, a decoction of the leaves is used as a diuretic and purgative to cure malaria, leprosy and venereal diseases and to stimulate the liver functions (Modise and Mogotsi, 2008). In Pakistan, dried herbage mixed in water is said to be good for inflammation and burns (Flora of Pakistan, 2014). In Oaxaca, Mexico, the plant is known to be used as an oral analgesic for stomach ache and as a cutaneous antimicrobial agent (Villa-Ruano et al., 2013). In the Amazon, the leaves of the species are used for washing clothes, but the plant is known to also cause skin rashes (Mabberly, 2008). In the Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India, the species is reportedly eaten (Jain and Borthakur, 1986), and the fruit is reportedly used in Indian curries (Hanelt et al., 2001). 

Uses List

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Human food and beverage

  • Fruits
  • Spices and culinary herbs

Materials

  • Pesticide

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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More research is needed for this species regarding diagnosis, prevention and control, especially as S. erianthum is known to be widespread and has the potential to negatively impact native biodiversity, considering its invasive traits. Analysis of the current ecological and economic impacts of the species would provide basis for strategizing and implementing prevention and control measures. Also, considering its status as a member of the Solanaceae family and known alkaloidal properties, S. erianthum should be researched for negative side effects of its popular medicinal uses.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 1996. Flora of St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 78:1-581.

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Baker RED; Simmonds NW, 1953. Solanaceae. Flora of Trinidad & Tobago, 2(4):241-272.

Bello Espinosa D, 1881. [English title not available]. (Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. Primera parte.) Anal. Soc. Española de Hist. Nat, 10:231-304.

Bentham G; Mueller F, 1869. Flora Australiensis. London, UK: Reeve & Co.

Britton NL; Wilson P, 1926. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and Virgin Islands. Volumen VI. New York, USA: Academy of Sciences, 629 pp.

Craig WG; Kerr AFG, 1954. Solanaceae. Florae siamensis enumeratio, 3(1).

D'Arcy WG, 1986. Proposal to Reject Solanum verbascifolium L. (Solanaceae). Taxon, 35(2):393-395.

D'Arcy WG, 1986. The Human Interaction. In: Solanaceae: Biology and Systematics. Papers from the International Symposium on the Biology and Systematics of the Solanaceae [ed. by D'Arcy, W. G.]. New York, USA: Columbia University Press, 567-568.

Deb DB, 1979. Solanaceae in India. In: The Biology and taxonomy of the Solanaceae [ed. by Hawkes, J. G. \Lester, R. N. \Skelding, A. D.]. London, UK: Academic Press, 87-112.

Essien EE; Ogunwande IA; Setzer WN; Ekundayo O, 2012. Chemical composition, antimicrobial, and cytotoxicity studies on S. erianthum and S. macranthum essential oils. Pharmaceutical Biology, 50(4):474-480. http://journalsonline.tandf.co.uk/link.asp?id=103117

Flora Mesoamericana, 2014. Flora Mesoamericana. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FM

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Nicaragua, 2014. Flora of Nicaragua, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx?projectid=7

Flora of Pakistan, 2014. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

Flora of Panama, 2014. Flora of Panama (WFO), Tropicos website. St. Louis, MO and Cambridge, MA, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FOPWFO

Flora of Taiwan Editorial Committee, 2014. Digital flora of Taiwan, eFloras website. St. Louis, MO and Cambridge, MA, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=100

Forzza R, 2010. List of species of the Flora of Brazil (Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil). http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2012/

Funk V; Hollowell T; Berry P; Kelloff C; Alexander SN, 2007. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 584 pp.

Gbile ZO, 1979. Solanum in Nigeria. In: The Biology and taxonomy of the Solanaceae [ed. by Hawkes, J. G. \Lester, R. N. \Skelding, A. D.]. London, UK: Published for the Linnean Society of London by Academic Press, 113-120.

Hanelt P; Buttner R; Mansfeld R, 2001. Mansfeld's Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops (except Ornamentals). Berlin, Germany: Springer.

Harrison L, 2012. Latin for gardeners: Over 3,000 plant names explained and explored. Chicago, USA: The University of Chicago Press, 224 pp.

Hawkes JG; Lester RN; Skelding AD, 1979. The Biology and Taxonomy of the Solanaceae. London, UK: Academic Press.

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Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Flora Mesoamericana, 2014. Flora Mesoamericana., St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FM

Flora of Nicaragua, 2014. Flora of Nicaragua, Tropicos website., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx?projectid=7

Gbile ZO, 1979. Solanum in Nigeria. In: The Biology and taxonomy of the Solanaceae, [ed. by Hawkes JG, Lester RN, Skelding AD]. London, UK: Published for the Linnean Society of London by Academic Press. 113-120.

Jain SK, Borthakur SK, 1986. Solanaceae in Indian Tradition, Folklore, and Medicine. In: Solanaceae: Biology and Systematics. Papers from the International Symposium on the Biology and Systematics of the Solanaceae, [ed. by D'Arcy WG]. New York, USA: Columbia University Press. 577-584.

Kress WJ, Defilipps RA, Farr E, Kyi DYY, 2003. A checklist of the trees, shrubs, herbs, and climbers of Myanmar. In: Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 45 1-590.

Modise DM, Mogotsi KK, 2008. Solanum erianthum D. Record from PROTA4U. In: PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa / Ressources végétales de l'Afrique tropicale), [ed. by Schmelzer GH, Gurib-Fakim A]. Wageningen, Netherlands: PROTA. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp

Plants of Nimba Mountains, 2014. Nimba Mountains Plant Database, Tropicos., St. Louis, MO, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Nimba

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds., Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia. 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Symon D E, 1986. Solanaceae in New Guinea. In: Solanaceae: biology and systematics, [ed. by D'Arcy W G]. New York, USA: Columbia University Press. 91-96.

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of the Department of Antioquia (Colombia), Tropicos website., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/CV

Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador, Tropicos website., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/CE

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indieshttp://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm
Check list of Myanmar Plantshttp://botany.si.edu/myanmar/
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
National Science Foundation Solanaceae Sourcehttp://solanaceaesource.org/

Contributors

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24/08/2014 Original text by:

Marianne Jennifer Datiles, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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