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Senna bacillaris
(whitebark senna)

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Datasheet

Senna bacillaris (whitebark senna)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Senna bacillaris
  • Preferred Common Name
  • whitebark senna
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • S. bacillaris is a shrub or small tree which has been widely cultivated across both Old and New World tropics, and can become weedy in disturbed forest, along hedges and in abandoned fields or orchards (...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Senna bacillaris (L.f.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby

Preferred Common Name

  • whitebark senna

Other Scientific Names

  • Bactyrilobium bacillare (L. f.) Hornem.
  • Cassia bacillaris L.f.
  • Cathartocarpus bacillaris (L. f.) Pers.
  • Chamaefistula bacillaris (L.f.) G. Don

International Common Names

  • English: climbing cassia; West Indian showertree
  • Spanish: matarro chico

Local Common Names

  • El Salvador: moco
  • Lesser Antilles: canéfice; casse-hallier; casse-savane; Christmas blossom; Christmas bush; sou-marqué
  • Montserrat: Christmas blossom; Christmas bush
  • Puerto Rico: sen de palillos (antiquated)
  • Sri Lanka: wal ehela (Sinhala)

Summary of Invasiveness

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S. bacillaris is a shrub or small tree which has been widely cultivated across both Old and New World tropics, and can become weedy in disturbed forest, along hedges and in abandoned fields or orchards (Irwin and Barneby, 1982). Although the species does not seed well, and reportedly rarely escapes cultivation (ILDIS, 2014; Pelser et al., 2014), it possesses several traits that could indicate potential invasiveness including its ability to colonize disturbed areas and abundance in its native range. There remains a lack of invasiveness data for this Senna species which warrants further study.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Caesalpinioideae
  •                                 Genus: Senna
  •                                     Species: Senna bacillaris

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Until the beginning of the 1980s the genus Cassia was considered to be a very large genus of over 500 species. Bentham (1871) wrote that three groups within the Cassia genus were so distinct from one another that any species can always be unequivocally allocated to one of them; some main distinctions included fruit structure, stamen structure and arrangement, and nodulation (Lock, 1988). However it was not until 1982 that Irwin and Barneby formally separated Cassia into three genera: Cassia L. emend. Gaertner, Senna Miller, and Chamaecrista Moench; Cassia now has only about 30 species, whereas Senna and Chamaecrista comprise about equal numbers of species, about 260 and 270 respectively (Irwin and Barneby, 1982; Sosef and Maesen, 1997). These three genera are now largely accepted and together make up subtribe Cassinae. Cassia and Senna differ principally in stamen organization, and in arid areas of Australia, taxonomic distinctions between and within the three genera are blurred by polyploidy, hybridization and apoximis (Lewis et al., 2005). In 1988 Lock presented new names and combinations for the Cassinae species in Africa, noting that “if Cassia were to continue to be used in its broad sense in Africa, there would be several species which would be consistently given different names in different continents” (Lock, 1988).

Approximately 80% of the Senna genus’ 260 or so species occur in New World tropical and subtropical areas, extending into warm temperate and rarely into cool temperate areas of both hemispheres with species in Africa, Madagascar, Australia, and a few in southeastern Asia and the Pacific islands (Irwin and Barneby, 1982; Lock, 1988; Wagner et al., 2014).

There are two varieties of this species, S. bacillaris var. bacillaris and S. bacillaris var. benthamiana (J.F.Macbr.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby. S. bacillaris var. bacillaris is commonly cultivated (Smith, 1985). The distribution ranges for the two varieties do not always overlap and sometimes are distinct; in the Guiana Shield, for example, S. bacillaris var. benthamiana is only reported for Delta Amacuro, Venezuela, whereas S. bacillaris var. bacillaris occurs in Bolivar, Venezuela; Guyana; Surinam; and French Guiana (Funk et al., 2007).

Description

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A perennial erect or scandent shrub or small tree with gray or whitish trunks up to 6 cm diam, reaching heights of (2–)2.5-8.5 m. Young branchlets are hairy, pliant and often pendulous under the weight of flowers and pods. Leaflets, 4, are relatively large, hairy, bicoloured, dull or sublustrously olivaceous above and paler and sometimes subglaucescent beneath, the paniculate inflorescence terminal to branches, leafless or at base leafy-bracteate, sometimes when young appearing leafy-bracteate throughout but at maturity at least partly exserted and the primary axis then becoming abruptly zigzag or flexuous. Stipules are nearly always caduceus and small, 4.5-8(-20) x 0.4-1.3(3) mm, linear straight or falcately linear-oblanceolate acute. Leaves below inflorescence, 12-28(30) cm, petiole 1-2.4 mm diam. at middle, bluntly carinate dorsally and openly shallow-sulcate ventrally, with the sulcus widened upward to the proximal pair of leaflets, rachis glandular between proximal pairs of leaflets, with pulvinules (2-)2.5-6 mm. Racemes are solitary, 5-35-fld; flowers pale or golden-yellow, petals obovate to oblong-obovate. Sepals thinly herbaceous, greenish, yellowish, or re-flecked, the longest inner ones 8-11.5(-12.5) mm, palmately veined from base, sometimes obscurely so. Functional stamens 7, anthers of (2-)3 abaxial stamens obviously different from those of 4 median ones, their beak well over 1 mm long and porrect. Pod pendulous, cylindric, with sutures 1.2-2.6 mm wide but not differentiated externally and its valves densely granular-papillate. Pod dehiscence is follicular, before falling the valves gape to expose the seeds embedded in foetid pulp. Seeds are biseriate, turned broadside to the septa, compressed-ovid, 3.2-5.6 x 2.2-3.5 mm (Irwin and Barneby, 1982).

There are several closely related species to S. bacillaris, but the syndrome of characters that defines S. bacillaris sens. lat. consists of: a) reticulately venulose plane-margined leaflets, the proximal pair half-cordate at the strongly oblique base; b) a paniculate inflorescence with abruptly flexuous primary axis; c) relatively large sepals and petals; d) 1-pored abaxial anthers; e) a multiovulate pod broadly margined along the sutures; and f) biseriate, faintly areolate seeds (Irwin and Barneby, 1982).

Plant Type

Top of page Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Tree
Vine / climber
Woody

Distribution

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S. bacillaris is considered native to Central and South America and perhaps the West Indies and is now widely cultivated in managed areas of tropical and subtropical climate zones (Irwin and Barneby, 1982; ITIS, 2014; JSTOR Global Plants, 2014).

Irwin and Barneby (1982) describe the distribution ranges of both S. bacillaris var. bacillaris  and S. bacillaris var. benthamiana: S. bacillaris var. bacillaris is found in parts of Venezuela on the Gran Sabana (Bolivar) and in Brazil, Cordillera Costanera (Distrito Federal and Miranda) and upper Rio Branco, and is widely dispersed around the south circumference of the Caribbean and in northeast South America, from southern Nicaragua (Chontales) through Costa Rica (rare), Panama (common and in nearly all provinces), Colombia (from latitude 6 N northwards), to Trinidad and Windward Islands (St. Vincent, Martinique), with reports of its occurrence in Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands (St. Thomas) and a long history of garden cultivation in both Old and New World tropics (Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Florida, Hawaii, Java, and East Africa). S. bacillaris var. benthamiana is widely dispersed over middle and upper Amazonian Hylaea, in Brazil from west Para (Obidos) west and southwest to Ecuador (Santiago-Zamora and Napo-Pastaza), and Colombia (north to east Boyaca and reaching the headwaters of Rio Meta), from Brazil extending north through the Negro-Vaupes valley into the upper Orinoco basin in Amazonas and Apure, Venezuela, and in Colombia across the eastern Cordillera to middle Magdalena valley (Antioquia and Santander) (Irwin and Barneby, 1982).

There is disagreement between authorities on native status in several places. Broome et al. (2007) and USDA-ARS (2014) list the species as native to Martinique, Puerto Rico, and St Vincent and the Grenadines, but the species is considered exotic to these places in the Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012).

In the Caribbean, S. bacillaris was observed in Trinidad in 1868 by Thomas William Carre on a voyage with William Tucker (Prestoe, 1869). The New York Botanical Garden (NYBG) herbarium contains early specimens demonstrating the species’ presence throughout Central and South America and the Caribbean in the mid-19th century; these include specimens collected in the 1840s (South America- Suriname, by Berthoud-Coulon), 1860 (Central America- Panama, by S. Hayes), and 1883 (Puerto Rico, by von Eggers). Earliest specimens of the species in the US National Herbarium date from 1920 to 1921, collected by N.L. Britton in Trinidad and Tobago.

The species was recorded for Puerto Rico in 1881, although no information is provided on the status of the species (Bello Espinosa, 1881); following von Eggers’ 1883 specimen in NYBG the species was also recorded in Puerto Rico by Cook and Collins (1903) as a “trailing herb growing in waste places both in the lowlands and in the mountains”. It was observed in Bermuda by Verrill in 1902 and included in his flora of the islands (Verrill, 1902). The species was also recorded (as Chamaefistula bacillaris) for Puerto Rico, St. Vincent, Trinidad and Tobago by Britton and Wilson (1924).

S. bacillaris was reportedly a recent introduction to the Asia Pacific region in 1923 as an ornamental, according to Merrill’s works on Philippine flowering plants, and continues to be planted for this purpose (Merrill, 1923; Pelser et al., 2014). The species may have been introduced to Sri Lanka as early as 1824, as Moon included its vernacular name, wal-ehela, in his catalogue (1824), although this might refer to another Senna species, S. surattensis; Moon identified the plant as Cassia glauca (Poorten and Poorten, 2012). The species was present in Sumatra, Indonesia by 1936, as samples were collected by Rahmat Si Boeea sometime between 1927 and 1936 (US National Herbarium). Citing De Wit and Backer, ILDIS (2014) reports that the species is native to Java and Sulawesi; however, this is uncertain due to its known American origin. The species is more likely to be naturalised in these places.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

GhanaPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
KenyaPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014); JSTOR Global Plants (2014)
MauritiusPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
Sierra LeonePresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014); JSTOR Global Plants (2014)
UgandaPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014); JSTOR Global Plants (2014)

Asia

ChinaPresentFlora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
-JavaPresentILDIS (2014)
-SulawesiPresentILDIS (2014)
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedMerrill (1923)"recent introduction"; First reported: before 1923
SingaporePresentIntroducedILDIS (2014)

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentNativeBroome et al. (2007); Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
BermudaPresentVerrill (1902)
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)Tortola
Costa RicaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014); CABI (Undated)
DominicaPresentNativeBroome et al. (2007); Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
El SalvadorPresentFlora Mesoamericana (2014)
GrenadaPresentNativeBroome et al. (2007); Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
GuadeloupePresentNativeBroome et al. (2007); Young (2008)
GuatemalaPresentFlora Mesoamericana (2014)
HondurasPresentFlora Mesoamericana (2014)
JamaicaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
MartiniquePresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); Broome et al. (2007)
MontserratPresentNativeBroome et al. (2007); Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
NicaraguaPresentNativeFlora of Nicaragua (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)Southern part of the country (USDA-ARS).
PanamaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014); CABI (Undated)Bocas del Toro, Canal Area, Chiriquí, Coclé, Los Santos, Panamá
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); USDA-ARS (2014)
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentNativeBroome et al. (2007); Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); Broome et al. (2007); USDA-ARS (2014)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
-HawaiiPresentILDIS (2014)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedRandall (2007)
FijiPresentIntroducedSmith (1985)First reported: before 1985
Papua New GuineaPresentNativeILDIS (2014)

South America

BoliviaPresentNativeCABI (Undated); Lowlands, Andes; Tarija. Also found in Madidi National Park.
BrazilPresentILDIS (2014)
-AmazonasPresentNativeForzza (2010)Native, but not endemic
-BahiaPresentNativeForzza (2010)Native, but not endemic
-ParaPresentNativeForzza (2010)Native, but not endemic
-RoraimaPresentNativeForzza (2010)Native, but not endemic
ColombiaPresentNativeVascular Plants of Antioquia (2014)Municipios: Abejorral, Amalfi, Anorí, Fredonia, Maceo, Nariño, Puerto Berrío, Remedios, San Carlos, San Luis, San Rafael, Santo Domingo, Segovia, Yolombó.
EcuadorPresentNativeVascular Plants of Ecuador (2014)Morona-Santiago, Napo, Pastaza, Sucumbíos, Zamora-Chinchipe; also found in protected areas of Cordillera del Cóndor, Jatun Sacha.
French GuianaPresentFunk et al. (2007)
GuyanaPresentNativeFunk et al. (2007); USDA-ARS (2014)
PeruPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
SurinamePresentNativeFunk et al. (2007); USDA-ARS (2014)Northern part of the country.
VenezuelaPresentNativeFunk et al. (2007); USDA-ARS (2014); CABI (Undated)Bolivar (as Senna bacillaris var. bacillaris); Amazonas (as Senna bacillaris var. benthamiana) (Funk et al, 2007).

Risk of Introduction

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Risk of introduction of this species is low, although deliberate introduction could help the naturalized population to spread. Further research is needed as data is lacking. S. bacillaris does not seed well and reportedly rarely escapes cultivation (ILDIS, 2014; Pelser et al., 2014). However, it has been widely introduced beyond its native range to other tropical and subtropical regions in Asia and Africa, and given the weed status of many other members of the Senna genus, it should be monitored for its potential impact on native flora, particularly in areas where it is cultivated (JSTOR Global Plants, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014).

Habitat

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S. bacillaris has been widely cultivated in tropical regions, usually at lower altitudes, and grows well in non-flooded, moist tropical forest, in wet or moist regions, often in secondary growth, and along rocky stream banks (Standley and Steyermark, 1946; US National Herbarium). The species is also cultivated in gardens in Puerto Rico, as well as in other places it has been deliberately introduced to, and is present in thickets at forest margins and along roadsides (Liogier and Martorell, 2000). In Nicaragua, the species grows in forest margins, thickets, and coastal areas (Flora of Nicaragua, 2014).

Irwin and Barneby (1982) make habitat distinctions between varieties: while S. bacillaris var. bacillaris occurs in margins of woods, thickets, along streams and hedges, and in abandoned fields or orchards, S. bacillaris var. benthamiana can be found in forest margins, bush-islands in savannah and gallery woodland, foothills and headwaters of rivers, as well as seasonally flooded land (varzea and creek-banks).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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S. bacillaris generally grows best at lower altitudes between 0 and 2000 m, although the range varies slightly between countries. In Antioquia, Colombia, it is found in premontane and tropical humid to very humid forests and tropical dry forests at altitudes of 0-1500 m (Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014). In Panama, the species is found at altitudes of 0-1000 m, while in Nicaragua, it is found at altitudes of 100-200 m (Flora of Nicaragua, 2014; Panama Checklist, 2014). In Bolivia, S. bacillaris occurs in rain forest and dry valleys, and has been found at elevations of 0-500 and 1500-2000 m (Bolivia Checklist, 2014). The species is found in the Amazonian region of Ecuador at altitudes of 0-1000 m (Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014). 

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • seasonally waterlogged

Notes on Natural Enemies

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S. bacillaris and related species are often infested with “savage ants that feed upon a viscid exudate from the branches” (Standley and Steyermark, 1946), although these may not be enemies of the plant and on the contrary, may protect the plant from herbivory.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Dispersal is by seeds, although the species reportedly does not seed well (ILDIS, 2014). The pods are dehiscent to allow for seed dispersal (Irwin and Barneby, 1982).

Pathway Causes

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Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSpecies used by humans as medicine Yes
Machinery and equipment Yes Yes
Soil, sand and gravel Yes Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Environment (generally) Negative

Environmental Impact

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Little or no information is yet available on the species’ impact on environments, although it has been identified as a weedy species in disturbed areas (Irwin and Barneby, 1982).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Members of the Senna genus are commonly used in Southeast Asia for medicinal purposes, especially in the treatment of skin problems and as a laxative or purgative (Toruan-Purba, 1999). In the Amazon, an infusion of the flowers of S. bacillaris is used to wash swollen muscles caused by trauma, and the unripe fruit is crushed and applied as a poultice onto infected wounds, while the tip of the fruit is cut and squeezed onto less serious wounds (Duke and Vasquez, 1994). Other Senna species have been studied for the medicinal constituents in their roots, bark, and leaves. The species also has attractive, bright yellow flowers, and as a result has been widely introduced and cultivated as an ornamental outside of its native range.

Uses List

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General

  • Ornamental

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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S. bacillaris has often been confused with S. fruticosa, which has smaller flowers, and S. papillosa, which is similar but easily distinguished by the distinctive pod, which is unmargined but densely pappilate overall. The legumes of S. hayesiana are similar to those of S. bacillaris, but the latter species is characterized by marginally revolute leaflets (Irwin and Barneby, 1982; Flora of Nicaragua, 2014).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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More research is needed on S. bacillaris’ invasiveness both in its native range of the Americas and throughout the tropics in order to better gauge the risk of introduction and spread of the species, especially considering its expanded range of habitats. Based on the existing literature, S. bacillaris exhibits low risk of invasiveness. The species’ presence should continue to be monitored within each country it occurs in, as other members of the Senna genus are listed as invasive and potentially harmful to biodiversity and native flora.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Bello Espinosa D, 1881. [English title not available]. (Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. Primera parte.) Anal. Soc. Española de Hist. Nat, 10:231-304.

Bentham G, 1871. Revision of the genus Cassia. Transactions of the Linnaean Society, London, 27:503-591.

Bolivia Checklist, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Bolivia, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx?projectid=13

Britton NL; Wilson P, 1924. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin islands, Volume V, Botany of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. New York Academy of Sciences, New York.

Broome R; Sabir K; Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Cook OF; Collins GN; United States National Museum, 1903. Economic plants of Porto Rico. [Contributions from the National Herbarium no 8.]

Duke JA; Vasquez R, 1994. Amazonian ethnobotanical dictionary. Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press.

Flora Mesoamericana, 2014. Flora Mesoamericana. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FM

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Nicaragua, 2014. Flora of Nicaragua, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx?projectid=7

Forzza R, 2010. List of species of the Flora of Brazil (Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil). http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2012/

Funk V; Hollowell T; Berry P; Kelloff C; Alexander SN, 2007. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 584 pp.

ILDIS, 2014. International Legume Database and Information Service. Reading, UK: School of Plant Sciences, University of Reading. http://www.ildis.org/

Irwin HS; Barneby RC, 1982. The American Cassiinae: a synoptical revision of Leguminosae tribe Cassieae subtribe Cassiinae in the New World. 1982, v + 918 pp.; Memoirs of the New York Botanical Gardens 35, 2 parts.

ITIS, 2014. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. http://www.itis.gov

JSTOR Global Plants, 2014. JSTOR Global Plants Database. Ann Arbor, MI and New York, NY, USA: JSTOR. http://plants.jstor.org/

Lewis GP; Schrire B; Mackinder B; Lock M, 2005. Legumes of the world. Richmond, USA: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 577 pp.

Liogier HA; Martorell LF, 2000. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis, 2nd edition revised. San Juan, Puerto Rico: La Editorial, University of Puerto Rico, 382 pp.

Lock JM, 1988. Cassia Sens. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) in Africa. Kew Bulletin, 43:333-342.

Madidi Checklist, 2014. List of the Flora of Madidi National Park, Bolivia (Listado de la Flora del Parque Nacional Madidi, Bolivia). St. Louis, MO, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/MDICHK

Merrill ED, 1923. An Enumeration of Philippine Flowering Plants. Vol. 2. Manila, Philippines: Bureau of printing. http://www.forgottenbooks.org/books/An_Enumeration_of_Philippine_Flowering_Plants_v2_1000888542

Moon A, 1824. A Catalogue of the indigenous and exotic plants growing in Ceylon: Also an outline of the Linnaean sexual system of Botany in the english and singhalese languages. Colombo, Sri Lanka: Wesleyan Mission Press. https://archive.org/details/acatalogueindig00moongoog

Panama Checklist, 2014. Flora of Panama Checklist, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/PAC

Pelser PB; Barcelona JF; Nickrent DL, 2014. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines. www.philippineplants.org

Peru Checklist, 2014. The Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PEC

Poorten Gvan der; Poorten Nvan der, 2012. Catopsilia scylla (Linnaeus, 1763): a new record for Sri Lanka with notes on its biology, life history and distribution (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera, 45:17-23. http://www.doylegroup.harvard.edu/~carlo/JRL/jrl.html

Prestoe H, 1869. Plants in the Royal Botanic Gardens., Trinidad: Scientific Association of Trinidad. https://archive.org/details/plantsinroyalbot00pres

Randall RP, 2007. The introduced flora of Australia and its weed status [ed. by Randall RP]. Glen Osmond, Australia: CRC for Australian Weed Management, iv + 524 pp.

Smith AC, 1985. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii, USA: National Tropical Botanic Gardens, 758 pp.

Standley PC; Steyermark JA, 1946. Flora of Guatemala. Fieldiana (Botany), 24(5).

The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.theplantlist.org

Toruan-Purba AV, 1999. Senna Miller. In: Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA) No. 12(1): Medicinal and poisonous plants 1 [ed. by Padua, L. S. de \Bunyapraphatsara, N. \Lemmens, R. H. M. J.]. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publisher.

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of the Department of Antioquia (Colombia), Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/CV

Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/CE

Verrill AE, 1902. The Bermuda islands: An account of their scenery, climate, productions, physiography, natural history and geology, with sketches of their discovery and early history, and the changes in their flora and fauna due to man. New Haven, Connecticut, USA: AE Verrill,, 548 pp.

Wagner WL; Herbst DR; Lorence DH, 2014. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands website. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution,. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/index.htm

Young RP, 2008. A biodiversity assessment of the Centre Hills, Montserrat. Durrell Conservation Monograph No. 1. Jersey: Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust. http://www.durrell.org/library/Document/Durrell_Cons_Monograph_1_Full_Report.pdf

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean., Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Flora Mesoamericana, 2014. Flora Mesoamericana., St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FM

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Nicaragua, 2014. Flora of Nicaragua, Tropicos website., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx?projectid=7

Forzza R, 2010. List of species of the Flora of Brazil. (Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil)., http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2012/

Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Alexander S N, 2007. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. 55, 584 pp.

ILDIS, 2014. International Legume Database and Information Service., Reading, UK: School of Plant Sciences, University of Reading. http://www.ildis.org/

JSTOR Global Plants, 2014. JSTOR Global Plants Database., Ann Arbor, MI; New York, NY, USA: JSTOR. http://plants.jstor.org/

Merrill E D, 1923. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants. Manila, Philippines: Bureau of Printing.

Randall R P, 2007. The introduced flora of Australia and its weed status. [ed. by Randall R P]. Glen Osmond, Australia: CRC for Australian Weed Management. iv + 524 pp.

Smith AC, 1985. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji., Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii, USA: National Tropical Botanic Gardens. 758 pp.

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of the Department of Antioquia (Colombia), Tropicos website., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/CV

Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador, Tropicos website., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/CE

Verrill AE, 1902. The Bermuda islands: An account of their scenery, climate, productions, physiography, natural history and geology, with sketches of their discovery and early history, and the changes in their flora and fauna due to man., New Haven, Connecticut, USA: AE Verrill. 548 pp.

Young RP, 2008. A biodiversity assessment of the Centre Hills, Montserrat. In: Durrell Conservation Monograph No. 1, Jersey, Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust. http://www.durrell.org/library/Document/Durrell_Cons_Monograph_1_Full_Report.pdf

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indieshttp://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Plants of the Eastern Caribbean Online Database (beta)http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Contributors

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02/04/2014 Original text by:

Marianne Jennifer Datiles, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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