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Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides
(Mexican flamevine)

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Datasheet

Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides (Mexican flamevine)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 02 June 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Mexican flamevine
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides is a vine species native to the Americas, from Mexico to the northern regions of South America, often cultivated for its showy flowers. It has been introduced in tropical and subtro...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides (Mexican flame vine, orange flowered senecio); flowers and leaves. Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 1999.
TitleFlowers and leaves
CaptionPseudogynoxys chenopodioides (Mexican flame vine, orange flowered senecio); flowers and leaves. Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 1999.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides (Mexican flame vine, orange flowered senecio); flowers and leaves. Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 1999.
Flowers and leavesPseudogynoxys chenopodioides (Mexican flame vine, orange flowered senecio); flowers and leaves. Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 1999.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides (Mexican flame vine, orange flowered senecio); flowers, and seed heads. Haiku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2001.
TitleFlowers
CaptionPseudogynoxys chenopodioides (Mexican flame vine, orange flowered senecio); flowers, and seed heads. Haiku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2001.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides (Mexican flame vine, orange flowered senecio); flowers, and seed heads. Haiku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2001.
FlowersPseudogynoxys chenopodioides (Mexican flame vine, orange flowered senecio); flowers, and seed heads. Haiku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2001.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides (Mexican flame vine, orange flowered senecio); habit, showing flowers and leaves. Ulumalu Haiku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionPseudogynoxys chenopodioides (Mexican flame vine, orange flowered senecio); habit, showing flowers and leaves. Ulumalu Haiku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides (Mexican flame vine, orange flowered senecio); habit, showing flowers and leaves. Ulumalu Haiku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
HabitPseudogynoxys chenopodioides (Mexican flame vine, orange flowered senecio); habit, showing flowers and leaves. Ulumalu Haiku, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides (Mexican flame vine, orange flowered senecio); habit, showing flowers, leaves and seedheads. Wailua, Maui, Hawaii, USA.  June 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionPseudogynoxys chenopodioides (Mexican flame vine, orange flowered senecio); habit, showing flowers, leaves and seedheads. Wailua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides (Mexican flame vine, orange flowered senecio); habit, showing flowers, leaves and seedheads. Wailua, Maui, Hawaii, USA.  June 2009.
HabitPseudogynoxys chenopodioides (Mexican flame vine, orange flowered senecio); habit, showing flowers, leaves and seedheads. Wailua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides (Kunth) Cabrera

Preferred Common Name

  • Mexican flamevine

Other Scientific Names

  • Gynoxys berlandieri DC.
  • Senecio chenopodioides Kunth
  • Senecio confusus Britten

International Common Names

  • English: flame vine; orange-flowered senecio

Local Common Names

  • Dominican Republic: bandera española; margarita australiana; margarita húngara
  • El Salvador: canutillo
  • Honduras: crespillo
  • Lesser Antilles: fle jon; trinidad vine
  • Mexico: golondrina; maloko; maluco; mamaluca

Summary of Invasiveness

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Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides is a vine species native to the Americas, from Mexico to the northern regions of South America, often cultivated for its showy flowers. It has been introduced in tropical and subtropical regions as a garden ornamental and for ground cover, from where it has successfully escaped from cultivation and can now be found naturalized along roadsides, forest edges, moist thickets and disturbed sites. P. chenopodioides is an aggressive plant that spreads extensively and quickly colonizes new habitats. Once established, it climbs over adjacent vegetation and forms a dense blanket of stems and leaves that shade-out native plant species. It has been listed as invasive in Anguilla and Hawaii, and as potentially invasive in Florida and Galapagos Islands.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Asterales
  •                         Family: Asteraceae
  •                             Genus: Pseudogynoxys
  •                                 Species: Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Pseudogynoxys is a Neotropical genus comprising about 14 species of scandent herbs. In previous treatments, Pseudogynoxys species were placed within the genus Senecio and treated as a subgenus. However, Pseudogynoxys species differ from Senecio in two main characters: they have a scandent habit, whereas Senecio is erect or nearly so; and they have sterile triangular to acuminate style branch appendages tipped by a fringe or tuft of papillae, not the common fertile truncate ones with a crown of papillae found in Senecio. Based on these differences, and subsequent phylogenetic analyses, Pseudogynoxys is now ranked as a separate genus (Pruski, 1996Pelser et al., 2007; Davidse et al., 2018).

Description

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The following description is adapted from Acevedo-Rodríguez (2005):

Herbaceous vine, twining, 10-12 m in length. Stems striate, subcylindrical, glabrous or puberulous. Leaves alternate; blades 5-8 × 2.5-5 cm, lanceolate, membranaceous, the apex acuminate or acute, the base truncate, obtuse, or slightly cordiform, frequently unequal, the margins dentate-mucronate; upper surface dull, glabrous; lower surface dull, glabrous, with prominent venation; petioles 1.5-2.2 cm long. Capitula 2-6, pedunculate, in terminal corymbiform cymes; peduncles 2-5 cm long, puberulous; involucre crateriform, ca. 6 mm long, the phyllaries green, lanceolate, ca. 4 mm long. Disc flowers with yellow tubular corollas, 9-10 mm long; stigmatic branches yellow. Ray flowers with orange corollas, ligulate, the ligule elliptical, retuse at the apex, 2-2.5 cm long. Achenes turbinate, hispidulous, 4 mm long; pappus of numerous white bristles, 5-7 mm long, scabrous

Plant Type

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Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vine / climber

Distribution

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Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides is native to Mexico, Central America and the northern region of South America. It can be found cultivated and naturalized in the Caribbean, United States, India, Singapore and on several islands in the Pacific Ocean (Broome et al., 2007; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2018; USDA-NRCS, 2018).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 06 May 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

IndiaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFlowers of India (2018)
-DelhiPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFlowers of India (2018)
SingaporePresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al. (2009)

North America

AnguillaPresentIntroducedInvasiveConnor (2008)
BahamasPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
BarbadosPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
BelizePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
BermudaPresentIntroducedGreene L (2015)Cultivated
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedIRF (2018)Cultivated in Tortola
Costa RicaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
El SalvadorPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
GuatemalaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
HondurasPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
MartiniquePresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
MexicoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)Tamaulipas, Veracruz
NicaraguaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
PanamaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)St Croix, St John
United StatesPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)
-FloridaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)
-TexasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)

Oceania

French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedFlorence et al. (2013)Cultivated
GuamPresentIntroducedPIER (2018)
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER (2018)

South America

BrazilPresentNativeBorges and Teles (2015)
-ParanaPresentNativeBorges and Teles (2015)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentNativeBorges and Teles (2015)
-Santa CatarinaPresentNativeBorges and Teles (2015)
-Sao PauloPresentNativeBorges and Teles (2015)
ColombiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
Ecuador
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedJaramillo Díaz et al. (2018)Cultivated. Listed as potentially invasive
GuyanaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
SurinamePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
VenezuelaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)

History of Introduction and Spread

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Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides has been introduced as ornamental across tropical and subtropical region of the world. In the United States, it is widely cultivated as ornamental across Florida and Texas. In Florida, it was first recorded in 1939 and now can be found naturalized elsewhere along the Gulf Coast (Gordon et al., 2017; Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018).

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of new introductions of P. chenopodioides is high. This species has been intentionally planted as an ornamental in many tropical and subtropical regions. It has repeatedly escaped from gardens and rapidly spreads into new habitats. It has a great natural dispersion capability by both wind-dispersed seeds and by stem fragments and roots (Gilman, 1999; Parker and Parson, 2011; Davidse et al., 2018).

Habitat

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Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides can be found growing in moist thickets, forest edges, secondary forests, waste grounds, roadsides and disturbed sites near villages at elevations from near sea level to 2200 m (Nash and Williams, 1976; Parker and Parson, 2011; Davidse et al., 2018; Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Species within the genus Pseudogynoxys are characterized by relatively high chromosome numbers: n = (40–)45–50(–54) (Pelser et al., 2007).

Reproductive Biology

There is little information on the reproductive biology of P. chenopodioides. In USA, the flowers are reported as visited by butterflies and bees (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2018).

Physiology and Phenology

In Central America, P. chenopodioides produces flowers throughout the year (Davidse et al., 2018). In Florida (USA), it flowers all year round, but mostly in fall and winter (Gilman, 1999; Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018). In Puerto Rico, it has been collected in flower and fruit from January to April (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005).

Environmental Requirements

Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides is a fast-growing vine adapted to grow in full sun or partial shade. This species thrives in moist habitats, but it also tolerates dry climates and moderate drought. It can be found growing in sandy, loamy and clay soils. It does not tolerate freezing winter temperatures (Gilman, 1999; Parker and Parson, 2011; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2018).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
35 25

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 15 28

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall1000mm2500mmmm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Summer
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Notes on Natural Enemies

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In cultivation, nematodes, mites, scales and caterpillars have been reported attacking this species (Gilman, 1999).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides spreads by seed, which are adapted to wind-dispersal. In cultivation, it is also propagated by stem fragments (i.e. cuttings). The green, fleshy stems will root at the nodes when in contact with soil (Gilman, 1999).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
DisturbanceNaturalized in disturbed sites, roadsides and open grounds Yes Yes Davidse et al., 2018
Escape from confinement or garden escapePersistent after escaping from cultivation Yes Yes Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018
Garden waste disposalSeeds and stem fragments Yes Yes Gilman, 1999
HorticultureOrnamental vine Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2018
Internet salesSeeds available online Yes Yes
Nursery tradeOrnamental vine Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2018
Ornamental purposesOrnamental vine Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2018

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds and stem fragments from dumping garden waste Yes Yes Gilman, 1999
MailSeeds available online Yes Yes
WindSeeds Yes Yes Gilman, 1999

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

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Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides has become an environmental problem where it has escaped from cultivation and rapidly colonized new habitats along roadsides, forest edges, moist thickets and disturbed sites. This species is fast-growing and adapted to grow in moist and dry climates and in a wide range of soils types. Once established, P. chenopodioides grows extensively over all adjacent vegetation forming a dense blanket of stems and leaves that out-compete and shade-out native plant vegetation (Gilman, 1999; Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005; Parker and Parson, 2011; Flowers of India, 2018; PIER, 2018). Currently, P. chenopodioides has been listed as invasive in Anguilla and Hawaii, and as potentially invasive in Florida and Galapagos Islands (Connor, 2008; Charles Darwin Foundation, 2018; PIER, 2018).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Gregarious
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Competition - strangling
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

Uses

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Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides is widely cultivated as an ornamental plant for its showy flowers. It is also planted as ground cover and to cover fences and walls (Gilman, 1999; Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity
  • Soil conservation

Ornamental

  • garden plant

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., 2005. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution 51, 483 pp.

Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Broome, R., Sabir, K., Carrington, S., 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. In: Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database , Barbados: University of the West Indies.http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2018. Galapagos Species Checklist. In: Galapagos Species Checklist Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation.http://darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/#plants

Chong, K. Y., Tan, H. T. W., Corlett, R. T., 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species, Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore.273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Connor, RA, 2008. Anguilla Invasive Species Strategy. http://www.gov.ai/documents/Anguilla%20Invasive%20Species%20Strategy%202008%20%282%29.pdf

Davidse, G., Sousa-Sánchez, M., Knapp, S., Chiang, F., UUoa Ulloa, C., Pruski, J. F., 2018. Flora Mesoamericana, Volumen 5, Parte 2: Asteraceae, [ed. by Davidse, G., Sousa-Sánchez, M., Knapp, S., Chiang, F., UUoa Ulloa, C., Pruski, J. F.]. St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press.xix + 608 pp.

Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018. Flora of North America North of Mexico. In: Flora of North America North of Mexico St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1

Florence, J., Chevillotte, H., Ollier, C., Meyer, J. Y., 2007. Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia. (Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polinésie française (PAP)). In: Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polinésie française (PAP) . http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf/Selection_Taxon_ref.php

Flowers of India, 2018. Flowers of India. In: Flowers of India . http://www.flowersofindia.net/

Gilman, EF, 1999. Senecio confusus Mexican Flame Vine: Marigold. Document FPS 545. Florida, USA: University of Florida IFAS Extension, Environmental Horticulture Department.https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fp545

Gordon, D. R., Lieurance, D., Flory, S. L., 2017. Predicted versus actual invasiveness of climbing vines in Florida. Biological Invasions, 19(8), 2375-2384. doi: 10.1007/s10530-017-1448-7

Jaramillo Díaz, P, Guézou, A, Mauchamp, A, Tye, A, 2018. CDF Checklist of Galapagos Flowering Plants. (FCD Lista de especies de Plantas con flores Galápagos). In: Charles Darwin Foundation Galapagos Species Checklist (Lista de Especies de Galápagos de la Fundación Charles Darwin) [ed. by Bungartz, F, Herrera, H, Jaramillo, P, Tirado, N, Jiménez-Uzcátegui, G, Ruiz, D, Guézou, A, Ziemmeck, F]. Puerto Ayora, Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2018. Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder. In: Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/plantfinder/plantfindersearch.aspx

Nash, D. L., Williams, L. O., 1976. Fieldiana: Botany, Chicago, Illinois, USA: Field Museum of Natural History 24(12), 613 pp.

Parker JL, Parsons B, 2011. New plant records from the Big Island for 2009. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers, 113, 55-63.

Pelser, P. B., Nordenstam, B., Kadereit, J. W., Watson, L. E., 2007. An ITS phylogeny of tribe Senecioneae (Asteraceae) and a new delimitation of Senecio L. Taxon, 56(4), 1077-1104. doi: 10.2307/25065905

PIER, 2018. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Pruski JF, 1996. Pseudogynoxys lobata (Compositae: Senecioneae), a new species from Bolivia and Brazil. Systematic Botany, 21(1), 101–105.

USDA-ARS, 2018. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2018. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team.https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Borges RAX, Teles AM, 2015. Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/FichaPublicaTaxonUC/FichaPublicaTaxonUC.do?id=FB102404

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. In: Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Chong K Y, Tan H T W, Corlett R T, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Connor RA, 2008. Anguilla Invasive Species Strategy., http://www.gov.ai/documents/Anguilla%20Invasive%20Species%20Strategy%202008%20%282%29.pdf

Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer J-Y, 2013. Nadeaud botanical database of the Herbarium of French Polynesia. (Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP))., https://nadeaud.ilm.pf/

Flowers of India, 2018. Flowers of India. In: Flowers of India. http://www.flowersofindia.net/

Greene L, 2015. Plants in Bermuda that attract birds - April 2015., Bermuda: Bermuda Museum of Natural History. http://www.gardenclubbermuda.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/Lisa-Greene-List-of-plants-that-attract-birds-Aprli-2015.pdf

IRF, 2018. An Environmental Profile of the Island of Tortola, British Virgin Islands. Addendum I - Preliminary List of Plant Species., St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands: Island Resources Foundation. http://www.irf.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/EnvironmentalProfileTortola_ADDENDUM_1_PreliminaryPlantList_2015.pdf

Jaramillo Díaz P, Guézou A, Mauchamp A, Tye A, 2018. CDF Checklist of Galapagos Flowering Plants. (FCD Lista de especies de Plantas con flores Galápagos). In: Charles Darwin Foundation Galapagos Species Checklist (Lista de Especies de Galápagos de la Fundación Charles Darwin), [ed. by Bungartz F, Herrera H, Jaramillo P, Tirado N, Jiménez-Uzcátegui G, Ruiz D, Guézou A, Ziemmeck F]. Puerto Ayora, Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation.

PIER, 2018. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

USDA-ARS, 2018. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2018. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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08/07/18 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH

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