Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Pentas lanceolata
(Egyptian starcluster)

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Datasheet

Pentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 18 June 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pentas lanceolata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Egyptian starcluster
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Pentas lanceolata is a fast growing, small to medium-sized herbaceous shrub that has become very popular as an ornamental and potted plant due to its colourful flowers. It is adapted to grow in a wide range of...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Pentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster); flowering habit. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May 1998.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionPentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster); flowering habit. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May 1998.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Pentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster); flowering habit. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May 1998.
Flowering habitPentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster); flowering habit. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May 1998.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Pentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster); flowering habit. Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Miami, Florida, USA. February 2007.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionPentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster); flowering habit. Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Miami, Florida, USA. February 2007.
Copyright©David J. Stang/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Pentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster); flowering habit. Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Miami, Florida, USA. February 2007.
Flowering habitPentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster); flowering habit. Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Miami, Florida, USA. February 2007.©David J. Stang/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Pentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster); flowering habit, pink flowers. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui, Hawaii., USA. March 2011.
TitleFlowering habit,
CaptionPentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster); flowering habit, pink flowers. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui, Hawaii., USA. March 2011.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Pentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster); flowering habit, pink flowers. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui, Hawaii., USA. March 2011.
Flowering habit,Pentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster); flowering habit, pink flowers. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui, Hawaii., USA. March 2011.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Pentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster); flowering habit, showing the red form, growing as a roadside weed. Tonga.  April 2007.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionPentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster); flowering habit, showing the red form, growing as a roadside weed. Tonga. April 2007.
Copyright©Tauʻolunga/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Pentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster); flowering habit, showing the red form, growing as a roadside weed. Tonga.  April 2007.
Flowering habitPentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster); flowering habit, showing the red form, growing as a roadside weed. Tonga. April 2007.©Tauʻolunga/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Pentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster); flowering habit, showing the white form growing as weed in a garden. Tonga.  April 2007.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionPentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster); flowering habit, showing the white form growing as weed in a garden. Tonga. April 2007.
Copyright©Tauʻolunga/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Pentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster); flowering habit, showing the white form growing as weed in a garden. Tonga.  April 2007.
Flowering habitPentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster); flowering habit, showing the white form growing as weed in a garden. Tonga. April 2007.©Tauʻolunga/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Pentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster); flowering habit, planted as a roadside ornamental, showing colour variety of pinks through purple. Kapalua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2007.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionPentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster); flowering habit, planted as a roadside ornamental, showing colour variety of pinks through purple. Kapalua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Pentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster); flowering habit, planted as a roadside ornamental, showing colour variety of pinks through purple. Kapalua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2007.
Flowering habitPentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster); flowering habit, planted as a roadside ornamental, showing colour variety of pinks through purple. Kapalua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Pentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster); leaves and flowers. Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2007.
TitleLeaves
CaptionPentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster); leaves and flowers. Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Pentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster); leaves and flowers. Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2007.
LeavesPentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster); leaves and flowers. Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Pentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster); leaves and red flowers. Mangalore, Karnataka, India. May 2007.
TitleFlowers
CaptionPentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster); leaves and red flowers. Mangalore, Karnataka, India. May 2007.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 3.0
Pentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster); leaves and red flowers. Mangalore, Karnataka, India. May 2007.
FlowersPentas lanceolata (Egyptian starcluster); leaves and red flowers. Mangalore, Karnataka, India. May 2007.©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pentas lanceolata (Forssk.) Deflers

Preferred Common Name

  • Egyptian starcluster

International Common Names

  • English: Egyptian stars; lady fletcher; pentas; star flower
  • Spanish: estrellita de jardin ; estrellitas; pentas
  • Chinese: wu xing hua

Local Common Names

  • Bahamas: star cluster
  • Cook Islands: tiale valeau
  • Dominican Republic: lluvia de estrellas
  • Fiji: sinu; sunu vula
  • Tonga: tiale sina; tiare sina; tiare vareau

  • Manettia lanceolata
  • Neurocarpaea lanceolata
  • Ophiorrhiza lanceolata
  • Pentanisia suffruticosa
  • Pentas ainsworthii
  • Pentas schweinfurthii
  • Pseudomussaenda lanceolata
  • Psychotria arabica
  • Sipanea carnea

Summary of Invasiveness

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Pentas lanceolata is a fast growing, small to medium-sized herbaceous shrub that has become very popular as an ornamental and potted plant due to its colourful flowers. It is adapted to grow in a wide range of environmental conditions and tolerates a fair amount of drought. P. lanceolata has been intentionally introduced into many tropical and subtropical regions from where it has escaped to colonize predominantly disturbed sites, open grounds and roadsides near cultivation areas. Once established this species may become dominant in some open areas and can form monospecific stands with the potential to outcompete and exclude native plant species and other early successional vegetation. To date, P. lanceolata has been listed as invasive only in insular ecosystems in Hawaii, Anguilla, Norfolk Island, Mayotte Island and French Polynesia. In Hawaii, it has recently been noted spreading across the Big Island; on Maui, it volunteers in scrub areas and steep banks. 

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Gentianales
  •                         Family: Rubiaceae
  •                             Genus: Pentas
  •                                 Species: Pentas lanceolata

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The familia Rubiaceae comprises 611 genera and about 13,150 species of woody plants distributed worldwide, but largely abundant across tropical regions. This family is especially diverse in Madagascar and in low- to mid-altitude humid forests across the Andes (Davis et al., 2009; Stevens, 2012).

The genus Pentas contains about 16-40 species widely distributed throughout tropical Africa, Madagascar, the Comoros and the Arabian Peninsula. The species Pentas lanceolata is widely grown as an ornamental and potted plant due to its colourful and attractive flowers. The flowers can be white, pink, purple, or red and new varieties (including dwarf varieties) and colours continue to be developed (Gilman and Shiffit, 1999; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018).

Description

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The following description is from Flora of China Editorial Committee (2018). Perennial herbs or subshrubs, 30-70 cm tall; branches quadrangular, moderately to densely pilosulous to villous often becoming glabrescent with age. Leaves opposite; petiole 0.5-3 cm, pilosulous to villous; blade drying papery, oblong-lanceolate to ovate, 5-14 × 2-5.5 cm, adaxially scabrous or villous to glabrescent, abaxially densely villous or hirtellous at least along principal veins, base cuneate to obtuse, apex acute or shortly acuminate; secondary veins 8-10 pairs; stipules truncate to broadly rounded, 1.5-2 mm, villous, bristles 1-5, 1-4 mm. Inflorescence densely pilosulous to villous; peduncle 3-12 mm; branched portion congested-cymose often becoming lax, 1.5-4 × 1.5-4 cm; bracts narrowly triangular to linear, 0.5-1.5 mm. Flowers sessile or subsessile, distylous. Calyx densely hirtellous or villous; ovary portion subglobose to obovoid, ca. 1 mm; limb deeply lobed; lobes narrowly oblanceolate to elliptic or narrowly spatulate, 2-8 mm, usually unequal on an individual flower with nearly this entire size range found on some flowers, acute. Corolla pale purple to pink, red, white, or yellow, salverform, sparsely hirtellous to glabrescent outside; tube slender except rather abruptly swollen in throat in long-styled form (around stamens), 17-20 mm, densely barbate in throat; lobes elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, 3-4 mm, acute to obtuse. Capsules obovoid, 4-6 × 4-6 mm, stiffly papery to woody, with beak 1-2 mm tall; seeds 0.5-1 mm.

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub

Distribution

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Pentas lanceolata is native to East Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Its native distribution range extends from Ethiopia to Mozambique, Yemen and Saudi Arabia (Govaerts, 2018). It has been introduced as an ornamental and potted plant worldwide and can now be found naturalized all over the tropics and subtropics (Schripsema et al., 2007; Govaerts, 2018; GRIIS, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 18 Jun 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BurundiPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
ComorosPresentGovaerts (2018); GRIIS (2018)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
DjiboutiPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
EritreaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
EthiopiaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
KenyaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
MalawiPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
MayottePresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)
MozambiquePresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
RwandaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
SeychellesPresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)
SudanPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
TanzaniaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
UgandaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)

Asia

ChinaPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)Cultivated
-FujianPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)Cultivated
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)Cultivated
Hong KongPresentIntroducedWu (2002)Cultivated
IndiaPresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)
-KarnatakaPresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal (2018)Cultivated
-KeralaPresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal (2018)Cultivated
-PuducherryPresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal (2018)Cultivated
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal (2018)Cultivated
-UttarakhandPresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal (2018)Cultivated
PakistanPresentIntroducedFlora of Pakistan (2018)Cultivated
Saudi ArabiaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
SingaporePresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)Cultivated
ThailandPresentIntroducedPuff and Chamchumroon (2003)
YemenPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)

Europe

SpainPresentIntroducedGBIF (2018)

North America

AnguillaPresentIntroducedInvasiveConnor (2008)
BahamasPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
BermudaPresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)
Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba
-SabaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedSoto and Vega (2010)Cultivated
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedSoto and Vega (2010)Cultivated
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
HondurasPresentIntroducedMolina (1975)Cultivated
MexicoPresentIntroducedBonet Ferrer (2016)Cultivated
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2018)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)St Croix
United StatesPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)
-FloridaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)Cultivated
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)
Christmas IslandPresentIntroducedPIER (2018)Cultivated
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedMcCormack (2013)
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroducedHerrera et al. (2010)
-PohnpeiPresentIntroducedHerrera et al. (2010)
FijiPresentIntroducedSmith (1988)Cultivated
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveFlorence et al. (2013)
GuamPresentIntroducedPIER (2018)
KiribatiPresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)
NauruPresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)
NiuePresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)
Norfolk IslandPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)
PalauPresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)

South America

BrazilPresentIntroducedZappi (2015)Cultivated
-GoiasPresentIntroducedZappi (2015)Cultivated
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroducedZappi (2015)Cultivated
-ParaibaPresentIntroducedZappi (2015)Cultivated
-ParanaPresentIntroducedZappi (2015)Cultivated
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroducedZappi (2015)Cultivated
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedZappi (2015)Cultivated
ColombiaPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2018)
EcuadorPresentCABI (2020)
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedCharles Darwin Foundation (2008)

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of new introductions of P. lanceolata is very high mainly due to its environmental versatility and popularity among horticulturalists and growers. As the rate of introduction for this species increases, and the plants growing in cultivation continue to spread, it becomes increasingly likely that further naturalizations and invasions will take place.

Habitat

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Pentas lanceolata is commonly cultivated as an ornamental in gardens, parks and yards. It also grows in woodlands, forest margins, scrublands, rocky hillsides, and grasslands at elevations from sea level to 2500 m. It occurs as a common weed along roadsides, and on abandoned farms and disturbed sites near villages (Starr et al., 2002; PIER, 2018; PROTA, 2018).

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for P. lanceolata is 2n=20 (Selvaraj, 1987).

Reproductive Biology

The flowers of P. lanceolata occur in wide, rounded clusters and may be red, lavender, purple, white or shades of pink. P. lanceolata is a dimorphic heterostyled (trimorphic) species and occurs in two distinct floral forms: the pin eyed with long exerted style and short inserted anthers, and the thrum eyed with short inserted style and long exerted anthers; in addition a homostyle form with style and anthers at the same level also occurs (Bahadur, 1970). However, many of the cultivated forms of P. lanceolata are long-styled and usually do not set fruit (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018).

Pentas lanceolata is one of the best butterfly-attracting plants, but flowers are also visited by bees, beetles, wasps, ants and hummingbirds (Bahadur, 1970; Gilman and Shiffit, 1999; Mignon, 2014). In Africa this species is reported as pollinated by a small nitidulid beetle of the genus Meligethes (Bahadur, 1970). In India, several species of insects including bees (Amegilla spp.), ants (Oecophylla smaragdina), wasps (Megacampsomeris grossa) and butterflies (Papilio spp, Junonia atlites, Euploea core and Tirumala septentrionis) have been reported visiting flowers of P. lanceota (Binoy et al., 2014).

Physiology and Phenology

In Africa, P. lanceolata flowers all summer (PROTA, 2018) while in China, this species flowers from July to September (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018). In cultivation, seeds germinate 5-12 days after sowing when outdoor daily temperatures are about 22°C. Under favourable environmental conditions, plants will bloom 15-19 weeks after sowing (PROTA, 2018).

Environmental Requirements

Pentas lanceolata grows best in warm and moist habitats with a mean annual temperature of 27°C. Although this species tolerates a wide range of soil types and textures, it prefers well-drained soil with pH 6.1 to 8.5. P. lanceolata thrives in full sun but can also tolerate partial shaded conditions. It is also adapted to grow in water-stressed environments such as dry thickets and semiarid habitats (Burkill, 1997; Gilman and Shiffit, 1999; Staples and Herbst, 2005; Blanchard and Runkle, 2011; PIER, 2018; PROTA, 2018).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
~40 25

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 9 27

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Summer
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Cultivated plants can be infested by aphids, spider mites and whiteflies (Staples and Herbst, 2005).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Pentas lanceolata spreads by seeds, which are very small (<1 mm) and can be easily dispersed by water and as a contaminant in soil and garden tools. In cultivation the propagation of this species is by cuttings, which root easily in soil or water. Stem fragments and seeds can also be dispersed in dumped garden waste (Burkill, 1997; Gilman and Shiffit, 1999; Staples and Herbst, 2005; Flora of China, 2018; PROTA, 2018).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
DisturbanceNaturalized in ruderal areas, roadsides, old farms Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
Escape from confinement or garden escapeSeeds and stem fragments Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
Garden waste disposalSeeds and stem fragments in dumped garden waste Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
HorticultureWidely cultivated as a garden ornamental and potted plant Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2018
Intentional releaseWidely cultivated and very popular among horticulturalists. Intentionally introduced as ornamental Yes Yes PIER, 2018
Internet salesSeeds and plants available online Yes Yes
Nursery tradeCultivated and commercialized as an ornamental and potted plant Yes Yes
Ornamental purposesWidely cultivated as a garden ornamental and potted plant Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2018
Seed tradeSeeds sold online and in nurseries Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds and stem fragments Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
Machinery and equipmentSeeds Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
MailSeeds and plants available online Yes Yes
Soil, sand and gravelSeeds Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
Land vehiclesSeeds Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
WaterSeeds Yes Yes PROTA, 2018

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive

Environmental Impact

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Pentas lanceolata can form monospecific stands with the potential to outcompete and exclude native plant species and other early successional vegetation. To date, this invasive species has been reported impacting mostly insular ecosystems in Hawaii, Anguilla, Norfolk Island, Mayotte Island, and French Polynesia (Starr et al., 2002; Staples and Herbst, 2005; Connor, 2008; Florence et al., 2013; PIER, 2018). 

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Gregarious
Impact outcomes
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

Uses

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Pentas lanceolata is widely cultivated as an ornamental and potted plant. It is also used in traditional African medicine. Parts of the plant are used as a remedy for tapeworm, itchy rashes, pimples, malaria, skin diseases, gonorrhoea, syphilis and as a purgative (Gilman and Shiffit, 1999; Flora of China, 2018).

Phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, phenols, terpenoids, coumarins, phytosterols and quinones have been successfully extracted from the leaves of P. lanceolata and shown to have antiviral, antibacterial and healing properties. Further research is recommended on the structural elucidation and conformational properties of bioactives extracted from P. lanceolata (Nayak et al., 2005; Schripsema et al., 2007; Mignon, 2014; Suman et al., 2014).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • garden plant
  • Potted plant

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Bahadur B, 1970. Heterostyly and homostyly in Pentas lanceolata (Forsk.) Delf . Journal of Genetics, 60, 199-205.

Binoy CF, Wilson MS, Ollukkaran KV, Bini CB, 2014. Foraging pattern of insect pollinators in Pentas lanceolata and Catharanthus roseus in Thrissur district, Kerala, India. International Journal of Science, Environment, and Technology, 3(5), 1731-1737.

Blanchard, M. G., Runkle, E. S., 2011. Quantifying the thermal flowering rates of eighteen species of annual bedding plants. Scientia Horticulturae, 128(1), 30-37. doi: 10.1016/j.scienta.2010.12.010

Burkill HM, 1997. The useful plants of West Tropical Africa. Volume 4 (Families M-R), London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.969 pp.

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. In: Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation.unpaginated.

Chong, K. Y., Tan, H. T. W., Corlett, R. T., 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species, Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore.273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Connor, RA, 2008. Anguilla Invasive Species Strategy (draft). http://www.gov.ai/documents/Anguilla%20Invasive%20Species%20Strategy%202008%20(2).pdf

Davis AP, Govaerts R, Bridson DM, Ruhsam M, Moat J, Brummitt NA, 2009. A global assessment of distribution, diversity, endemism, and taxonomic effort in the Rubiaceae. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 96(1), 68-78.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Pakistan, 2018. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website. In: Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

Florence, J, Chevillotte, H, Ollier, C, Meyer, J-Y, 2013. Nadeaud botanical database of the Herbarium of French Polynesia. (Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP)). http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

GBIF, 2018. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. In: Global Biodiversity Information Facility . http://www.gbif.org/species

Gilman EF, Shiffit S, 1999. Pentas lanceolata. Factsheet FPS-465. Gainesville, Florida, USA: Environmental Horticulture Department, UF/IFAS Extension.

Govaerts, R, 2018. World Checklist of Rubiaceae. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

GRIIS, 2018. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species. http://www.griis.org/

Herrera, K., Lorence, D. H., Flynn, T., Balick, M. J., 2010. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia with Local Names and Uses. Allertonia, 10, 1-192. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23193787

India Biodiversity Portal, 2018. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity . http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Mignon E, 2014. Induction of adventitious roots of Pentas lanceolata and their multiplication in bioreactors. MSc Thesis. (Inductie van adventiefwortels van Pentas lanceolata en hun vermeerdering in bioreactoren). Ghent, Belgium: University of Ghent.

Molina, R. A., 1975. Enumeration of the plants of Honduras. (Enumeración de las plantas de Honduras). Ceiba, 19(1), 1-118.

Nayak, B. S., Vinutha, B., Geetha, B., Sudha, B., 2005. Experimental evaluation of Pentas lanceolata flowers for wound healing activity in rats. Fitoterapia, 76(7/8), 671-675. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2005.08.007

PIER, 2018. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

PROTA, 2018. PROTA4U web database. In: PROTA4U web database Wageningen and Nairobi, Netherlands\Kenya: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.https://www.prota4u.org/database/

Puff, C., Chamchumroon, V., 2003. Non-indigenous Rubiaceae grown in Thailand. Thai Forest Bulletin (Botany), (No.31), 75-94.

Schripsema, J., Caprini, G. P., Heijden, R. van der, Bino, R., Vos, R. de, Dagnino, D., 2007. Iridoids from Pentas lanceolata. Journal of Natural Products, 70(9), 1495-1498. doi: 10.1021/np070116+

Selvaraj R, 1987. Karyomorphological studies in South Indian Rubiaceae. Cytologia, 52, 343–356.

Smith, A. C., 1988. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Volume 4: Angiospermae: Dicotyledones, families 164-169, Lawai, Hawaii, USA: Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden.377 pp.

Staples GW, Herbst DR, 2005. A tropical garden flora: plants cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and other tropical places, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: Bishop Museum Press.

Starr F, Martz K, Loope LL, 2002. New plant records from the Hawaiian archipelago. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2000. Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers, 69, 16-27.

Stevens PF , 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. St Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Suman D, Vishwanadham Y, Kumaraswamy T, Shirisha P, Hemalatha K, 2014. Phytochemical evaluation and analgesic activity of Pentas lanceolata leaves. Natural Products Chemistry & Research, 2(4), 135. doi: 10.4172/2329-6836.1000135

USDA-ARS, 2018. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2018. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team.https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Wu, T. L., 2002. Check List of Hong Kong Plants, (Edn 7) , China: Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany.384 pp. http://www.hkflora.com/v2/flora/plant_check_list.php

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

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CABI, 2020. CABI Distribution Database: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. In: Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos, Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation. unpaginated.

Chong K Y, Tan H T W, Corlett R T, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Connor RA, 2008. Anguilla Invasive Species Strategy (draft)., http://www.gov.ai/documents/Anguilla%20Invasive%20Species%20Strategy%202008%20(2).pdf

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Pakistan, 2018. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website. In: Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer J-Y, 2013. Nadeaud botanical database of the Herbarium of French Polynesia. (Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP))., https://nadeaud.ilm.pf/

GBIF, 2018. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. In: Global Biodiversity Information Facility. http://www.gbif.org/species

Govaerts R, 2018. World Checklist of Rubiaceae., Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

GRIIS, 2018. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species., http://www.griis.org/

Herrera K, Lorence D H, Flynn T, Balick M J, 2010. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia with Local Names and Uses. Allertonia. 1-192. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23193787

India Biodiversity Portal, 2018. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

McCormack G, 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2., Rarotonga, Cook Islands: Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust. http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org/search.asp

Molina R A, 1975. Enumeration of the plants of Honduras. (Enumeración de las plantas de Honduras). Ceiba. 19 (1), 1-118.

PIER, 2018. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Puff C, Chamchumroon V, 2003. Non-indigenous Rubiaceae grown in Thailand. Thai Forest Bulletin (Botany). 75-94.

Smith A C, 1988. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Volume 4: Angiospermae: Dicotyledones, families 164-169. Lawai, Hawaii, USA: Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden. 377 pp.

Soto A, Vega G, 2010. Plantas con flores que atraen mariposas. Santo Domingo de Heredia, Costa Rica: Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad.

USDA-NRCS, 2018. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Wu T L, 2002. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. China: Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. 384 pp. http://www.hkflora.com/v2/flora/plant_check_list.php

Zappi D, 2015. (Pentas. Lista de espécies da flora do Brasil). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB128774

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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14/03/2018 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA 

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