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Datasheet

Oldenlandia lancifolia
(calycose mille graines)

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Datasheet

Oldenlandia lancifolia (calycose mille graines)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 25 June 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Oldenlandia lancifolia
  • Preferred Common Name
  • calycose mille graines
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Oldenlandia lancifolia is a herbaceous plant that behaves as an agricultural and environmental weed. It produces large amounts of tiny seeds that can be easily dispersed by water, animals and vehicles, or as a...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Oldenlandia lancifolia (calycose mille graines); habit. Costa Rica. February 2017.
TitleHabit
CaptionOldenlandia lancifolia (calycose mille graines); habit. Costa Rica. February 2017.
Copyright©Barry Hammel/via flickr - CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
Oldenlandia lancifolia (calycose mille graines); habit. Costa Rica. February 2017.
HabitOldenlandia lancifolia (calycose mille graines); habit. Costa Rica. February 2017.©Barry Hammel/via flickr - CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
Oldenlandia lancifolia (calycose mille graines); fruits. Costa Rica. February 2017.
TitleFruits
CaptionOldenlandia lancifolia (calycose mille graines); fruits. Costa Rica. February 2017.
Copyright©Barry Hammel/via flickr - CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
Oldenlandia lancifolia (calycose mille graines); fruits. Costa Rica. February 2017.
FruitsOldenlandia lancifolia (calycose mille graines); fruits. Costa Rica. February 2017.©Barry Hammel/via flickr - CC BY-NC-SA 2.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Oldenlandia lancifolia (Schumach.) DC.

Preferred Common Name

  • calycose mille graines

Other Scientific Names

  • Hedyotis commutata Schult.
  • Hedyotis lancifolia Schumach.
  • Manettia bocataurensis Dwyer
  • Oldenlandia rutshuruensis De Wild.

Local Common Names

  • Lesser Antilles: mille-graines
  • Madagascar: ahibitsika

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

Oldenlandia lancifolia is a herbaceous plant that behaves as an agricultural and environmental weed. It produces large amounts of tiny seeds that can be easily dispersed by water, animals and vehicles, or as a contaminant in soil and agricultural produce. It tolerates waterlogged conditions and can be found growing as an aquatic and semi-aquatic herb. Under suitable environmental conditions, it can form dense tangled mats that outcompete native plant species and can also alter the aquatic and riverine ecology of colonized areas.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Gentianales
  •                         Family: Rubiaceae
  •                             Genus: Oldenlandia
  •                                 Species: Oldenlandia lancifolia

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Rubiaceae comprises 611 genera and about 13,150 species with a worldwide, but largely tropical, distribution. This family is especially diverse in Madagascar and the Andes (Davis et al., 2009; Stevens, 2017). Oldenlandia and Hedyotis are two of the largest genera within the Rubiaceae and are commonly grouped as the Hedyotis-Oldenlandia complex. This complex contains approximately 500–600 species occurring throughout tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Species within this complex are very similar and share a herbaceous or shrubby habit with relatively small, mostly 4-merous flowers, bilobed stigmas and dry, two-celled capsular fruits (Sivarajan and Biju, 1990; Neupane et al., 2009; Guo et al., 2013).

Due to the broad geographic distribution, species richness and morphological diversity, the generic delimitation in the Hedyotis–Oldenlandia complex has a long, taxonomically confused history. Previous systematic treatments have varied from accepting a very broad-sensed Hedyotis, to partially or completely segregating these two taxa into different numbers of smaller genera (Guo et al., 2013; Wikström et al., 2013; Neupane et al., 2015; Hsu and Chen, 2017).

Description

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The following description is adapted from (Verdcourt and Bridson, 1991):

Perennial (or annual) straggling or prostrate herb, often much branched near the base into almost simple stems, (5)20–60(90) cm long, which sometimes root at the nodes, glabrous or in some variants scabridulous when young; sometimes forming loose mats. Leaf blades 1–6 x 0.2–1.2 cm, linear to linear-lanceolate, less often elliptic or lanceolate, acute at the apex, cuneate at the base, scabridulous above near the margins, glabrous beneath or with midvein scabridulous; petioles not developed, very short and adnate to the stipule sheath which is 1 mm long and bears 2–5 linear fimbriae 1.5 mm long. Flowers not heterostylous, often solitary at the nodes (pseudo-axillary) or sometimes several at the nodes but then these actually borne on very reduced axillary shoots; pedicels slender, 0.5–3 cm long, glabrous or scabridulous. Calyx tube 0.8 mm tall, 1.5 mm wide, bowl-shaped, glabrous or with scattered very short hairs; lobes 1–1.8 mm long, triangular, acuminate at the apex, glabrous or sparsely scabridulous. Corolla white, sometimes tinged pink or purple; tube 1 mm long, glabrous inside; lobes 1–2 mm long, triangular. Style slightly longer than the tube; stigma lobes 0.7–1.4 mm long. Capsule 2.2–3 mm tall including the 1 mm tall beak, 3.2–5 mm wide, depressed subglobose, grooved at the middle. Seeds pale brown, angular, 0.3–0.4 mm long, strongly reticulate.

Plant Type

Top of page Annual
Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated

Distribution

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Oldenlandia lancifolia is native to Africa, where it is widespread, mainly in the tropics. It has been introduced to Central and South America, the Caribbean and China (Verdcourt and Bridson, 1991; Govaerts, 2018; GRIIS, 2018; PROTA, 2018).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Jun 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
BeninPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
BotswanaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
Burkina FasoPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
BurundiPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
CameroonPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
Central African RepublicPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
ChadPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
Congo, Republic of thePresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
Côte d'IvoirePresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
Equatorial GuineaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
EthiopiaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
GabonPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
GhanaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
GuineaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
Guinea-BissauPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
KenyaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
LiberiaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
MadagascarPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
MalawiPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
MaliPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
MauritiusPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2018)
MozambiquePresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
NamibiaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
NigeriaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
RwandaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
SenegalPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
SeychellesPresentIntroducedInvasiveGRIIS (2018)
-Aldabra IslandsPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2018)
Sierra LeonePresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
South AfricaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
SudanPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
TanzaniaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
TogoPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
UgandaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
ZambiaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
ZimbabwePresentNativeGovaerts (2018)

Asia

ChinaPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)

North America

BelizePresentIntroducedGovaerts (2018)
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2018)
CubaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedInvasiveJurgens et al. (1973)Weed
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2018)
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
HondurasPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2018)
JamaicaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
MartiniquePresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
MexicoPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2018)
MontserratPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2018)
PanamaPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2018)
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedGraveson (2012)
Saint MartinPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)

South America

BoliviaPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2018)
BrazilPresentIntroducedNaturalizedOliveira and Souza (2015)
-AcrePresentIntroducedNaturalizedOliveira and Souza (2015)
-AmazonasPresentIntroducedNaturalizedOliveira and Souza (2015)
-BahiaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedOliveira and Souza (2015)
-GoiasPresentIntroducedNaturalizedOliveira and Souza (2015)
-ParaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedOliveira and Souza (2015)
-ParanaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedOliveira and Souza (2015)
-PernambucoPresentIntroducedNaturalizedOliveira and Souza (2015)
-RondoniaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedOliveira and Souza (2015)
-RoraimaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedOliveira and Souza (2015)
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedNaturalizedOliveira and Souza (2015)
-TocantinsPresentIntroducedNaturalizedOliveira and Souza (2015)
ColombiaPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2018)
EcuadorPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2018)
French GuianaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedFunk et al. (2007)Listed as a weed
GuyanaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedFunk et al. (2007)Listed as a weed
ParaguayPresentIntroducedEgea et al. (2016)Listed as a weed
PeruPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2018)
SurinamePresentIntroducedNaturalizedFunk et al. (2007)Listed as a weed
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedFunk et al. (2007)Listed as a weed

Habitat

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Oldenlandia lancifolia can be found growing in disturbed sites, forest edges, secondary forests, grasslands, riverbanks and along roadsides (Burger and Taylor, 1993; Davidse et al., 2012; Graveson, 2012; PROTA, 2018). In Puerto Rico, it grows on moist soils and grassy hillsides in wet or moist habitats (Liogier, 1997). It also grows as an aquatic and semi-aquatic herb on mud or sometimes in water to a depth of 1.5 meters. It can also be found in swamps, the rocky edges of rivers, spray-zone bogs near waterfalls and irrigation ditches (PROTA, 2018). In Brazil it can be found naturalized in flooded forests (i.e., Igapó and Várzea) and swamps (Oliveira and Souza, 2015).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Wetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Present, no further details Natural
Wetlands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Freshwater
Irrigation channels Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Irrigation channels Present, no further details Natural
Irrigation channels Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rivers / streams Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rivers / streams Present, no further details Natural
Rivers / streams Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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Oldenlandia lancifolia is listed as a weed of cereal crops and rice fields (Burkill, 1985; Randall, 2017).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeMain

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

Biology and Ecology

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Reproductive Biology

Although specific information about the reproductive biology of O. lancifolia is lacking, Oldenlandia is known to contain both heterostylous and homostylous species. Many species within the Hedyotis-Oldelandia complex are self-compatible (Terrell and Robinson, 2006; Florentin et al., 2016). Bees and flies have been reported visiting flowers of other Oldenlandia species such as O. salzmannii and O. diffusa (Florentin et al., 2016; PFAF, 2018).

Physiology and Phenology

In Central America, O. lancifolia has been recorded flowering and fruiting throughout the year (Davidse et al., 2012).

Longevity

Oldenlandia lancifolia is an annual or perennial herb (Davidse et al., 2012).

Environmental Requirements

Oldenlandia lancifolia is a herb of both seasonally deciduous habitats and lowland rain forest areas. It prefers open and sunny areas. It tolerates waterlogged conditions and is able to grow in areas with high levels of disturbance (Burger and Taylor, 1993; Davidse et al., 2012; PROTA, 2018).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
30 35

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 15 28

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall800>2500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Summer
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Oldenlandia lancifolia spreads by seed. This species produces numerous tiny seeds (<0.4 mm long) that can be easily dispersed by animals, water, vehicles, in mud adhering to animals or shoes of humans and in contaminated soil and agricultural produce (Pringle, 1982; Burger and Taylor, 1993; Davidse et al., 2012; PROTA, 2018).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionWeed of paddy fields and cereal crops Yes Yes Randall, 2017
DisturbanceOften naturalized along roadsides, disturbed forests, etc Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
Medicinal useUsed in traditional African medicine Yes Yes Burkill, 1985

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds as contaminant Yes Yes Pringle, 1982
Floating vegetation and debrisSeeds as contaminant Yes Yes Pringle, 1982
Machinery and equipmentSeeds as contaminant Yes Yes Pringle, 1982
LivestockSeeds Yes Yes Pringle, 1982
Soil, sand and gravelSeeds as contaminant Yes Yes Pringle, 1982
Land vehiclesSeeds as contaminant Yes Yes Pringle, 1982
WaterSeeds Yes Yes Pringle, 1982

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive

Economic Impact

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Oldenlandia lancifolia is a weed of cereal crops and rice fields (Burkill, 1985; Randall, 2017). It has been listed as an agricultural weed in Dominican Republic, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela, Brazil and Paraguay (Jurgens et al., 1973; Funk et al., 2007; Oliveira and Souza, 2015; Egea et al., 2016).

Environmental Impact

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Oldenlandia lancifolia often behaves as an environmental weed and can be found invading forest edges, secondary forests and grassy hillsides in wet or moist habitats. Under suitable environmental conditions, it can form dense tangled mats that outcompete native plants species. It can also alter the aquatic and riverine ecology of riverbanks, swamps and inundated areas (Liogier, 1997; Randall, 2017; GRIIS, 2018; PROTA, 2018).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of hydrology
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

Uses

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Oldenlandia lancifolia is used in traditional African medicine as a painkiller and laxative (Burkill, 1985). In Africa, it is also eaten as a vegetable. In Madagascar, this plant is used in the ceremonial of ‘lightning purification’ (Quattrocchi, 2012).

Uses List

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General

  • Ritual uses

Human food and beverage

  • Vegetable

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Broome, R., Sabir, K., Carrington, S., 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. In: Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database , Barbados: University of the West Indies.http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Burger, W., Taylor, C. M., 1993. Flora Costaricensis. Family #202 Rubiaceae. In: Fieldiana, Botany , (No. 33) . v + 333 pp.

Burkill, H. M., 1985. The useful plants of West Tropical Africa. Vol. 1. Families A-D, (Ed. 2) . Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens.xvi + 960pp.

Davidse G, Sousa Sánchez M, Knapp S, Chiang Cabrera F, 2012. (Rubiaceae a Verbenaceae). In: Flora Mesoamericana Volume 4 (Part 2) . St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.533 pp.

Davis AP, Govaerts R, Bridson DM, Ruhsam M, Moat J, Brummitt NA, 2009. A global assessment of distribution, diversity, endemism, and taxonomic effort in the Rubiaceae. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 96(1), 68-78.

Egea, J. de, Mereles, F., Pena-Chocarro, M. del C., Céspedes, G., 2016. Checklist for the crop weeds of Paraguay. PhytoKeys, (No.73), 13-92. http://phytokeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=10135

Florentin, M. N., Fader, A. C., Gonzalez, A. M., 2016. Morpho-anatomical and morphometric studies of the floral structures of the distylous Oldenlandia salzmannii (Rubiaceae). Acta Botanica Brasilica, 30(4), 585-601. doi: 10.1590/0102-33062016abb0247

Funk, V., Hollowell, T., Berry, P., Kelloff, C., Alexander, S. N., 2007. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution 55, 584 pp.

Govaerts, R, 2018. World Checklist of Rubiaceae. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Graveson, R, 2012. The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). http://www.saintlucianplants.com

GRIIS, 2018. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species. http://www.griis.org/

Guo Xing, Wang RuiJiang, Simmons, M. P., But PuiHay [But, P. H. P. ], Yu Jing, 2013. Phylogeny of the Asian Hedyotis-Oldenlandia complex (Spermacoceae, Rubiaceae): evidence for high levels of polyphyly and the parallel evolution of diplophragmous capsules. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 67(1), 110-122. doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2013.01.006

Hsu TC, Chen ZH, 2017. Scleromitrion sirayanum (Rubiaceae: Spermacoceae), a new species of the Hedyotis-Oldenlandia complex in Taiwan. Taiwania, 62(2), 151-6.

Jurgens, G, Hansen del Orbe, R, Bautista, JE, 1973. (Malezas en la Agricultura Dominicana). In: Boletin de la Direccion del Laboratorio de Sanidad Vegetal, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones, Extension y Capacitacion Agropecuarias,6(3) . 1-35.

Liogier AH, 1997. Descriptive flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands. San Juan, Puerto Rico: University of Puerto Rico.

Neupane S, Dessein S, Wikström N, Lewis PO, Long C, Bremer B, Motley TJ, 2015. The Hedyotis-Oldenlandia complex (Rubiaceae: Spermacoceae) in Asia and the Pacific: Phylogeny revisited with new generic delimitations. Taxon, 64(2), 299-322.

Neupane, S., Dessein, S., Motley, T. J., 2009. The Hedyotis-Oldenlandia-Kohautia complex (Rubiaceae) in Nepal: a study of fruit, seed and pollen characters and their taxonomic significance. Edinburgh Journal of Botany, 66(3), 371-390. doi: 10.1017/S0960428609990035

Oliveira, JA, Souza, EB, 2015. Oldenlandia lancifolia. In: Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil, Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro.http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB24496

PFAF, 2018. Plants For A Future Database. In: Plants For A Future Database Dawlish, UK: Plants For A Future.http://www.pfaf.org/USER/Default.aspx

Pringle JS, 1982. Floristic observations on South Water and Carrie Bow Cays, Stann Creek District, Belize, in 1979-1980. In: Atoll Research Bulletin,259. 1-13.

PROTA, 2018. PROTA4U web database. In: PROTA4U web database Wageningen and Nairobi, Netherlands\Kenya: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.https://www.prota4u.org/database/

Quattrocchi, U., 2012. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology , [ed. by Quattrocchi, U.]. London, UK: CRC Press Inc.3960 pp.

Randall, R. P., 2017. A global compendium of weeds, (Ed.3) [ed. by Randall, R. P.]. Perth, Australia: R. P. Randall.iii + 3653 pp.

Sivarajan VV, Biju SD, 1990. Taxonomic and nomemclatural notes on the Hedyotis corymbosa complex (Rubiaceae) in India. Taxon, 39(4), 665-674.

Stevens, P. F., 2017. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14. In: Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14 . St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Terrell EE, Robinson H, 2006. Taxonomy of North American species of Oldenlandia (Rubiaceae). SIDA, Contributions to Botany, 11, 305-29.

Verdcourt B, Bridson DM, 1991. Flora of tropical East Africa - Rubiaceae Volume 3, CRC Press.

Wikström, N., Neupane, S., Kårehed, J., Motley, T. J., Bremer, B., 2013. Phylogeny of Hedyotis L. (Rubiaceae: Spermacoceae): redefining a complex Asian-Pacific assemblage. Taxon, 62(2), 357-374. doi: 10.12705/622.2

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. In: Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Egea J de, Mereles F, Pena-Chocarro M del C, Céspedes G, 2016. Checklist for the crop weeds of Paraguay. PhytoKeys. 13-92. http://phytokeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=10135

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Alexander S N, 2007. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. 55, 584 pp.

Govaerts R, 2018. World Checklist of Rubiaceae., Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Graveson R, 2012. The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean)., http://www.saintlucianplants.com

GRIIS, 2018. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species., http://www.griis.org/

Jurgens G, Hansen del Orbe R, Bautista JE, 1973. (Malezas en la Agricultura Dominicana). In: Boletin de la Direccion del Laboratorio de Sanidad Vegetal, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones, Extension y Capacitacion Agropecuarias. 6 (3) 1-35.

Oliveira JA, Souza EB, 2015. Oldenlandia lancifolia. Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB24496

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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17/04/2018 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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