Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Oldenlandia corymbosa
(flat-top mille graines)

Rojas-Sandoval J, 2018. Oldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.120125.20203483351

Toolbox

Datasheet

Oldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 26 June 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Oldenlandia corymbosa
  • Preferred Common Name
  • flat-top mille graines
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Oldenlandia corymbosa is a widespread polymorphic weed with a pantropical distribution. It is fast-growing and can rapidly colonize disturbed areas, open sites, gardens, farmlands, forest edges, grasslands, roadsides and riverbanks. O...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Oldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines); habit. Laie Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2017.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionOldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines); habit. Laie Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2017.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Oldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines); habit. Laie Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2017.
Flowering habitOldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines); habit. Laie Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2017.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Oldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines); habit. Laie Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2017.
TitleHabit
CaptionOldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines); habit. Laie Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2017.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Oldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines); habit. Laie Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2017.
HabitOldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines); habit. Laie Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2017.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Oldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines); habit. Laie Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2017.
TitleHabit
CaptionOldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines); habit. Laie Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2017.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Oldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines); habit. Laie Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2017.
HabitOldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines); habit. Laie Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2017.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Oldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines); flowers and leaves in hand. Oakwood Lakes Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September 2009.
TitleFlowers and leaves
CaptionOldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines); flowers and leaves in hand. Oakwood Lakes Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Oldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines); flowers and leaves in hand. Oakwood Lakes Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September 2009.
Flowers and leavesOldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines); flowers and leaves in hand. Oakwood Lakes Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Oldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines); flowers and fruits in hand. Laie Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2010.
TitleFlowers and fruit
CaptionOldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines); flowers and fruits in hand. Laie Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2010.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Oldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines); flowers and fruits in hand. Laie Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2010.
Flowers and fruitOldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines); flowers and fruits in hand. Laie Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2010.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Oldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines); flowers and fruits in hand. Laie Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2010.
TitleFlowers and fruit
CaptionOldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines); flowers and fruits in hand. Laie Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2010.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Oldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines); flowers and fruits in hand. Laie Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2010.
Flowers and fruitOldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines); flowers and fruits in hand. Laie Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2010.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Oldenlandia corymbosa L.

Preferred Common Name

  • flat-top mille graines

Other Scientific Names

  • Gerontogea biflora Cham. & Schltdl.
  • Gerontogea corymbosa (L.) Cham. & Schltdl.
  • Gerontogea herbacea Cham. & Schltdl.
  • Hedyotis burmanniana Wight & Arn.
  • Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam.
  • Hedyotis depressa (Willd.) Roem. & Schult.
  • Hedyotis diantha Schult.
  • Hedyotis graminicola Kurz
  • Hedyotis intermedia Wight & Arn.
  • Hedyotis pseudocorymbosa Bakh.f.
  • Hedyotis pusilla Hochst. ex A.Rich.
  • Hedyotis ramosa (Roxb.) Blume
  • Hedyotis scabrida Steud.
  • Hedyotis sperguloides A.Rich.
  • Oldenlandia alsinifolia G.Don
  • Oldenlandia burmanniana G.Don
  • Oldenlandia capillaris DC.
  • Oldenlandia depressa Willd.
  • Oldenlandia mollugoides O.Schwarz
  • Oldenlandia praetermissa Bremek.
  • Oldenlandia pseudocorymbosa (Bakh.f.) Raizada
  • Oldenlandia ramosa Roxb.
  • Oldenlandia scabrida DC.

International Common Names

  • English: old world diamond-flower
  • French: mille-grainers
  • Chinese: san fang hua er cao

Local Common Names

  • El Salvador: hierba de corral
  • India: daman papra; diamond flower; parpata; parpataka; pitpappar; wild chayroot
  • Indonesia: parpatah; parpatakah
  • Madagascar: ahibitsiki
  • Malaysia: parpatakam; parpatakapullu; pokok telur belangkas; siku dengan; siku-siku
  • Philippines: malaulasiman; ulasimanaso
  • Thailand: yaa linnguu

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

Oldenlandia corymbosa is a widespread polymorphic weed with a pantropical distribution. It is fast-growing and can rapidly colonize disturbed areas, open sites, gardens, farmlands, forest edges, grasslands, roadsides and riverbanks. O. corymbosa also produces large volumes of tiny seeds that can be easily dispersed by water, animals and vehicles, or as a contaminant in soil and agricultural produce. Its weedy habit, preference for disturbed sites and tiny seeds all facilitate its spread and colonization of new habitats.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Gentianales
  •                         Family: Rubiaceae
  •                             Genus: Oldenlandia
  •                                 Species: Oldenlandia corymbosa

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

The family Rubiaceae comprises 611 genera and about 13,150 species distributed worldwide, but with most species located in tropical regions. This family is particularly diverse in Madagascar and the Andes (Davis et al., 2009; Stevens, 2017). Oldenlandia and Hedyotis are two of the largest genera within the Rubiaceae and are commonly grouped as the Hedyotis-Oldenlandia complex. This complex contains approximately 500–600 species occurring throughout tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Species within this complex are very similar and share a herbaceous or shrubby habit with relatively small, mostly 4-merous flowers, bilobed stigmas, and dry, two-celled capsular fruits (Sivarajan and Biju, 1990; Neupane et al., 2009; Guo et al., 2013).

Due to the broad geographic distribution, species richness and morphological diversity, the generic delimitation in the Hedyotis–Oldenlandia complex has a long taxonomically confused history. Previous systematic treatments have varied from accepting a very broad-sensed Hedyotis, to partially or completely segregating these two taxa into different numbers of smaller genera (Guo et al., 2013; Wikström et al., 2013; Neupane et al., 2015; Hsu and Chen, 2017).

Description

Top of page

The following description is from Flora of China Editorial Committee (2018): Slender herb, annual, to 40 cm tall; stems 4-angled to flattened, 2-sulcate, with sides glabrous and angles thickened to winged and puberulent and/or scaberulous or terete to flattened and sparsely to densely scaberulous to puberulent throughout. Leaves subsessile; blade drying membranous, linear, narrowly lanceolate, or narrowly elliptic, 0.8-2 × 0.1-0.5 cm, adaxially sparsely scaberulous to glabrescent, abaxially glabrescent, base cuneate to acute, margins usually at least shortly revolute when dry, apex acute; secondary veins not visible; stipules fused to petiole bases, tubular, 1-2 mm, puberulent to glabrous, rounded to triangular, with 1-5(or 7) linear lobes or bristles 0.2-2.5 mm, these sometimes bifid. Inflorescence axillary, 1-flowered or usually cymose and 2-5-flowered, glabrous, pedunculate; peduncles 1(or 2) per axil, filiform, 1-16 mm; bracts lacking or stipuliform and 1-1.2 mm; pedicels slender, 2-12 mm. Flowers homostylous, pedicellate. Calyx glabrous to puberulent; hypanthium portion subglobose to narrowly ellipsoid, 0.5-0.8 mm; limb lobed essentially to base; lobes narrowly triangular, 0.5-1.2 mm, entire to ciliate. Corolla white or pink, funnelform to rotate; tube 0.8-1 mm, inside pubescent or glabrous; lobes spatulate-oblong to narrowly triangular, 0.5-0.8 mm. Anthers included, ca. 0.6 mm. Stigma 0.3-0.5 mm, included. Fruit capsular, subglobose, ovoid, or oblate, 1.2-2 × 1.2-2.2 mm; seeds 20 or more, dark brown.

Plant Type

Top of page
Annual
Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated

Distribution

Top of page

The native distribution range of O. corymbosa remains uncertain. Previously, this species has been listed as native to the Old World, but recent phylogenetic studies suggest that it is circumscribed to Africa (Terrell and Robinson, 2006; Guo et al., 2013; Neupane et al., 2015). Currently, O. corymbosa is considered native to Africa and introduced elsewhere. In India, it has been listed as both native and introduced (Sivarajan and Biju, 1990; Khuroo et al., 2012; Govaerts, 2018). O. corymbosa can be found naturalized across tropical and subtropical Asia, America, the West Indies, Australia, and on many islands in the Pacific and Indian Ocean (Govaerts, 2018; GRIIS, 2018; PIER, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentNative
BeninPresentNative
BotswanaPresentNative
Burkina FasoPresentNative
BurundiPresentNative
Cabo VerdePresentNative
CameroonPresentNative
Central African RepublicPresentNative
ChadPresentNative
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentNative
Côte d'IvoirePresentNative
EgyptPresentNative
EritreaPresentNative
EswatiniPresentNative
EthiopiaPresentNative
GabonPresentNative
GambiaPresentNative
GhanaPresentNative
GuineaPresentNative
Guinea-BissauPresentNative
KenyaPresentNative
LiberiaPresentNative
LibyaPresentNative
MadagascarPresentNative
MalawiPresentNative
MaliPresentNative
MozambiquePresentNative
NigeriaPresentNative
RwandaPresentNative
SenegalPresentNative
SeychellesPresentIntroducedInvasive
Sierra LeonePresentNative
SomaliaPresentNative
South AfricaPresentNative
SudanPresentNative
TanzaniaPresentNative
TogoPresentNative
UgandaPresentNative
ZambiaPresentNative
ZimbabwePresentNative

Asia

BangladeshPresent
British Indian Ocean TerritoryPresentIntroducedInvasive
BruneiPresent
ChinaPresent
-FujianPresentIntroduced
-GuangdongPresentIntroduced
-GuangxiPresentIntroduced
-GuizhouPresentIntroduced
-HainanPresentIntroduced
-SichuanPresentIntroduced
-ZhejiangPresentIntroduced
Cocos IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
IndiaPresentNative
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentNative
-AssamPresentNative
-Himachal PradeshPresentNative
-KarnatakaPresentNative
-KeralaPresentNative
-MaharashtraPresentNative
-Tamil NaduPresentNative
IndonesiaPresent
-JavaPresent
-SulawesiPresent
-SumatraPresent
JapanPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Bonin IslandsPresentIntroduced
MalaysiaPresent
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
MaldivesPresent
MyanmarPresent
NepalPresent
OmanPresentIntroduced
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedInvasive
Saudi ArabiaPresentIntroduced
SingaporePresentIntroducedInvasive
South KoreaPresentIntroducedNaturalized
Sri LankaPresent
TaiwanPresentIntroducedNaturalized
ThailandPresent
United Arab EmiratesPresentIntroduced
VietnamPresentIntroducedInvasive
YemenPresentIntroduced

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
BelizePresentIntroduced
Costa RicaPresentIntroduced
DominicaPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced
El SalvadorPresentIntroduced
GrenadaPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
GuadeloupePresent, WidespreadIntroduced
GuatemalaPresentIntroduced
HaitiPresentIntroduced
HondurasPresentIntroduced
JamaicaPresentIntroduced
MartiniquePresent, WidespreadIntroduced
MexicoPresentIntroducedNaturalizedVery common
MontserratPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
Netherlands AntillesPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
NicaraguaPresentIntroduced
PanamaPresentIntroduced
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedInvasive
Saint LuciaPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroduced
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveSt Croix
United StatesPresentNaturalizedVery common
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedVery common
-ArkansasPresentIntroduced
-FloridaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedVery common
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedVery common
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedVery common
-MississippiPresentIntroducedNaturalizedVery common
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedVery common
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedVery common
-TexasPresentIntroducedNaturalizedVery common

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroducedInvasive
AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Northern TerritoryPresentIntroduced
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroduced
Christmas IslandPresentIntroducedInvasive
Cook IslandsPresentIntroduced
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-KosraePresentIntroducedInvasive
-PohnpeiPresentIntroducedInvasive
-YapPresentIntroducedInvasive
FijiPresentIntroducedInvasive
GuamPresentIntroducedInvasive
KiribatiPresentIntroducedInvasive
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
NauruPresentIntroducedInvasive
New ZealandPresent
NiuePresentIntroducedInvasive
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
PalauPresentIntroducedInvasive
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedInvasive
SamoaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive

South America

BoliviaPresentIntroduced
BrazilPresentInvasive
-AcrePresentIntroduced
-AmapaPresentIntroduced
-AmazonasPresentIntroduced
-BahiaPresentIntroduced
-CearaPresentIntroduced
-Distrito FederalPresentIntroduced
-GoiasPresentIntroduced
-MaranhaoPresentIntroduced
-Mato GrossoPresentIntroduced
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroduced
-ParaPresentIntroduced
-ParanaPresentIntroduced
-PernambucoPresentIntroduced
-PiauiPresentIntroduced
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroduced
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroduced
-Sao PauloPresentIntroduced
-TocantinsPresentIntroduced
ColombiaPresentIntroduced
EcuadorPresentIntroduced
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroduced
French GuianaPresentIntroduced
GuyanaPresentIntroduced
PeruPresentIntroduced
VenezuelaPresentIntroduced

Habitat

Top of page

Oldenlandia corymbosa is very common as a weed in gardens, lawns and roadsides. It can also be found in degraded forests, disturbed sites, riversides, foreshores, lowland forests, coastal thickets, farmlands, and humid grasslands at elevations from sea level to 1500 m. It tolerates waterlogged soil conditions and can be found at damp stream edges, flooded lakeshores and in paddy fields (Terrell and Robinson, 2006; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; India Biodiversity Portal, 2018; PIER, 2018; PROSEA, 2018).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page

Oldenlandia corymbosa often grows as a weed in paddy fields and farmlands. It is particularly common in cassava, pineapple, maize, soybean and rice plantations throughout the tropics (Olorunmaiye and Olorunmaiye, 2008; Habimana et al., 2013; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; PROSEA, 2018). It also competes with turfgrass and is considered a weed of lawn areas in parks and gardens (Shahid and Rao, 2014).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Ananas comosus (pineapple)BromeliaceaeMain
    Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeMain
      Manihot esculenta (cassava)EuphorbiaceaeMain
        Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeMain
          turfgrassesMain
            Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeMain

              Growth Stages

              Top of page
              Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

              Biology and Ecology

              Top of page

              Genetics

              The chromosome number reported for O. corymbosa is 2n=18, 36, 54 (Terrell and Robinson, 2006).

              Reproductive Biology

              Oldenlandia is one of the genera of Rubiaceae that has both heterostylous and homostylous species. Many species within the Hedyotis-Oldelandia complex have been described as self-compatible (Terrell and Robinson, 2006; Florentin et al., 2016). Bees and flies have been observed visiting flowers of other Oldenlandia species such as O. salzmannii and O. diffusa (Florentin et al., 2016; PFAF, 2018).

              Physiology and Phenology

              In tropical climates, O. corymbosa produces flowers and fruits throughout the year (Terrell and Robinson, 2006; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; India Biodiversity Portal, 2018). In Pakistan it has been recorded as flowering from August to October (Flora of Pakistan, 2018).

              Longevity

              Oldenlandia corymbosa is an annual slender herb, but under favourable environmental conditions it behaves as a short-lived perennial herb (Wagner et al., 1999).

              Environmental Requirements

              Oldenlandia corymbosa grows as a weed, and can often be found in open and sunny areas with high levels of disturbance. It is adapted to a variety of soil types, ranging from shallow soil in rocky places, to black-cotton soils and bare-sandy soils. It tolerates waterlogged conditions but does not tolerate frost (Fern, 2014; PROSEA, 2018; PROTA, 2018).

              Climate

              Top of page
              ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
              Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
              Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
              As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
              Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
              BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
              Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
              Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
              Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

              Latitude/Altitude Ranges

              Top of page
              Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
              35 30

              Air Temperature

              Top of page
              Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
              Mean annual temperature (ºC) 15 35

              Rainfall

              Top of page
              ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
              Mean annual rainfall600>2000mm; lower/upper limits

              Rainfall Regime

              Top of page
              Bimodal
              Summer
              Uniform
              Winter

              Soil Tolerances

              Top of page

              Soil drainage

              • seasonally waterlogged

              Soil reaction

              • acid
              • neutral

              Soil texture

              • heavy
              • light
              • medium

              Means of Movement and Dispersal

              Top of page

              Oldenlandia corymbosa spreads mainly by seed, but plants can sometimes root at the nodes. The species produces numerous tiny seeds (~0.25 mm length) that can be easily dispersed by animals, water, vehicles, and in contaminated soil and agricultural produce. Stem and root fragments can be broken off and spread during cultivation or road maintenance, and can also be dispersed in contaminated soil (Wagner et al., 1999; Fern, 2014; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; PIER, 2018; PROSEA, 2018; PROTA, 2018).

              Pathway Causes

              Top of page
              CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
              Crop productionWeed in paddy fields and farmlands Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2018)
              DisturbanceCommon weed in ruderal sites, roadsides, forest edges Yes Yes Terrell and Robinson (2006)
              Escape from confinement or garden escapeSeeds, roots, stem fragments Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
              Garden waste disposalWeed in gardens and lawns Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
              Medicinal useUsed in traditional Asian medicine Yes Yes Patel et al. (2014)

              Pathway Vectors

              Top of page
              VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
              Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds, roots, stem fragments Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
              Machinery and equipmentSeeds, roots, stem fragments Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
              Soil, sand and gravelSeeds, roots, stem fragments Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
              Land vehiclesSeeds, roots, stem fragments Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
              WaterSeeds, roots, stem fragments Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)

              Impact Summary

              Top of page
              CategoryImpact
              Economic/livelihood Negative
              Environment (generally) Positive and negative
              Human health Positive

              Economic Impact

              Top of page

              Oldenlandia corymbosa is a weed in cassava, pineapple, maize, soybean and rice plantations (Olorunmaiye and Olorunmaiye, 2008; Habimana et al., 2013; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; PROSEA, 2018) and also in lawn areas in parks and gardens (Shahid and Rao, 2014).

              Environmental Impact

              Top of page

              Oldenlandia corymbosa is a cosmopolitan weed that often invades forest edges, disturbed areas, riversides, foreshores, lowland forests, coastal thickets and grasslands. Under suitable environmental conditions, it can rapidly dominate an ecosystem, with the potential to displace and outcompete native plants at early successional stages in disturbed areas. It has also been listed as a common weed in Biscayne National Park in Florida, USA (Wagner et al., 1999; Khuroo et al., 2012; GRIIS, 2018; National Park Service, 2018; PIER, 2018; PROTA, 2018).

              Risk and Impact Factors

              Top of page
              Invasiveness
              • Proved invasive outside its native range
              • Abundant in its native range
              • Highly adaptable to different environments
              • Is a habitat generalist
              • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
              • Pioneering in disturbed areas
              • Highly mobile locally
              • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
              • Long lived
              • Fast growing
              • Gregarious
              Impact outcomes
              • Damaged ecosystem services
              • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
              • Modification of successional patterns
              • Negatively impacts agriculture
              • Reduced native biodiversity
              Impact mechanisms
              • Competition - monopolizing resources
              • Competition - smothering
              • Rapid growth
              • Rooting
              Likelihood of entry/control
              • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
              • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
              • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

              Uses

              Top of page

              Oldenlandia corymbosa is a common medicinal herb across tropical Asia. In Indo-China, it is also used as antirheumatic. In India, the plant is a common ingredient in mixtures used to treat fever and as a tonic. It is also used to treat jaundice. The roots are reported to have vermifuge properties (PROSEA, 2018). In Chinese folk medicine, the plant is used to treat skin sores, ulcers, sore throat, bronchitis, gynecological infections and pelvic inflammatory diseases. The plant contains flavonols, phenolic acids, anthocyanidins, irridoids and alkaloids. In India, it is used to produce natural dyes (Patel et al., 2014; PROTA, 2018). 

              Uses List

              Top of page

              Materials

              • Dyestuffs

              Medicinal, pharmaceutical

              • Traditional/folklore

              Prevention and Control

              Top of page

              Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

              Herbicides such as pendimethalin, metribuzin and imazethapyr have been used to control O. corymbosa and other agricultural weeds in plantations and paddy fields (Olorunmaiye and Olorunmaiye, 2008; Habimana et al., 2013).

              References

              Top of page

              Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

              Broome, R., Sabir, K., Carrington, S., 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. In: Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database , Barbados: University of the West Indies.http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

              Chong, K. Y., Tan, H. T. W., Corlett, R. T., 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species, Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore.273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

              Davis AP, Govaerts R, Bridson DM, Ruhsam M, Moat J, Brummitt NA, 2009. A global assessment of distribution, diversity, endemism, and taxonomic effort in the Rubiaceae. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 96(1), 68-78.

              Fern K, 2014. Useful Tropical Plants Database. http://tropical.theferns.info/

              Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

              Flora of Pakistan, 2018. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website. In: Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

              Florentin, M. N., Fader, A. C., Gonzalez, A. M., 2016. Morpho-anatomical and morphometric studies of the floral structures of the distylous Oldenlandia salzmannii (Rubiaceae). Acta Botanica Brasilica, 30(4), 585-601. doi: 10.1590/0102-33062016abb0247

              Funk, V., Hollowell, T., Berry, P., Kelloff, C., Alexander, S. N., 2007. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution 55, 584 pp.

              Govaerts, R, 2018. World Checklist of Rubiaceae. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

              GRIIS, 2018. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species. http://www.griis.org/

              Guo Xing, Wang RuiJiang, Simmons, M. P., But PuiHay [But, P. H. P. ], Yu Jing, 2013. Phylogeny of the Asian Hedyotis-Oldenlandia complex (Spermacoceae, Rubiaceae): evidence for high levels of polyphyly and the parallel evolution of diplophragmous capsules. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 67(1), 110-122. doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2013.01.006

              Habimana, S., Murthy, K. N. K., Shankaralingappa, B. C., Devendra, R., Sanjay, M. T., Ramachandra, C., 2013. Effect of pre and post-emergence herbicides on weed dynamics, growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max L.). Advances in Applied Science Research, 4(4), 72-75. http://www.pelagiaresearchlibrary.com/advances-in-applied-science/vol4-iss4/AASR-2013-4-4-72-75.pdf

              Herrera, K., Lorence, D. H., Flynn, T., Balick, M. J., 2010. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia with Local Names and Uses. Allertonia, 10, 1-192. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23193787

              Hsu, TC , Chen, ZH, 2017. Scleromitrion sirayanum (Rubiaceae: Spermacoceae), a new species of the Hedyotis-Oldenlandia complex in Taiwan. Taiwania, 62(2), 151-6.

              India Biodiversity Portal, 2018. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity . http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

              Khuroo, A. A., Reshi, Z. A., Malik, A. H., Weber, E., Rashid, I., Dar, G. H., 2012. Alien flora of India: taxonomic composition, invasion status and biogeographic affiliations. Biological Invasions, 14(1), 99-113. http://www.springerlink.com/content/0p0331853 lm77 gl6/ doi: 10.1007/s10530-011-9981-2

              Kull, C. A., Tassin, J., Moreau, S., Ramiarantsoa, H. R., Blanc-Pamard, C., Carrière, S. M., 2012. The introduced flora of Madagascar. Biological Invasions, 14(4), 875-888. doi: 10.1007/s10530-011-0124-6

              Lee HJ, Lee YM, Kim, JH, Cho, YH, 2009. New record of Hedyotis corymbosa, a naturalized species in Korea. Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy, 39(4), 304-8.

              Lorence, DH, Flynn, T, 2010. Checklist of the plants of Kosrae. Unpublished checklist. Lawai, Hawaii, National Tropical Botanical Garden.26.

              McCormack, G, 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Rarotonga, Cook Islands: Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust.http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org/search.asp

              National Park Service, 2018. List of exotic and invasive plants occurring in the Biscayne National Park, Florida. https://www.nps.gov/bisc/learn/nature/invasive-plants.htm

              Neupane S, Dessein S, Wikström N, Lewis PO, Long C, Bremer B, Motley TJ, 2015. The Hedyotis-Oldenlandia complex (Rubiaceae: Spermacoceae) in Asia and the Pacific: Phylogeny revisited with new generic delimitations. Taxon, 64(2), 299-322.

              Neupane, S., Dessein, S., Motley, T. J., 2009. The Hedyotis-Oldenlandia-Kohautia complex (Rubiaceae) in Nepal: a study of fruit, seed and pollen characters and their taxonomic significance. Edinburgh Journal of Botany, 66(3), 371-390. doi: 10.1017/S0960428609990035

              Oliveira, JA, Souza, EB, 2015. Oldenlandia in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro.http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB14127

              Olorunmaiye PM, Olorunmaiye KS, 2008. Weed flora of a maize/cassava intercrop under integrated weed management in an ecological zone of southern Guinea savanna of Nigeria. Ethnobotanical Leaflets, 1(108)

              Orchard, A. E., 1993. Flora of Australia. Vol. 50, Oceanic islands 2, Canberra, ACT, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service.unpaginated.

              Patel TD, Jain V, Dodia R, 2014. Oldenlandia corymbosa L: a phytopharmacological review. International Journal of Phytopharmacy, 4, 79-82.

              PFAF, 2018. Plants For A Future Database. In: Plants For A Future Database Dawlish, UK: Plants For A Future.http://www.pfaf.org/USER/Default.aspx

              PIER, 2018. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

              PROSEA, 2018. Plant Resources of South-East Asia. https://uses.plantnet-project.org/en/Oldenlandia_corymbosa_(PROSEA)

              PROTA, 2018. PROTA4U web database. In: PROTA4U web database Wageningen and Nairobi, Netherlands\Kenya: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.https://www.prota4u.org/database/

              Rojas-Sandoval, J., Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., 2015. Naturalization and invasion of alien plants in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Biological Invasions, 17(1), 149-163. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10530-014-0712-3/fulltext.html doi: 10.1007/s10530-014-0712-3

              Shahid, M., Rao, N. K., 2014. Datura ferox and Oldenlandia corymbosa: new record to the UAE flora. Journal on New Biological Reports, 3(3), 170-174. http://www.researchtrend.net/jnbr/VOL%203(3)%202014/3%20Shahid%20and%20%20Rao%20JNBR%203_3_2014.pdf

              Sivarajan VV, Biju SD, 1990. Taxonomic and nomenclatural notes on the Hedyotis corymbosa-diffusa complex (Rubiaceae) in India. Taxon, 39, 665-674.

              Stevens, P. F., 2017. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14. In: Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14 . St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

              Terrell, EE, Robinson, H, 2006. Taxonomy of North American species of Oldenlandia (Rubiaceae). SIDA, Contributions to Botany, 11, 305-29.

              USDA-ARS, 2018. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

              Wagner, W. L., Herbst, D. R., Sohmer, S. H., 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawai'i, Vols. 1 & 2, (Revised edition) . Honolulu, USA: University of Hawai'i Press/Bishop Museum Press.1918 + [1] pp.

              Waterhouse, D. F., 1993. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia, Canberra, Australia: ACIAR.v + 141 pp.

              Whistler, W. A., 1996. Botanical survey of Diego Garcia, Chagos Archipelago, British Indian Ocean Territory. In: Botanical survey of Diego Garcia, Chagos Archipelago, British Indian Ocean Territory . Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: Isle Botanica.49 pp. http://www.zianet.com/tedmorris/dg/2005NRMP-Appendixe-botanicalsurvey.pdf

              Wikström, N., Neupane, S., Kårehed, J., Motley, T. J., Bremer, B., 2013. Phylogeny of Hedyotis L. (Rubiaceae: Spermacoceae): redefining a complex Asian-Pacific assemblage. Taxon, 62(2), 357-374. doi: 10.12705/622.2

              Distribution References

              Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

              Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. In: Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

              Chong K Y, Tan H T W, Corlett R T, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

              Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

              Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Alexander S N, 2007. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. 55, 584 pp.

              Gabuin T G, Abdul S D, Sawa F B, 2014. Preliminary observations on weeds of maize (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields in Bauchi. Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science. 9 (11), 385-388. http://www.arpnjournals.com/jabs/research_papers/rp_2014/jabs_1114_690.pdf

              Govaerts R, 2018. World Checklist of Rubiaceae., Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

              GRIIS, 2018. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species., http://www.griis.org/

              Hakim M A, Juraimi A S, Ismail M R, Hanafi M M, Selamat A, 2013. A survey on weed diversity in coastal rice fields of Sebarang Perak in Peninsular Malaysia. JAPS, Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences. 23 (2), 534-542. http://www.thejaps.org.pk/docs/v-23-2/33.pdf

              Herrera K, Lorence D H, Flynn T, Balick M J, 2010. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia with Local Names and Uses. Allertonia. 1-192. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23193787

              Hsu TC , Chen ZH, 2017. Scleromitrion sirayanum (Rubiaceae: Spermacoceae), a new species of the Hedyotis-Oldenlandia complex in Taiwan. Taiwania. 62 (2), 151-6.

              India Biodiversity Portal, 2018. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

              James T K, Champion P D, Bullians M, Rahman A, 2011. Weed biosecurity breach through coco peat imports. In: 23rd Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference. Volume 1: weed management in a changing world, Cairns, Queensland, Australia, 26-29 September 2011 [23rd Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference. Volume 1: weed management in a changing world, Cairns, Queensland, Australia, 26-29 September 2011.], Cairns, Australia: Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society. 210-216.

              Khuroo A A, Reshi Z A, Malik A H, Weber E, Rashid I, Dar G H, 2012. Alien flora of India: taxonomic composition, invasion status and biogeographic affiliations. Biological Invasions. 14 (1), 99-113. http://www.springerlink.com/content/0p0331853 lm77 gl6/ DOI:10.1007/s10530-011-9981-2

              Kull C A, Tassin J, Moreau S, Ramiarantsoa H R, Blanc-Pamard C, Carrière S M, 2012. The introduced flora of Madagascar. Biological Invasions. 14 (4), 875-888. DOI:10.1007/s10530-011-0124-6

              Lee HJ, Lee YM, Kim JH, Cho YH, 2009. New record of Hedyotis corymbosa, a naturalized species in Korea. Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy. 39 (4), 304-8.

              Lorence DH, Flynn T, 2010. Checklist of the plants of Kosrae. Unpublished checklist., Lawai, Hawaii, National Tropical Botanical Garden. 26.

              McCormack G, 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2., Rarotonga, Cook Islands: Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust. http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org/search.asp

              Mesquita M L R, Andrade L A de, Pereira W E, 2013. Floristic diversity of the soil weed seed bank in a rice-growing area of Brazil: in situ and ex situ evaluation. Acta Botanica Brasilica. 27 (3), 465-471. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-33062013000300001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en DOI:10.1590/S0102-33062013000300001

              Oliveira JA, Souza EB, 2015. Oldenlandia in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB14127

              Orchard A E, 1993. Flora of Australia. Vol. 50, Oceanic islands 2. Canberra, ACT, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service. unpaginated.

              PIER, 2018. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

              Rojas-Sandoval J, Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2015. Naturalization and invasion of alien plants in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Biological Invasions. 17 (1), 149-163. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10530-014-0712-3/fulltext.html DOI:10.1007/s10530-014-0712-3

              Shahid M, Rao N K, 2014. Datura ferox and Oldenlandia corymbosa: new record to the UAE flora. Journal on New Biological Reports. 3 (3), 170-174. http://www.researchtrend.net/jnbr/VOL%203(3)%202014/3%20Shahid%20and%20%20Rao%20JNBR%203_3_2014.pdf

              Terrell EE, Robinson H, 2006. Taxonomy of North American species of Oldenlandia (Rubiaceae). SIDA, Contributions to Botany. 305-29.

              Waterhouse D F, 1993. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. Canberra, Australia: ACIAR. v + 141 pp.

              Whistler W A, 1996. Botanical survey of Diego Garcia, Chagos Archipelago, British Indian Ocean Territory. In: Botanical survey of Diego Garcia, Chagos Archipelago, British Indian Ocean Territory. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: Isle Botanica. 49 pp. http://www.zianet.com/tedmorris/dg/2005NRMP-Appendixe-botanicalsurvey.pdf

              Xie X M, Tang W, Zhong P T, Shiyomi M, 2008. Analysis of spatial heterogeneity of the weed community in a manilagrass lawn using power-law. Acta Horticulturae. 529-534. http://www.actahort.org

              Links to Websites

              Top of page
              WebsiteURLComment
              GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

              Contributors

              Top of page

              11/04/18 Original text by:

              Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

              Distribution Maps

              Top of page
              You can pan and zoom the map
              Save map
              Select a dataset
              Map Legends
              • CABI Summary Records
              Map Filters
              Extent
              Invasive
              Origin
              Third party data sources: