Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Oldenlandia corymbosa
(flat-top mille graines)

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Datasheet

Oldenlandia corymbosa (flat-top mille graines)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 26 June 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Oldenlandia corymbosa
  • Preferred Common Name
  • flat-top mille graines
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Oldenlandia corymbosa is a widespread polymorphic weed with a pantropical distribution. It is fast-growing and can rapidly colonize disturbed areas, open sites, gardens, farmlands, forest edges, grasslands, roa...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Oldenlandia corymbosa L.

Preferred Common Name

  • flat-top mille graines

Other Scientific Names

  • Gerontogea biflora Cham. & Schltdl.
  • Gerontogea corymbosa (L.) Cham. & Schltdl.
  • Gerontogea herbacea Cham. & Schltdl.
  • Hedyotis burmanniana Wight & Arn.
  • Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam.
  • Hedyotis depressa (Willd.) Roem. & Schult.
  • Hedyotis diantha Schult.
  • Hedyotis graminicola Kurz
  • Hedyotis intermedia Wight & Arn.
  • Hedyotis pseudocorymbosa Bakh.f.
  • Hedyotis pusilla Hochst. ex A.Rich.
  • Hedyotis ramosa (Roxb.) Blume
  • Hedyotis scabrida Steud.
  • Hedyotis sperguloides A.Rich.
  • Oldenlandia alsinifolia G.Don
  • Oldenlandia burmanniana G.Don
  • Oldenlandia capillaris DC.
  • Oldenlandia depressa Willd.
  • Oldenlandia mollugoides O.Schwarz
  • Oldenlandia praetermissa Bremek.
  • Oldenlandia pseudocorymbosa (Bakh.f.) Raizada
  • Oldenlandia ramosa Roxb.
  • Oldenlandia scabrida DC.

International Common Names

  • English: old world diamond-flower
  • French: mille-grainers
  • Chinese: san fang hua er cao

Local Common Names

  • El Salvador: hierba de corral
  • India: daman papra; diamond flower; parpata; parpataka; pitpappar; wild chayroot
  • Indonesia: parpatah; parpatakah
  • Madagascar: ahibitsiki
  • Malaysia: parpatakam; parpatakapullu; pokok telur belangkas; siku dengan; siku-siku
  • Philippines: malaulasiman; ulasimanaso
  • Thailand: yaa linnguu

Summary of Invasiveness

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Oldenlandia corymbosa is a widespread polymorphic weed with a pantropical distribution. It is fast-growing and can rapidly colonize disturbed areas, open sites, gardens, farmlands, forest edges, grasslands, roadsides and riverbanks. O. corymbosa also produces large volumes of tiny seeds that can be easily dispersed by water, animals and vehicles, or as a contaminant in soil and agricultural produce. Its weedy habit, preference for disturbed sites and tiny seeds all facilitate its spread and colonization of new habitats.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Gentianales
  •                         Family: Rubiaceae
  •                             Genus: Oldenlandia
  •                                 Species: Oldenlandia corymbosa

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Rubiaceae comprises 611 genera and about 13,150 species distributed worldwide, but with most species located in tropical regions. This family is particularly diverse in Madagascar and the Andes (Davis et al., 2009; Stevens, 2017). Oldenlandia and Hedyotis are two of the largest genera within the Rubiaceae and are commonly grouped as the Hedyotis-Oldenlandia complex. This complex contains approximately 500–600 species occurring throughout tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Species within this complex are very similar and share a herbaceous or shrubby habit with relatively small, mostly 4-merous flowers, bilobed stigmas, and dry, two-celled capsular fruits (Sivarajan and Biju, 1990; Neupane et al., 2009; Guo et al., 2013).

Due to the broad geographic distribution, species richness and morphological diversity, the generic delimitation in the Hedyotis–Oldenlandia complex has a long taxonomically confused history. Previous systematic treatments have varied from accepting a very broad-sensed Hedyotis, to partially or completely segregating these two taxa into different numbers of smaller genera (Guo et al., 2013; Wikström et al., 2013; Neupane et al., 2015; Hsu and Chen, 2017).

Description

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The following description is from Flora of China Editorial Committee (2018): Slender herb, annual, to 40 cm tall; stems 4-angled to flattened, 2-sulcate, with sides glabrous and angles thickened to winged and puberulent and/or scaberulous or terete to flattened and sparsely to densely scaberulous to puberulent throughout. Leaves subsessile; blade drying membranous, linear, narrowly lanceolate, or narrowly elliptic, 0.8-2 × 0.1-0.5 cm, adaxially sparsely scaberulous to glabrescent, abaxially glabrescent, base cuneate to acute, margins usually at least shortly revolute when dry, apex acute; secondary veins not visible; stipules fused to petiole bases, tubular, 1-2 mm, puberulent to glabrous, rounded to triangular, with 1-5(or 7) linear lobes or bristles 0.2-2.5 mm, these sometimes bifid. Inflorescence axillary, 1-flowered or usually cymose and 2-5-flowered, glabrous, pedunculate; peduncles 1(or 2) per axil, filiform, 1-16 mm; bracts lacking or stipuliform and 1-1.2 mm; pedicels slender, 2-12 mm. Flowers homostylous, pedicellate. Calyx glabrous to puberulent; hypanthium portion subglobose to narrowly ellipsoid, 0.5-0.8 mm; limb lobed essentially to base; lobes narrowly triangular, 0.5-1.2 mm, entire to ciliate. Corolla white or pink, funnelform to rotate; tube 0.8-1 mm, inside pubescent or glabrous; lobes spatulate-oblong to narrowly triangular, 0.5-0.8 mm. Anthers included, ca. 0.6 mm. Stigma 0.3-0.5 mm, included. Fruit capsular, subglobose, ovoid, or oblate, 1.2-2 × 1.2-2.2 mm; seeds 20 or more, dark brown.

Plant Type

Top of page Annual
Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated

Distribution

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The native distribution range of O. corymbosa remains uncertain. Previously, this species has been listed as native to the Old World, but recent phylogenetic studies suggest that it is circumscribed to Africa (Terrell and Robinson, 2006; Guo et al., 2013; Neupane et al., 2015). Currently, O. corymbosa is considered native to Africa and introduced elsewhere. In India, it has been listed as both native and introduced (Sivarajan and Biju, 1990; Khuroo et al., 2012; Govaerts, 2018). O. corymbosa can be found naturalized across tropical and subtropical Asia, America, the West Indies, Australia, and on many islands in the Pacific and Indian Ocean (Govaerts, 2018; GRIIS, 2018; PIER, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 26 Jun 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
BeninPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
BotswanaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
Burkina FasoPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
BurundiPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
Cabo VerdePresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
CameroonPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
Central African RepublicPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
ChadPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
Côte d'IvoirePresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
EgyptPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
EritreaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
EswatiniPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
EthiopiaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
GabonPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
GambiaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
GhanaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
GuineaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
Guinea-BissauPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
KenyaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
LiberiaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
LibyaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
MadagascarPresentNativeKull et al. (2012)
MalawiPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
MaliPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
MozambiquePresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
NigeriaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
RwandaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
SenegalPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
SeychellesPresentIntroducedInvasiveGRIIS (2018)
Sierra LeonePresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
SomaliaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
South AfricaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
SudanPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
TanzaniaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
TogoPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
UgandaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
ZambiaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
ZimbabwePresentNativeGovaerts (2018)

Asia

BangladeshPresentGovaerts (2018)
British Indian Ocean TerritoryPresentIntroducedInvasiveWhistler (1996)
BruneiPresentWaterhouse (1993)
ChinaPresentGovaerts (2018)
-FujianPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)
-GuangxiPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)
-GuizhouPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)
-HainanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)
-SichuanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)
-ZhejiangPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)
Cocos IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveOrchard (1993)
IndiaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018); Khuroo et al. (2012)
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
-AssamPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
-Himachal PradeshPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
-KarnatakaPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal (2018)
-KeralaPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal (2018)
-MaharashtraPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal (2018)
-Tamil NaduPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity Portal (2018)
IndonesiaPresentGovaerts (2018)
-JavaPresentGovaerts (2018)
-SulawesiPresentGovaerts (2018)
-SumatraPresentGovaerts (2018)
JapanPresentIntroducedInvasiveGRIIS (2018)
-Bonin IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER (2018)
MalaysiaPresentGovaerts (2018)
MaldivesPresentPIER (2018)
MyanmarPresentGovaerts (2018)
NepalPresentGovaerts (2018)
OmanPresentIntroducedShahid and Rao (2014)
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedInvasiveGRIIS (2018); Govaerts (2018)
Saudi ArabiaPresentIntroducedShahid and Rao (2014)
SingaporePresentIntroducedInvasiveChong et al. (2009)
South KoreaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedLee HJ et al. (2009)
Sri LankaPresentGovaerts (2018)
TaiwanPresentIntroducedNaturalizedHsu and Chen (2017)
ThailandPresentGovaerts (2018)
United Arab EmiratesPresentIntroducedShahid and Rao (2014)
VietnamPresentIntroducedInvasiveGRIIS (2018)
YemenPresentIntroducedShahid and Rao (2014)

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
BelizePresentIntroducedGovaerts (2018)
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2018)
DominicaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2018)
GrenadaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
GuadeloupePresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2018)
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
HondurasPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2018)
JamaicaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
MartiniquePresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
MexicoPresentIntroducedNaturalizedTerrell and Robinson (2006)Very common
MontserratPresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
Netherlands AntillesPresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2018)
PanamaPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2018)
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedInvasiveRojas-Sandoval and Acevedo-Rodríguez (2015)
Saint LuciaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2018)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveRojas-Sandoval and Acevedo-Rodríguez (2015)St Croix
United StatesPresentNaturalizedTerrell and Robinson (2006)Very common
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedTerrell and Robinson (2006)Very common
-ArkansasPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2018)
-FloridaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedTerrell and Robinson (2006)Very common
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedTerrell and Robinson (2006)Very common
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedTerrell and Robinson (2006)Very common
-MississippiPresentIntroducedNaturalizedTerrell and Robinson (2006)Very common
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedTerrell and Robinson (2006)Very common
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedTerrell and Robinson (2006)Very common
-TexasPresentIntroducedNaturalizedTerrell and Robinson (2006)Very common

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroducedInvasiveGRIIS (2018)
AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasiveGRIIS (2018)
-Northern TerritoryPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2018)
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2018)
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2018)
Christmas IslandPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedMcCormack (2013)
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveGRIIS (2018)
-KosraePresentIntroducedInvasiveLorence and Flynn (2010)
-PohnpeiPresentIntroducedInvasiveHerrera et al. (2010)
-YapPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)
FijiPresentIntroducedInvasiveGRIIS (2018)
GuamPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)
KiribatiPresentIntroducedInvasiveGRIIS (2018)
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveGRIIS (2018)
NauruPresentIntroducedInvasiveGRIIS (2018)
NiuePresentIntroducedInvasiveGRIIS (2018)
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)
PalauPresentIntroducedInvasiveGRIIS (2018)
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedInvasiveGRIIS (2018)
SamoaPresentIntroducedInvasiveGRIIS (2018)
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveGRIIS (2018)

South America

BoliviaPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2018)
BrazilPresentInvasiveOliveira and Souza (2015)
-AcrePresentIntroducedOliveira and Souza (2015)
-AmapaPresentIntroducedOliveira and Souza (2015)
-AmazonasPresentIntroducedOliveira and Souza (2015)
-BahiaPresentIntroducedOliveira and Souza (2015)
-CearaPresentIntroducedOliveira and Souza (2015)
-Distrito FederalPresentIntroducedOliveira and Souza (2015)
-GoiasPresentIntroducedOliveira and Souza (2015)
-MaranhaoPresentIntroducedOliveira and Souza (2015)
-Mato GrossoPresentIntroducedOliveira and Souza (2015)
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroducedOliveira and Souza (2015)
-ParaPresentIntroducedOliveira and Souza (2015)
-ParanaPresentIntroducedOliveira and Souza (2015)
-PernambucoPresentIntroducedOliveira and Souza (2015)
-PiauiPresentIntroducedOliveira and Souza (2015)
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroducedOliveira and Souza (2015)
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroducedOliveira and Souza (2015)
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedOliveira and Souza (2015)
-TocantinsPresentIntroducedOliveira and Souza (2015)
ColombiaPresentIntroducedOliveira and Souza (2015)
EcuadorPresentIntroducedOliveira and Souza (2015)
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedOliveira and Souza (2015)
French GuianaPresentIntroducedFunk et al. (2007)
GuyanaPresentIntroducedOliveira and Souza (2015)
PeruPresentIntroducedOliveira and Souza (2015)
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedOliveira and Souza (2015)

Habitat

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Oldenlandia corymbosa is very common as a weed in gardens, lawns and roadsides. It can also be found in degraded forests, disturbed sites, riversides, foreshores, lowland forests, coastal thickets, farmlands, and humid grasslands at elevations from sea level to 1500 m. It tolerates waterlogged soil conditions and can be found at damp stream edges, flooded lakeshores and in paddy fields (Terrell and Robinson, 2006; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; India Biodiversity Portal, 2018; PIER, 2018; PROSEA, 2018).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Natural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Coastal areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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Oldenlandia corymbosa often grows as a weed in paddy fields and farmlands. It is particularly common in cassava, pineapple, maize, soybean and rice plantations throughout the tropics (Olorunmaiye and Olorunmaiye, 2008; Habimana et al., 2013; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; PROSEA, 2018). It also competes with turfgrass and is considered a weed of lawn areas in parks and gardens (Shahid and Rao, 2014).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Ananas comosus (pineapple)BromeliaceaeMain
Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeMain
Manihot esculenta (cassava)EuphorbiaceaeMain
Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeMain
turfgrassesMain
Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeMain

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for O. corymbosa is 2n=18, 36, 54 (Terrell and Robinson, 2006).

Reproductive Biology

Oldenlandia is one of the genera of Rubiaceae that has both heterostylous and homostylous species. Many species within the Hedyotis-Oldelandia complex have been described as self-compatible (Terrell and Robinson, 2006; Florentin et al., 2016). Bees and flies have been observed visiting flowers of other Oldenlandia species such as O. salzmannii and O. diffusa (Florentin et al., 2016; PFAF, 2018).

Physiology and Phenology

In tropical climates, O. corymbosa produces flowers and fruits throughout the year (Terrell and Robinson, 2006; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; India Biodiversity Portal, 2018). In Pakistan it has been recorded as flowering from August to October (Flora of Pakistan, 2018).

Longevity

Oldenlandia corymbosa is an annual slender herb, but under favourable environmental conditions it behaves as a short-lived perennial herb (Wagner et al., 1999).

Environmental Requirements

Oldenlandia corymbosa grows as a weed, and can often be found in open and sunny areas with high levels of disturbance. It is adapted to a variety of soil types, ranging from shallow soil in rocky places, to black-cotton soils and bare-sandy soils. It tolerates waterlogged conditions but does not tolerate frost (Fern, 2014; PROSEA, 2018; PROTA, 2018).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
35 30

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 15 35

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall600>2000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Oldenlandia corymbosa spreads mainly by seed, but plants can sometimes root at the nodes. The species produces numerous tiny seeds (~0.25 mm length) that can be easily dispersed by animals, water, vehicles, and in contaminated soil and agricultural produce. Stem and root fragments can be broken off and spread during cultivation or road maintenance, and can also be dispersed in contaminated soil (Wagner et al., 1999; Fern, 2014; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; PIER, 2018; PROSEA, 2018; PROTA, 2018).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionWeed in paddy fields and farmlands Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018
DisturbanceCommon weed in ruderal sites, roadsides, forest edges Yes Yes Terrell and Robinson, 2006
Escape from confinement or garden escapeSeeds, roots, stem fragments Yes Yes PROSEA, 2018
Garden waste disposalWeed in gardens and lawns Yes Yes PROSEA, 2018
Medicinal useUsed in traditional Asian medicine Yes Yes Patel et al., 2014

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds, roots, stem fragments Yes Yes PROSEA, 2018
Machinery and equipmentSeeds, roots, stem fragments Yes Yes PROSEA, 2018
Soil, sand and gravelSeeds, roots, stem fragments Yes Yes PROSEA, 2018
Land vehiclesSeeds, roots, stem fragments Yes Yes PROSEA, 2018
WaterSeeds, roots, stem fragments Yes Yes PROSEA, 2018

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive

Economic Impact

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Oldenlandia corymbosa is a weed in cassava, pineapple, maize, soybean and rice plantations (Olorunmaiye and Olorunmaiye, 2008; Habimana et al., 2013; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; PROSEA, 2018) and also in lawn areas in parks and gardens (Shahid and Rao, 2014).

Environmental Impact

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Oldenlandia corymbosa is a cosmopolitan weed that often invades forest edges, disturbed areas, riversides, foreshores, lowland forests, coastal thickets and grasslands. Under suitable environmental conditions, it can rapidly dominate an ecosystem, with the potential to displace and outcompete native plants at early successional stages in disturbed areas. It has also been listed as a common weed in Biscayne National Park in Florida, USA (Wagner et al., 1999; Khuroo et al., 2012; GRIIS, 2018; National Park Service, 2018; PIER, 2018; PROTA, 2018).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Gregarious
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Reduced native biodiversity
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

Uses

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Oldenlandia corymbosa is a common medicinal herb across tropical Asia. In Indo-China, it is also used as antirheumatic. In India, the plant is a common ingredient in mixtures used to treat fever and as a tonic. It is also used to treat jaundice. The roots are reported to have vermifuge properties (PROSEA, 2018). In Chinese folk medicine, the plant is used to treat skin sores, ulcers, sore throat, bronchitis, gynecological infections and pelvic inflammatory diseases. The plant contains flavonols, phenolic acids, anthocyanidins, irridoids and alkaloids. In India, it is used to produce natural dyes (Patel et al., 2014; PROTA, 2018). 

Uses List

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Materials

  • Dyestuffs

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Herbicides such as pendimethalin, metribuzin and imazethapyr have been used to control O. corymbosa and other agricultural weeds in plantations and paddy fields (Olorunmaiye and Olorunmaiye, 2008; Habimana et al., 2013).

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Broome, R., Sabir, K., Carrington, S., 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. In: Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database , Barbados: University of the West Indies.http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Chong, K. Y., Tan, H. T. W., Corlett, R. T., 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species, Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore.273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Davis AP, Govaerts R, Bridson DM, Ruhsam M, Moat J, Brummitt NA, 2009. A global assessment of distribution, diversity, endemism, and taxonomic effort in the Rubiaceae. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 96(1), 68-78.

Fern K, 2014. Useful Tropical Plants Database. http://tropical.theferns.info/

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Pakistan, 2018. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website. In: Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

Florentin, M. N., Fader, A. C., Gonzalez, A. M., 2016. Morpho-anatomical and morphometric studies of the floral structures of the distylous Oldenlandia salzmannii (Rubiaceae). Acta Botanica Brasilica, 30(4), 585-601. doi: 10.1590/0102-33062016abb0247

Funk, V., Hollowell, T., Berry, P., Kelloff, C., Alexander, S. N., 2007. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution 55, 584 pp.

Govaerts, R, 2018. World Checklist of Rubiaceae. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

GRIIS, 2018. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species. http://www.griis.org/

Guo Xing, Wang RuiJiang, Simmons, M. P., But PuiHay [But, P. H. P. ], Yu Jing, 2013. Phylogeny of the Asian Hedyotis-Oldenlandia complex (Spermacoceae, Rubiaceae): evidence for high levels of polyphyly and the parallel evolution of diplophragmous capsules. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 67(1), 110-122. doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2013.01.006

Habimana, S., Murthy, K. N. K., Shankaralingappa, B. C., Devendra, R., Sanjay, M. T., Ramachandra, C., 2013. Effect of pre and post-emergence herbicides on weed dynamics, growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max L.). Advances in Applied Science Research, 4(4), 72-75. http://www.pelagiaresearchlibrary.com/advances-in-applied-science/vol4-iss4/AASR-2013-4-4-72-75.pdf

Herrera, K., Lorence, D. H., Flynn, T., Balick, M. J., 2010. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia with Local Names and Uses. Allertonia, 10, 1-192. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23193787

Hsu, TC , Chen, ZH, 2017. Scleromitrion sirayanum (Rubiaceae: Spermacoceae), a new species of the Hedyotis-Oldenlandia complex in Taiwan. Taiwania, 62(2), 151-6.

India Biodiversity Portal, 2018. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity . http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Khuroo, A. A., Reshi, Z. A., Malik, A. H., Weber, E., Rashid, I., Dar, G. H., 2012. Alien flora of India: taxonomic composition, invasion status and biogeographic affiliations. Biological Invasions, 14(1), 99-113. http://www.springerlink.com/content/0p0331853 lm77 gl6/ doi: 10.1007/s10530-011-9981-2

Kull, C. A., Tassin, J., Moreau, S., Ramiarantsoa, H. R., Blanc-Pamard, C., Carrière, S. M., 2012. The introduced flora of Madagascar. Biological Invasions, 14(4), 875-888. doi: 10.1007/s10530-011-0124-6

Lee HJ, Lee YM, Kim, JH, Cho, YH, 2009. New record of Hedyotis corymbosa, a naturalized species in Korea. Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy, 39(4), 304-8.

Lorence, DH, Flynn, T, 2010. Checklist of the plants of Kosrae. Unpublished checklist. Lawai, Hawaii, National Tropical Botanical Garden.26.

McCormack, G, 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Rarotonga, Cook Islands: Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust.http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org/search.asp

National Park Service, 2018. List of exotic and invasive plants occurring in the Biscayne National Park, Florida. https://www.nps.gov/bisc/learn/nature/invasive-plants.htm

Neupane S, Dessein S, Wikström N, Lewis PO, Long C, Bremer B, Motley TJ, 2015. The Hedyotis-Oldenlandia complex (Rubiaceae: Spermacoceae) in Asia and the Pacific: Phylogeny revisited with new generic delimitations. Taxon, 64(2), 299-322.

Neupane, S., Dessein, S., Motley, T. J., 2009. The Hedyotis-Oldenlandia-Kohautia complex (Rubiaceae) in Nepal: a study of fruit, seed and pollen characters and their taxonomic significance. Edinburgh Journal of Botany, 66(3), 371-390. doi: 10.1017/S0960428609990035

Oliveira, JA, Souza, EB, 2015. Oldenlandia in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro.http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB14127

Olorunmaiye PM, Olorunmaiye KS, 2008. Weed flora of a maize/cassava intercrop under integrated weed management in an ecological zone of southern Guinea savanna of Nigeria. Ethnobotanical Leaflets, 1(108)

Orchard, A. E., 1993. Flora of Australia. Vol. 50, Oceanic islands 2, Canberra, ACT, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service.unpaginated.

Patel TD, Jain V, Dodia R, 2014. Oldenlandia corymbosa L: a phytopharmacological review. International Journal of Phytopharmacy, 4, 79-82.

PFAF, 2018. Plants For A Future Database. In: Plants For A Future Database Dawlish, UK: Plants For A Future.http://www.pfaf.org/USER/Default.aspx

PIER, 2018. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

PROSEA, 2018. Plant Resources of South-East Asia. https://uses.plantnet-project.org/en/Oldenlandia_corymbosa_(PROSEA)

PROTA, 2018. PROTA4U web database. In: PROTA4U web database Wageningen and Nairobi, Netherlands\Kenya: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.https://www.prota4u.org/database/

Rojas-Sandoval, J., Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., 2015. Naturalization and invasion of alien plants in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Biological Invasions, 17(1), 149-163. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10530-014-0712-3/fulltext.html doi: 10.1007/s10530-014-0712-3

Shahid, M., Rao, N. K., 2014. Datura ferox and Oldenlandia corymbosa: new record to the UAE flora. Journal on New Biological Reports, 3(3), 170-174. http://www.researchtrend.net/jnbr/VOL%203(3)%202014/3%20Shahid%20and%20%20Rao%20JNBR%203_3_2014.pdf

Sivarajan VV, Biju SD, 1990. Taxonomic and nomenclatural notes on the Hedyotis corymbosa-diffusa complex (Rubiaceae) in India. Taxon, 39, 665-674.

Stevens, P. F., 2017. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14. In: Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14 . St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Terrell, EE, Robinson, H, 2006. Taxonomy of North American species of Oldenlandia (Rubiaceae). SIDA, Contributions to Botany, 11, 305-29.

USDA-ARS, 2018. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Wagner, W. L., Herbst, D. R., Sohmer, S. H., 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawai'i, Vols. 1 & 2, (Revised edition) . Honolulu, USA: University of Hawai'i Press/Bishop Museum Press.1918 + [1] pp.

Waterhouse, D. F., 1993. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia, Canberra, Australia: ACIAR.v + 141 pp.

Whistler, W. A., 1996. Botanical survey of Diego Garcia, Chagos Archipelago, British Indian Ocean Territory. In: Botanical survey of Diego Garcia, Chagos Archipelago, British Indian Ocean Territory . Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: Isle Botanica.49 pp. http://www.zianet.com/tedmorris/dg/2005NRMP-Appendixe-botanicalsurvey.pdf

Wikström, N., Neupane, S., Kårehed, J., Motley, T. J., Bremer, B., 2013. Phylogeny of Hedyotis L. (Rubiaceae: Spermacoceae): redefining a complex Asian-Pacific assemblage. Taxon, 62(2), 357-374. doi: 10.12705/622.2

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. In: Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Chong K Y, Tan H T W, Corlett R T, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Alexander S N, 2007. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. 55, 584 pp.

Govaerts R, 2018. World Checklist of Rubiaceae., Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

GRIIS, 2018. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species., http://www.griis.org/

Herrera K, Lorence D H, Flynn T, Balick M J, 2010. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia with Local Names and Uses. Allertonia. 1-192. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23193787

Hsu TC , Chen ZH, 2017. Scleromitrion sirayanum (Rubiaceae: Spermacoceae), a new species of the Hedyotis-Oldenlandia complex in Taiwan. Taiwania. 62 (2), 151-6.

India Biodiversity Portal, 2018. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Khuroo A A, Reshi Z A, Malik A H, Weber E, Rashid I, Dar G H, 2012. Alien flora of India: taxonomic composition, invasion status and biogeographic affiliations. Biological Invasions. 14 (1), 99-113. http://www.springerlink.com/content/0p0331853 lm77 gl6/ DOI:10.1007/s10530-011-9981-2

Kull C A, Tassin J, Moreau S, Ramiarantsoa H R, Blanc-Pamard C, Carrière S M, 2012. The introduced flora of Madagascar. Biological Invasions. 14 (4), 875-888. DOI:10.1007/s10530-011-0124-6

Lee HJ, Lee YM, Kim JH, Cho YH, 2009. New record of Hedyotis corymbosa, a naturalized species in Korea. Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy. 39 (4), 304-8.

Lorence DH, Flynn T, 2010. Checklist of the plants of Kosrae. Unpublished checklist., Lawai, Hawaii, National Tropical Botanical Garden. 26.

McCormack G, 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2., Rarotonga, Cook Islands: Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust. http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org/search.asp

Oliveira JA, Souza EB, 2015. Oldenlandia in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB14127

Orchard A E, 1993. Flora of Australia. Vol. 50, Oceanic islands 2. Canberra, ACT, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service. unpaginated.

PIER, 2018. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Rojas-Sandoval J, Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2015. Naturalization and invasion of alien plants in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Biological Invasions. 17 (1), 149-163. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10530-014-0712-3/fulltext.html DOI:10.1007/s10530-014-0712-3

Shahid M, Rao N K, 2014. Datura ferox and Oldenlandia corymbosa: new record to the UAE flora. Journal on New Biological Reports. 3 (3), 170-174. http://www.researchtrend.net/jnbr/VOL%203(3)%202014/3%20Shahid%20and%20%20Rao%20JNBR%203_3_2014.pdf

Terrell EE, Robinson H, 2006. Taxonomy of North American species of Oldenlandia (Rubiaceae). SIDA, Contributions to Botany. 305-29.

Waterhouse D F, 1993. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. Canberra, Australia: ACIAR. v + 141 pp.

Whistler W A, 1996. Botanical survey of Diego Garcia, Chagos Archipelago, British Indian Ocean Territory. In: Botanical survey of Diego Garcia, Chagos Archipelago, British Indian Ocean Territory. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: Isle Botanica. 49 pp. http://www.zianet.com/tedmorris/dg/2005NRMP-Appendixe-botanicalsurvey.pdf

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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11/04/18 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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