Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Mussaenda erythrophylla
(red flag bush)

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Datasheet

Mussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 04 May 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Mussaenda erythrophylla
  • Preferred Common Name
  • red flag bush
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Mussaenda erythrophylla is a popular ornamental plant grown in parks and gardens across tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Their showy and colourful inflorescences (from bright crimson to deep red)...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Mussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush); flowering habit. Thane, Maharashtra, India. January 2007.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionMussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush); flowering habit. Thane, Maharashtra, India. January 2007.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY SA 2.0
Mussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush); flowering habit. Thane, Maharashtra, India. January 2007.
Flowering habitMussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush); flowering habit. Thane, Maharashtra, India. January 2007.©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY SA 2.0
Mussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush); habit, showing foliage. Thane, Maharashtra, India. January 2007.
TitleHabit
CaptionMussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush); habit, showing foliage. Thane, Maharashtra, India. January 2007.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY SA 2.0
Mussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush); habit, showing foliage. Thane, Maharashtra, India. January 2007.
HabitMussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush); habit, showing foliage. Thane, Maharashtra, India. January 2007.©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY SA 2.0
Mussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush); flower. Thane, Maharashtra, India. January 2007.
TitleFlower
CaptionMussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush); flower. Thane, Maharashtra, India. January 2007.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY SA 2.0
Mussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush); flower. Thane, Maharashtra, India. January 2007.
FlowerMussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush); flower. Thane, Maharashtra, India. January 2007.©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY SA 2.0
Mussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush); habit, showing foliage and a flower. January 2014.
TitleHabit
CaptionMussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush); habit, showing foliage and a flower. January 2014.
Copyright©Mokkie/via wikipedia - CC BY SA 3.0
Mussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush); habit, showing foliage and a flower. January 2014.
HabitMussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush); habit, showing foliage and a flower. January 2014.©Mokkie/via wikipedia - CC BY SA 3.0
Mussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush); habit, showing flowers (spot the chamaeleon!). Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2012.
TitleHabit
CaptionMussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush); habit, showing flowers (spot the chamaeleon!). Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2012.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Mussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush); habit, showing flowers (spot the chamaeleon!). Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2012.
HabitMussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush); habit, showing flowers (spot the chamaeleon!). Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2012.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Mussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush); habit, showing flowers (spot the chamaeleon!). Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2012.
TitleHabit
CaptionMussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush); habit, showing flowers (spot the chamaeleon!). Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2012.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Mussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush); habit, showing flowers (spot the chamaeleon!). Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2012.
HabitMussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush); habit, showing flowers (spot the chamaeleon!). Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2012.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Mussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush); habit, grown as an ornamental and clipped to shape. Else Kientzler Botanical Garden, Sarchi Norte, Costa Rica. August 2008.
TitleHabit
CaptionMussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush); habit, grown as an ornamental and clipped to shape. Else Kientzler Botanical Garden, Sarchi Norte, Costa Rica. August 2008.
Copyright©David J. Stang/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Mussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush); habit, grown as an ornamental and clipped to shape. Else Kientzler Botanical Garden, Sarchi Norte, Costa Rica. August 2008.
HabitMussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush); habit, grown as an ornamental and clipped to shape. Else Kientzler Botanical Garden, Sarchi Norte, Costa Rica. August 2008.©David J. Stang/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Mussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush); flowering habit, showing var. ‘Queen Sirikit’. Tonga. April 2007.
TitleHabit
CaptionMussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush); flowering habit, showing var. ‘Queen Sirikit’. Tonga. April 2007.
Copyright©Tauʻolunga/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Mussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush); flowering habit, showing var. ‘Queen Sirikit’. Tonga. April 2007.
HabitMussaenda erythrophylla (red flag bush); flowering habit, showing var. ‘Queen Sirikit’. Tonga. April 2007.©Tauʻolunga/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Mussaenda erythrophylla Schumach. & Thonn.

Preferred Common Name

  • red flag bush

Other Scientific Names

  • Mussaenda fulgens Tedlie
  • Mussaenda splendida Welw.

International Common Names

  • English: Ashanti blood; prophet's tears; red mussaenda; tropical dogwood
  • Spanish: flor de trapo; mussaenda

Local Common Names

  • Jamaica: Ashanti blood
  • Puerto Rico: colombina roja
  • United States Virgin Islands: scarlet mussaenda

Summary of Invasiveness

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Mussaenda erythrophylla is a popular ornamental plant grown in parks and gardens across tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Their showy and colourful inflorescences (from bright crimson to deep red) make this plant attractive for horticulturalists. It has also escaped from cultivation and can be found naturalized in forest edges, secondary forests, riverbanks, shrubby savannahs, and in thickets along roadsides. Plants in cultivation usually do not produce fruits, but spread vegetatively by layering. M. erythrophylla is a species of environmental concern because it is a vigorous plant that can form dense thickets up to 10 m high that can easily outcompete and displace other vegetation including native plant species.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Gentianales
  •                         Family: Rubiaceae
  •                             Genus: Mussaenda
  •                                 Species: Mussaenda erythrophylla

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Rubiaceae comprises 611 genera and about 13,150 species distributed worldwide, but largely tropical. This family is especially diverse in Madagascar and the Andes (Davis et al., 2009; Stevens, 2017). Mussaenda is a tropical Old World genus of about 185-200 species. Many species of Mussaenda are cultivated in gardens all over the world because of their resilience and long blooming period throughout almost the entire year.

Many hybrids and cultivars of Mussaenda have been developed and currently the majority of the commercialized mussaendas are cultivars (Randhawa and Mukhopadhyay, 1986; Burkill, 1994).  For example, more than 20 hybrids have been derived from crossing M. erythrophylla and M. philippica (Alejandro et al., 2016).

Description

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Shrubs or woody climbers, 1.5-3(>8) m tall, often with drooping or climbing branches and copiously pilose branchlets; leaves, 5-12 cm long and 3-8 cm wide, oval-ovate to almost cordate (when young), acuminate, base obtuse to slightly decurrent, copiously pilose, prominently veined; petioles, 1-6 cm long; stipules, interpetiolar; inflorescences, terminal, several-flowered, branched, corymbose cymes; calyx, 5-lobed, one of the lobes (rarely 2) enlarged, petal-like, up to 9 cm long and 6.5 cm wide, ovate-lanceolate, lax-pendant, bright red above and somewhat paler beneath, palmately veined, pubescent, the other lobes, up to about 1 cm long and 2 mm wide, narrowly linear-lanceolate, caducous, bright red, calyx tube reddish-pubescent; corolla, about 2.5 cm long, tubular, 5-lobed, red-pubescent outside with tube white or pale-yellow within distally; stamens 5, included; fruit, a berry with numerous minute seeds (Burger and Taylor, 1993; Thaman et al., 1994).

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Vegetatively propagated
Vine / climber
Woody

Distribution

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Mussaenda erythrophylla is native to tropical Africa (Govaerts, 2018; PROTA, 2018). It was introduced and cultivated as an ornamental in tropical and subtropical areas and now can be found naturalized in Central and South America, the West Indies, China, India, French Polynesia and Fiji (Smith, 1988; Jiang et al., 2011; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Govaerts, 2018; GRIIS, 2018).  

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 28 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
BurundiPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
CameroonPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
Central African RepublicPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
Congo, Republic of thePresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
Côte d'IvoirePresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
Equatorial GuineaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
GabonPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
GhanaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
GuineaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
Guinea-BissauPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
KenyaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
LiberiaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
NigeriaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
SeychellesPresentIntroducedInvasiveGRIIS (2018)
Sierra LeonePresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
SudanPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
TanzaniaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
TogoPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)
UgandaPresentNativeGovaerts (2018)

Asia

ChinaPresentIntroducedInvasiveJiang Hua et al. (2011)
IndiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveGRIIS (2018)
-Himachal PradeshPresentIntroducedNegi and Hajra (2007)Cultivated
MyanmarPresentIntroducedKress et al. (2003)Cultivated

North America

Costa RicaPresentIntroducedBurger and Taylor (1993)Cultivated
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)Cultivated
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2018)Cultivated
HondurasPresentIntroducedMolina (1975)Cultivated
JamaicaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)Cultivated
MexicoPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2018)Cultivated
PanamaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2018)Cultivated
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)Cultivated
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2018)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)Cultivated

Oceania

FijiPresentIntroducedSmith (1988)Cultivated
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2018)Society Islands
NauruPresentIntroducedThaman et al. (1994)Ornamental

South America

BrazilPresentIntroducedZappi (2015)Cultivated
-AlagoasPresentIntroducedZappi (2015)Cultivated
-AmazonasPresentIntroducedZappi (2015)Cultivated
-BahiaPresentIntroducedZappi (2015)Cultivated
-GoiasPresentIntroducedZappi (2015)Cultivated
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroducedZappi (2015)Cultivated
-ParaPresentIntroducedZappi (2015)Cultivated
-ParaibaPresentIntroducedZappi (2015)Cultivated
-PernambucoPresentIntroducedZappi (2015)Cultivated
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroducedZappi (2015)Cultivated
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroducedZappi (2015)Cultivated
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedZappi (2015)Cultivated
ColombiaPresentIntroducedIdárraga-Piedrahita et al. (2011)Cultivated
French GuianaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2018)Cultivated
GuyanaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2018)Cultivated
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2018)Cultivated

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of new introductions of M. erythrophylla is moderate to high. Worldwide, this species has attained significant economic importance due to its use as a garden ornamental and many cultivars of the species are actively commercialized in the nursery and landscape trade (Burkill, 1994; PROTA, 2018).

Habitat

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Mussaenda erythrophylla can be found growing in old cocoa plantations with remnants of original forests, secondary bushes along creeks, forest edges, riverbanks, shrubby savannahs and in thickets along roadsides (Burkill, 1994; PROTA, 2018).  It is also a popular ornamental in parks, yards and gardens (Burger and Taylor, 1993). In Fiji, it is cultivated on sandy soils near sea level (Smith, 1988).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for M. erythrophylla is 2n = 22 (Selvaraj, 1987).

Reproductive Biology

Mussaenda species are described as plants with distylic flowers often pollinated by butterflies (Naiki and Kato, 1999; Borges et al., 2003). In Puerto Rico, flowers of M. erythrophylla are visited by the carpenter bee species Xylocopa brasilianorum (Jackson, 1986). Hummingbirds have also been recorded visiting and harvesting nectar from the small corolla of M. erythrophylla (Jackson, 1986). 

Physiology and Phenology

In Costa Rica, M. erythrophylla flowers throughout the year but usually does not produce fruits (Burger and Taylor, 1993). In Fiji, flowers of M. erythrophylla have been observed in November, January and March, but fruits have not been noted (Smith, 1988).

Longevity

Mussaenda erythrophylla is a perennial long-lived species (Burger and Taylor, 1993).

Associations

The caterpillars of the butterfly species Limenitis procris utilize M. erythrophylla as a food-plant (Aiello, 1984).

Environmental Requirements

Mussaenda erythrophylla prefers to grow in warm and moist habitats, but it is also adapted to semi-deciduous and dry sites (Randhawa and Mukhopadhyay, 1986; Burkill, 1994). It grows best in areas with full sunlight and porous soil with pH in the range 7-8.5 (Ogbu, 2011).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
25°N 30°S

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 17°C 28°C

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil reaction

  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Brevipalpus-transmitted plant viruses (BTrVs) have been reported infecting plants of M. erythrophylla in Brazil (Rodrigues et al., 2008).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Mussaenda erythrophylla spreads by seed and, vegetatively, by layering.  In cultivation, plants can be easily propagated from stem fragments and cuttings (Randhawa and Mukhopadhyay, 1986; Ogbu, 2011). There is no information on natural dispersal of M. erythrophylla, but in other Mussaenda species, birds have been observed eating the ripe fruits and may be important disseminators of the seeds (Hau and Corlett, 2002; Alejandro et al., 2016).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
DisturbanceNaturalized in ruderal areas, secondary forests and along roadsides Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
Escape from confinement or garden escapeSeeds, stem fragments. It can be found naturalized in areas near cultivation Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
Garden waste disposalSeeds, stem fragments Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
HorticultureWidely commercialized as ornamental. Many cultivars and hybrids have been developed Yes Yes Ogbu, 2011
Intentional releaseWidely commercialized as ornamental Yes Yes Ogbu, 2011
Internet salesSeeds and plants available online Yes Yes
Medicinal useUsed in traditional African medicine Yes PROTA, 2018
Nursery tradeSeeds and plants Yes Yes Ogbu, 2011
Ornamental purposesWidely commercialized as ornamental Yes Yes Ogbu, 2011
Seed tradeSeeds and plants available online Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds and stem fragments from gardens, yards and parks Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
MailSeeds and plants available online Yes Yes
Host and vector organismsSeeds may be dispersed by birds Yes Hau and Corlett, 2002

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive

Environmental Impact

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Mussaenda erythrophylla has the potential to form thickets that may outcompete and displace native vegetation. This species can also climb into the tree canopy, blocking light and restricting the growth and regeneration of native species (Jiang et al., 2011; GRIIS, 2018; PROTA, 2018).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
Impact outcomes
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Hybridization
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Mussaenda erythrophylla is widely cultivated as an ornamental plant for its long-lasting showy and colourful inflorescences (Ogbu, 2011). This species is also used in traditional African and Asian medicine for the treatment of eye infections, intestinal worms, body ache, diarrhoea and dysentery (PROTA, 2018).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity
  • Boundary, barrier or support

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • garden plant

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Aiello, A., 1984. Adelpha (Nymphalidae): deception on the wing. Psyche, 91 (1-2), 1-45.

Alejandro, G. J. D., Meve, U., Liede-Schumann, S., 2016. A taxonomic revision of Philippine Mussaenda (Rubiaceae, Mussaendeae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 101(3), 457-524. http://www.bioone.org/loi/mobt

Borges, R. M., Gowda, V., Zacharias, M., 2003. Butterfly pollination and high-contrast visual signals in a low-density distylous plant. Oecologia, 136(4), 571-573.

Burger, W., Taylor, C. M., 1993. Flora Costaricensis. Family #202 Rubiaceae. In: Fieldiana, Botany , (No. 33) . v + 333 pp.

Burkill, H. M., 1994. The useful plants of West Tropical Africa. Vol. 2: Families E-I, (Ed. 2) . Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens.xii + 636 pp.

Davis, A. P., Govaerts, R., Bridson, D. M., Ruhsam, M., Moat, J., Brummitt, N. A., 2009. A global assessment of distribution, diversity, endemism, and taxonomic effort in the Rubiaceae. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 96(1), 68-78.

Fosberg, F. R., Sachet, M. H., Oliver, R. L. , 1993. Flora of Micronesia, 5: Bignoniaceae–Rubiaceae. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 81, 1-135. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.0081024X.81

Govaerts, R, 2018. World Checklist of Rubiaceae. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

GRIIS, 2018. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species. http://www.griis.org/

Hau, B. C. H., Corlett, R. T., 2002. A survey of trees and shrubs on degraded hillsides in Hong Kong. Memoirs of the Hong Kong Natural History Society, 25(2), 83-94.

Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R. D. C., Callejas Posada, R., Merello, M., 2011. Flora de Antioquia. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares, vol. 2: Listado de las plantas vasculares del Departamento de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia: Universidad de Antioquia.939 pp.

Jackson, G. C., 1986. Additional host plants of the carpenter bee, Xylocopa brasilianorum (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apoidea), in Puerto Rico. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico, 70(4), 255-265.

Jiang Hua, Fan Qiang, Li JinTian, Shi Shi, Li ShaoPeng, Liao WenBo, Shu WenSheng, 2011. Naturalization of alien plants in China. Biodiversity and Conservation, 20(7), 1545-1556. doi: 10.1007/s10531-011-0044-x

Kress, WJ, Defilipps, RA, Farr, E, Kyi, DYY, 2003. A checklist of the trees, shrubs, herbs, and climbers of Myanmar. In: Contributions from the United States National Herbarium , 45. 1-590.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2018. Tropicos database. In: Tropicos database St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org/

Molina, R. A., 1975. Enumeration of the plants of Honduras. (Enumeración de las plantas de Honduras). Ceiba, 19(1), 1-118.

Naiki, A., Kato, M., 1999. Pollination system and evolution of dioecy from distyly in Mussaenda parviflora (Rubiaceae). Plant Species Biology, 14(3), 217-227. doi: 10.1046/j.1442-1984.1999.00021.x

Negi, P. S., Hajra, P. K., 2007. Alien flora of Doon Valley, Northwest Himalaya. Current Science, 92(7), 968-978. http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci

Ogbu, J. U., 2011. Ornamental Mussaenda spp for Nigeria’s gardens and landscape environment. In: Proceedings of the 45th Annual Conference of the Agricultural Society of Nigeria, 24-28 October 2011, Sokoto, Nigeria . Umuahia, Nigeria: Agricultural Society of Nigeria. 316-319.

PROTA, 2018. PROTA4U web database. In: PROTA4U web database Wageningen and Nairobi, Netherlands\Kenya: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.https://www.prota4u.org/database/

Randall, R. P., 2017. A global compendium of weeds, (Ed.3) [ed. by Randall, R. P.]. Perth, Australia: R. P. Randall.iii + 3653 pp.

Randhawa, G. S., Mukhopadhyay, A. , 1986. Floriculture in India, New Delhi, India: Allied Publishers Ltd.

Rodrigues, J. C. V., Antony, L. M. K., Salaroli, R. B., Kitajima, E. W., 2008. Brevipalpus-associated viruses in the central Amazon Basin. Tropical Plant Pathology, 33(1), 12-19. doi: 10.1590/S1982-56762008000100003

Selvaraj, R., 1987. Karyomorphological studies in South Indian Rubiaceae. Cytologia, 52, 343-356.

Smith, A. C., 1988. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Volume 4: Angiospermae: Dicotyledones, families 164-169, Lawai, Hawaii, USA: Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden.377 pp.

Stevens, P. F., 2017. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14. In: Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14 . St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Thaman, R. R., Fosberg, F. R., Manner, H. I., Hassall, D. C., 1994. Atoll Research Bulletin, 392, 1-223. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00775630.392.1

Zappi, D, 2015. (Mussaenda. Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro.http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB129638

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Burger W, Taylor C M, 1993. Flora Costaricensis. Family #202 Rubiaceae. In: Fieldiana, Botany, v + 333 pp.

Govaerts R, 2018. World Checklist of Rubiaceae., Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

GRIIS, 2018. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species., http://www.griis.org/

Idárraga-Piedrahita A, Ortiz R D C, Callejas Posada R, Merello M, 2011. Flora de Antioquia. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares, vol. 2: Listado de las plantas vasculares del Departamento de Antioquia. Medellín, Colombia: Universidad de Antioquia. 939 pp.

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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04/11/18 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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