Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Emilia coccinea
(scarlet tasselflower)

Rojas-Sandoval J, 2020. Emilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.120120.20203482737

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Datasheet

Emilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Emilia coccinea
  • Preferred Common Name
  • scarlet tasselflower
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • As many other species within the genus Emilia, E. coccinea is herb that behaves as an environmental and agricultural weed. This fast-growing herb has the potential to rapidly colonize disturbed areas, waste grounds, gardens, fore...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Emilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower); flowers. Bergianska trädgården. Stockholm, Norway. October 2011.
TitleFlowers
CaptionEmilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower); flowers. Bergianska trädgården. Stockholm, Norway. October 2011.
Copyright©Rolf Engstrand/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Emilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower); flowers. Bergianska trädgården. Stockholm, Norway. October 2011.
FlowersEmilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower); flowers. Bergianska trädgården. Stockholm, Norway. October 2011.©Rolf Engstrand/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Emilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower); flowers.  UMCS Botanical Garden. Lublin, Poland. July 2015.
TitleFlowers
CaptionEmilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower); flowers. UMCS Botanical Garden. Lublin, Poland. July 2015.
Copyright©Salicyna/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Emilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower); flowers.  UMCS Botanical Garden. Lublin, Poland. July 2015.
FlowersEmilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower); flowers. UMCS Botanical Garden. Lublin, Poland. July 2015.©Salicyna/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Emilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower); flowers. Bergianska trädgården. Stockholm, Norway. October 2011.
TitleFlowers
CaptionEmilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower); flowers. Bergianska trädgården. Stockholm, Norway. October 2011.
Copyright©Rolf Engstrand/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Emilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower); flowers. Bergianska trädgården. Stockholm, Norway. October 2011.
FlowersEmilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower); flowers. Bergianska trädgården. Stockholm, Norway. October 2011.©Rolf Engstrand/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Emilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower); flowering habit. Bergianska trädgården. Stockholm, Norway. October 2011.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionEmilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower); flowering habit. Bergianska trädgården. Stockholm, Norway. October 2011.
Copyright©Rolf Engstrand/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Emilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower); flowering habit. Bergianska trädgården. Stockholm, Norway. October 2011.
Flowering habitEmilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower); flowering habit. Bergianska trädgården. Stockholm, Norway. October 2011.©Rolf Engstrand/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Emilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower); flowering habit. PAN Botanical Garden in Warsaw, Poland. August 2016.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionEmilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower); flowering habit. PAN Botanical Garden in Warsaw, Poland. August 2016.
Copyright©Krzysztof Ziarnek (Kenraiz)/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Emilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower); flowering habit. PAN Botanical Garden in Warsaw, Poland. August 2016.
Flowering habitEmilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower); flowering habit. PAN Botanical Garden in Warsaw, Poland. August 2016.©Krzysztof Ziarnek (Kenraiz)/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Emilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower); leaf and stem. Bergianska trädgården. Stockholm, Norway. October 2011.
TitleLeaf and stem
CaptionEmilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower); leaf and stem. Bergianska trädgården. Stockholm, Norway. October 2011.
Copyright©Rolf Engstrand/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Emilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower); leaf and stem. Bergianska trädgården. Stockholm, Norway. October 2011.
Leaf and stemEmilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower); leaf and stem. Bergianska trädgården. Stockholm, Norway. October 2011.©Rolf Engstrand/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Emilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower); leaves and stem. Botanical Garden of the University of Wroclaw. Wroclaw, Poland. September  2017.
TitleLeaves and stem
CaptionEmilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower); leaves and stem. Botanical Garden of the University of Wroclaw. Wroclaw, Poland. September 2017.
Copyright©Salicyna/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Emilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower); leaves and stem. Botanical Garden of the University of Wroclaw. Wroclaw, Poland. September  2017.
Leaves and stemEmilia coccinea (scarlet tasselflower); leaves and stem. Botanical Garden of the University of Wroclaw. Wroclaw, Poland. September 2017.©Salicyna/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Emilia coccinea (Sims) G.Don

Preferred Common Name

  • scarlet tasselflower

Other Scientific Names

  • Cacalia coccinea Sims
  • Cacalia gracilis DC.
  • Emilia flammea Cass.
  • Emilia gracilis DC.
  • Emilia prenanthoides C.B.Rob.
  • Emilia sagittata (Vahl) DC.
  • Emilia taiwanensis S.S. Ying
  • Senecio auriculatus Burm.f.
  • Senecio javanicus (Burm.f.) Koord.

International Common Names

  • English: Cupid's paintbrush; Flora's paintbrush; red thistle; tassel flower
  • Spanish: pincel; pincel de la reina; pincelillo; pincelito
  • French: cucolie écarlate; émilie; goutte-de-sang
  • Chinese: rong ying ju

Local Common Names

  • El Salvador: Clavel del Diablo; gota de sangre
  • Lesser Antilles: cabbage bush; Goutte de sang; kack oats; red tassel; red-head; salad a lapen; soldier's tassel

Summary of Invasiveness

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As many other species within the genus Emilia, E. coccinea is herb that behaves as an environmental and agricultural weed. This fast-growing herb has the potential to rapidly colonize disturbed areas, waste grounds, gardens, forest edges, pastures, active and abandoned cultivated lands, roadsides, dry thickets and riverbanks. This species is adapted to grow in a wide range of environmental conditions and has wind-dispersed seeds, which are features that may facilitate its spread into new habitats. It is listed as invasive in Hawaii, Dominican Republic and New Caledonia.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Asterales
  •                         Family: Asteraceae
  •                             Genus: Emilia
  •                                 Species: Emilia coccinea

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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With 1,620 genera and more than 23,600 species, Asteraceae is one of the most diverse families of flowering plants (Stevens, 2018). Emilia is a palaeotropical genus of annual and perennial herbs comprising about 116 species, the majority of which (ca. 80 species) occur in Africa and Madagascar, but also across Asia and the Neotropics (Jeffrey, 1986; 1997; Lisowski, 1991; Davidse et al., 2018).

Emilia coccinea is a widespread and morphologically variable complex of species from tropical and subtropical Africa. Emilia coccinea was first described in 1803 as Cacalia coccinea from a plant cultivated in London. However, no specimen was preserved and in 1839 the name Cacalia coccinea was changed to Emilia coccinea. The species grouped in the E. coccinea complex are annual herbs, with relatively large capitula  (for the genus; 5–8 mm diameter) and red, orange, or yellow florets (Mapaya and Cron, 2016).

Different revisions and taxonomic studies of the E. coccinea complex have resulted in the identification of about 8 - 14 species, with E. coccinea sensu stricto restricted to eastern and southern tropical Africa (Jeffrey, 1997; Lisowski, 1991; Mesfin Tadesse and Beentje, 2004; Cron, 2014). However, recent multivariate and cluster analyses of the E. coccinea complex have recognized five species (E. emilioides, E. jeffreyana, E. praetermissa, E. subscaposa, E. vanmeelii) as morphologically distinct species (Mapaya and Cron, 2016).

Description

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The following description is from Flora of China Editorial Committee (2018):

Herbs, annual. Stems erect, 40-70(-100) cm tall, glabrous or hispidulous. Basal and lower leaves shortly petiolate; blade oblong, obovate, or subspatulate, 5-7 × 2-2.5 cm, both surfaces puberulent, veins convex abaxially and conspicuously concave adaxially, base gradually attenuate, winged and semiamplexicaul, margin entire or repand-denticulate, apex obtuse. Median stem leaves sessile, oblong or ovate-oblong, large, basally hastate and amplexicaul. Upper leaves smaller, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, basally auriculate and amplexicaul, apically acute. Capitula several in terminal corymb, 10-15 mm; peduncles 10-30 mm, not bracteate. Involucres urceolate or top-shaped, 10-12 × 9-12 mm, without bracts at base; phyllaries distinctly shorter than florets, 10-13, linear-lanceolate, glabrous, margin narrowly scarious, apically acuminate. Florets numerous, ca. 50; corolla scarlet, rarely yellow, tube slender; lobes 5, lanceolate, 1.6-2.2 mm. Achenes cylindric, ca. 3 mm, puberulent, 5-ribbed. Pappus white, ca. 4 mm.

Plant Type

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Annual
Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Seed propagated

Distribution

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Emilia coccinea is native to Africa, but it can be found naturalized in the United States, Mexico, South America, the West Indies, India, Japan, China, New Caledonia and other Pacific Islands (PIER, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentNative
BeninPresent
BurundiPresentNative
CameroonPresentIntroduced
Central African RepublicPresent
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentNative
Congo, Republic of thePresent
Côte d'IvoirePresent
GabonPresent
GhanaPresentIntroduced
GuineaPresent
KenyaPresentNative
LiberiaPresent
MadagascarPresent
MalawiPresentNative
MauritiusPresentIntroduced
MozambiquePresentNative
NigeriaPresent
RwandaPresent
Sierra LeonePresent
SudanPresentNative
TanzaniaPresentNative
TogoPresent
UgandaPresentNative
ZambiaPresentNative
ZimbabwePresentNative

Asia

ChinaPresentIntroduced
IndiaPresentIntroduced
-KeralaPresentIntroduced
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroduced
JapanPresentIntroduced

Europe

PortugalPresentIntroducedMadeira only
-MadeiraPresentIntroduced

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroduced
Costa RicaPresentIntroduced
CubaPresentIntroduced
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedInvasive
El SalvadorPresentIntroduced
GuadeloupePresent, WidespreadIntroduced
GuatemalaPresentIntroduced
HaitiPresentIntroduced
HondurasPresentIntroduced
MartiniquePresent, WidespreadIntroduced
MexicoPresentIntroducedListed as a weed
MontserratPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
NicaraguaPresentIntroduced
PanamaPresentIntroduced
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroduced
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced
United StatesPresentIntroduced
-FloridaPresentIntroduced
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasive

Oceania

New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedInvasive

South America

BrazilPresentIntroduced
-MaranhaoPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ColombiaPresentIntroduced
GuyanaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedEscaped from cultivation
SurinamePresentIntroduced
VenezuelaPresentIntroduced

Habitat

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Emilia coccinea is often cultivated as an ornamental in gardens and yards. It also grows in clearings, disturbed areas, lawns, moist hillsides, open areas, pastures, riverbeds, roadsides and dry thickets, at low elevations (e.g., from sea level up to 2,000 m). It is also a common weed in agricultural lands, coffee plantations and in abandoned cultivated lands and pastures (Davidse et al., 2018; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; PIER, 2018; PROTA, 2018).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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Emilia coccinea has been reported growing as a weed on coffee plantations (Davidse et al., 2018).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Coffea arabica (arabica coffee)RubiaceaeMain

    Growth Stages

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    Flowering stage, Vegetative growing stage

    Biology and Ecology

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    Genetics

    The chromosome number for E. coccinea has been reported as either 2n = 10 and 2n= 20 (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018).

    Reproductive biology

    Emilia coccinea has bisexual flowers that are pollinated by insects (i.e. bees and flies) and by wind. This species is self-fertile (Davidse et al., 2018; PFAF, 2018).

    Physiology and phenology

    In China it flowers from July to November (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018). In Central America, it flowers from July to August (Davidse et al., 2018).

    Longevity

    Emilia coccinea is a fast-growing annual plant (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018).

    Environmental requirements

    Emilia coccinea prefers to grow in most, well drained soils in a sunny position with pH in the range 6.1 to 7.8. Plants are drought tolerant once established, but they need temperatures between 15°C to 22°C to thrive (Useful Tropical Plants, 2018; PROTA, 2018).  

    Climate

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    ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
    Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
    Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
    As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
    Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
    Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
    Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
    Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

    Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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    Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
    30 40

    Air Temperature

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    Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
    Mean annual temperature (ºC) 15 22

    Rainfall Regime

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    Bimodal
    Summer
    Winter

    Soil Tolerances

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    Soil drainage

    • free

    Soil reaction

    • alkaline
    • neutral

    Soil texture

    • light
    • medium

    Means of Movement and Dispersal

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    Emilia coccinea spreads by seed. Seeds are mostly dispersed by wind, but they can be secondarily dispersed by water, as a contaminant in soil and crop seed, adhered to vehicles and agricultural machinery and in dumped garden waste (Davidse et al., 2018; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; PFAF, 2018; PROTA, 2018; Useful Tropical Plants, 2018).

    Pathway Causes

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    CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
    DisturbanceOften naturalized in disturbed areas, open ground and roadsides Yes Davidse et al. (2018)
    Escape from confinement or garden escapeSeeds Yes Wagner et al. (1999)
    Garden waste disposalSeeds Yes PROTA (2018)
    HorticultureWidely cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes PROTA (2018)
    Internet salesSeeds sold online Yes Yes
    Medicinal useUsed in traditional African medicine Yes PROTA (2018)
    Nursery tradeWidely cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes PROTA (2018)
    Ornamental purposesWidely cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes PROTA (2018)
    People foragingLeaves consumed as a vegetable Yes PROTA (2018)
    Seed tradeSeeds sold online Yes Yes

    Pathway Vectors

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    VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
    Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds in dumped garden waste Yes
    Machinery and equipmentSeeds Yes Yes
    MailSeeds sold online Yes Yes
    Soil, sand and gravelSeeds Yes Yes Davidse et al. (2018)
    Land vehiclesSeeds Yes Yes Davidse et al. (2018)
    WaterSeeds Yes Yes Davidse et al. (2018)
    WindSeeds Yes Yes Davidse et al. (2018)

    Impact Summary

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    CategoryImpact
    Cultural/amenity Positive
    Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
    Environment (generally) Positive and negative
    Human health Positive

    Environmental Impact

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    As a weed Emilia coccinea can impact agricultural land, pastures and gardens. It also grows as an environmental weed, outcompeting native plant species for common resources such as water, space, and light and thus negatively impacting native vegetation in secondary forests, forest edges and natural grasslands (Wagner et al., 1999; Mir, 2012; Davidse et al., 2018; PROTA, 2018; PIER, 2018).

    Risk and Impact Factors

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    Invasiveness
    • Invasive in its native range
    • Proved invasive outside its native range
    • Has a broad native range
    • Abundant in its native range
    • Highly adaptable to different environments
    • Is a habitat generalist
    • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
    • Pioneering in disturbed areas
    • Highly mobile locally
    • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
    • Fast growing
    • Gregarious
    Impact outcomes
    • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
    • Modification of successional patterns
    • Monoculture formation
    • Negatively impacts agriculture
    • Reduced native biodiversity
    • Threat to/ loss of native species
    Impact mechanisms
    • Competition - monopolizing resources
    • Hybridization
    • Rapid growth
    Likelihood of entry/control
    • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
    • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
    • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
    • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

    Uses

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    Social Benefit

    Emilia coccinea is widely cultivated as an ornamental in gardens and yards across tropical, subtropical and temperate regions. In Africa, this species is sometimes gathered from the wild and used locally for food and as medicine. In traditional African medicine, the leaves are used to treat wounds, sores and sinusitis. Dried powdered leaves are also applied to sores. Roots or leaves are boiled and the decoction is used to treat syphilis and as a chest medicine (Useful Tropical Plants, 2018; PROTA, 2018).

    Uses List

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    Environmental

    • Amenity

    Human food and beverage

    • Emergency (famine) food
    • Vegetable

    Medicinal, pharmaceutical

    • Traditional/folklore

    Ornamental

    • garden plant
    • Seed trade

    Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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    Emilia coccinea can be confused with E. sonchifolia and E.fosbergii. These three species can be distinguished based on based on the following vegetative and floral traits (Davidse et al., 2018):

    • Emilia coccinea: Basal and lower leaves shortly petiolate; involucres broad-cylindrical to hemispherical, corollas moderately to well-exserted; corollas lobes 1.1-2.2 mm; disk floret styles obviously appendiculate, appendages 0.2-0.3 mm, caudate. Leaf margins nearly subentire; involucres campanulate, about as long as broad, corollas well-exserted; corollas bright orange to red, lobes 1.6-2.2 mm.

    • Emilia fosbergii: Basal and lower leaves shortly petiolate; involucres broad-cylindrical to hemispherical, corollas moderately to well-exserted. Leaf margins usually coarsely dentate; involucres broad-cylindrical, (1-) 2× as long as broad, corollas moderately exserted; corollas usually pale red or pinkish-red, lobes 1.1-1.6 mm.

    • Emilia sonchifolia:  Basal and lower leaves lyrate-pinnatifid; involucres narrow-cylindrical, corollas included to only slightly exserted; corollas usually pink or lavender, lobes 0.5-0.8 mm; disk floret styles indistinctly appendiculate, appendages to 0.1 mm, no longer than broad, convex.

    Prevention and Control

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    Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

    Chemical control

    There is no information available for the chemical control of E. coccinea.  However, herbicides such as dimethametryn, propanil, oxidiazon, metribuzin, imazaquin, diuron, simazine and paraquat have been used to control the closely related species E. sonchifolia (CABI, 2018).  

    References

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    Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

    Broome, R., Sabir, K., Carrington, S., 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. In: Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database , Barbados: University of the West Indies.http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

    CABI, 2018. Emilia sonchifolia [original text by J Rojas-Sandoval]. In: Invasive Species Compendium, Wallingford, UK: CAB International.www.cabi.org/isc

    Cron GV, 2014. A synopsis of Emilia (Senecioneae, Asteraceae) in southern Africa. Phytotaxa, 159(3), 195-210.

    Davidse, G., Sousa-Sánchez, M., Knapp, S., Chiang, F., UUoa Ulloa, C., Pruski, J. F., 2018. Flora Mesoamericana, Volumen 5, Parte 2: Asteraceae, [ed. by Davidse, G., Sousa-Sánchez, M., Knapp, S., Chiang, F., UUoa Ulloa, C., Pruski, J. F.]. St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press.xix + 608 pp.

    Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

    Jeffrey C, 1997. What is Emilia coccinea (Sims) G. Don (Compositae)? A revision of the large-headed Emilia species of Africa. In: Kew Bulletin,52. 205–212.

    Jeffrey, C, 1986. The Senecioneae in East Tropical Africa: notes on Compositae: IV. In: Kew Bulletin,41. 873–943.

    Lisowski, S., 1991. The Asteraceae in the flora of central Africa (excl. Cichorieae, Inuleae and Vernonieae). Vol. 1. Vol. 2. (Les Asteraceae dans la flore d'Afrique centrale (excl. Cichorieae, Inuleae et Vernonieae). Vol. 1. Vol. 2). In: Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica , 36(1 (Supplementum 1)) . 627 pp.

    Mapaya, R. J., Cron, G. V., 2016. A phenetic study of the Emilia coccinea complex (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) in Africa. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 302(6), 703-720. doi: 10.1007/s00606-016-1294-6

    Mesfin Tadesse L, Beentje H, 2004. A synopsis and new species of Emilia (Compositae-Senecioneae) in Northeast tropical Africa. In: Kew Bulletin,59. 469–482.

    Mir, C, 2012. [English title not available]. (Estrategia Nacional de especies exóticas invasoras realizado en el marco del Proyecto “Mitigando las amenazas de las especies exóticas invasoras en el Caribe Insular”). Dominican Republic: Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales Santo Domingo.

    Nayar TS, Beegum AR, Mohanan N, Rajkumar G, 2006. Flowering Plants of Kerala- a Handbook, Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute.1079 pp.

    PFAF, 2018. Plants For A Future Database. In: Plants For A Future Database Dawlish, UK: Plants For A Future.http://www.pfaf.org/USER/Default.aspx

    PIER, 2018. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

    PROTA, 2018. PROTA4U web database. In: PROTA4U web database Wageningen and Nairobi, Netherlands\Kenya: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.https://www.prota4u.org/database/

    Stevens, P. F., 2018. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14. In: Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14 . St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

    USDA-ARS, 2018. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

    Useful Tropical Plants, 2018. Useful tropical plants database. In: Useful tropical plants database : K Fern.http://tropical.theferns.info/

    Wagner, W. L., Herbst, D. R., Sohmer, S. H., 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawai'i, Vols. 1 & 2, (Revised edition) . Honolulu, USA: University of Hawai'i Press/Bishop Museum Press.1918 + [1] pp.

    Distribution References

    Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

    Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. In: Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

    Davidse G, Sousa-Sánchez M, Knapp S, Chiang F, UUoa Ulloa C, Pruski J F, 2018. Flora Mesoamericana, Volumen 5, Parte 2: Asteraceae. [ed. by Davidse G, Sousa-Sánchez M, Knapp S, Chiang F, UUoa Ulloa C, Pruski J F]. St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press. xix + 608 pp.

    Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

    Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Alexander S N, 2007. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. 55, 584 pp.

    Gobatto D, Oliveira L A de, Franco D A de S, Velásquez N, Daròs J A, Eiras M, 2019. Surveys in the chrysanthemum production areas of Brazil and Colombia reveal that weeds are potential reservoirs of chrysanthemum stunt viroid. Viruses. 11 (4), 355. DOI:10.3390/v11040355

    GRIIS, 2018. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species., http://www.griis.org/

    Idárraga-Piedrahita A, Ortiz R D C, Callejas Posada R, Merello M, 2011. Flora de Antioquia. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares, vol. 2: Listado de las plantas vasculares del Departamento de Antioquia. Medellín, Colombia: Universidad de Antioquia. 939 pp.

    India Biodiversity Portal, 2018. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

    Jeffrey C, 1986. The Senecioneae in East Tropical Africa: notes on Compositae: IV. In: Kew Bulletin. 41 873–943.

    Mesquita M L R, Andrade L A de, Pereira W E, 2013. Floristic diversity of the soil weed seed bank in a rice-growing area of Brazil: in situ and ex situ evaluation. Acta Botanica Brasilica. 27 (3), 465-471. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-33062013000300001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en DOI:10.1590/S0102-33062013000300001

    Mir C, 2012. [English title not available]. (Estrategia Nacional de especies exóticas invasoras realizado en el marco del Proyecto “Mitigando las amenazas de las especies exóticas invasoras en el Caribe Insular”)., Dominican Republic: Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales Santo Domingo.

    Nayar T S, Rasiya Beegam A, Sibi M, 2015. Flowering plants of the Western Ghats, India, Volume 1 Dicots; Volume 2 Monocots. [ed. by Nayar T S, Rasiya Beegam A, Sibi M]. Thiruvananthapuram, India: Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Insitute. 1683 pp.

    PIER, 2018. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

    PROTA, 2018. PROTA4U web database. In: PROTA4U web database. Wageningen and Nairobi, Netherlands\Kenya: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. https://www.prota4u.org/database/

    Romo J P, Osorio J G M, Yepes M S, 2012. Identification of new hosts for Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith) race 2 from Colombia. Revista de Protección Vegetal. 27 (3), 151-161. http://scielo.sld.cu/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1010-27522012000300003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

    USDA-ARS, 2018. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

    USDA-NRCS, 2018. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

    Wagner WI, Herbst DR, Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii, revised edition., Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press.

    Links to Websites

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    GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

    Contributors

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    27/02/18 Original text by:

    Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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