Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Digitaria bicornis
(Asian crabgrass)

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Datasheet

Digitaria bicornis (Asian crabgrass)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Digitaria bicornis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Asian crabgrass
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • D. bicornis is an annual, sometimes perennial grass. It is listed as invasive in North America (Mexico), Central America (El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama), the Caribbean (Cuba), South Americ...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Digitaria bicornis (Lam.) Roem. & Schult.

Preferred Common Name

  • Asian crabgrass

Other Scientific Names

  • Digitaria barbata Willd.
  • Digitaria barbulata Desv.
  • Digitaria biformis Willd.
  • Digitaria commutata Schult.
  • Digitaria diversiflora Swallen
  • Digitaria queenslandica Henrard
  • Digitaria rottleri Roem. & Schult.
  • Panicum adpressum Forssk.
  • Panicum adpressum Willd.
  • Panicum appressum Kunth
  • Panicum barbatum (Willd.) Kunth
  • Panicum bicorne (Lam.) Kunth
  • Panicum biforme (Willd.) Kunth
  • Panicum ciliare A.Rich.
  • Panicum commutatum (Schult.f.) Nees
  • Panicum glaucescens Nees
  • Panicum macrostachyum Hochst. Ex T.Durand & Schinz
  • Panicum neesii Kunth
  • Paspalum bicorne Lam.
  • Syntherisma barbata (Wild.) Nash

International Common Names

  • English: Asia crab grass; crab grass; finger grass; hairy finger grass; large crab grass; southern crabgrass; tropical crabgrass
  • Spanish: falsa pata de gallina; horquetilla; pata de gallina; zacate seleya
  • French: herbe fine; zeb fin

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: capim-colchão; capim-tinga
  • China: yi ma tang
  • Colombia: zacate guarda rocío
  • Cuba: pata de gallina
  • El Salvador: zacate seleya
  • Honduras: pangola criollo
  • Mexico: cangrejo; zacate guarda rocío; zacate pata de gallina
  • Thailand: white birdfoot grass

Summary of Invasiveness

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D. bicornis is an annual, sometimes perennial grass. It is listed as invasive in North America (Mexico), Central America (El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama), the Caribbean (Cuba), South America (Colombia, Ecuador) and Oceania (Nauru, USA-Hawaii) (Catasús Guerra, 2015; PIER, 2016). It is considered as a weed in cultivated fields (Quattrocchi, 2006; Dias et al., 2007; Duarte et al., 2009; Catasús Guerra, 2015; Ramírez S et al., 2015).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Digitaria
  •                                 Species: Digitaria bicornis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Digitaria is a genus in the Poaceae with about 220 species that are distributed in the tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of the world (Vega and Rugólo de Agrasar, 2007). The common name crabgrass is applied to many species in the genus. Digitaria comes from Digitus, the Latin word for "finger", referring to the long, finger-like inflorescences produced by the grasses. The species epithet bicornis means ‘forked’ or ‘two-horned’.

Description

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The following description is from Flora of China Editorial Committee (2016):

Annual, culms decumbent, rooting at lower nodes, 30–60 cm tall. Leaf sheaths glabrous or- lower sheaths papillose­pilose; leaf blades linear, 2.5–15 × 0.2–0.9 mm, usually scabrid on both surfaces, rarely sparsely pilose; ligule 1–3.5 mm. Inflorescence digitate or subdigitate; racemes 2– 5, 4–14 cm; spikelets paired, imbricate; rachis triquetrous, ca. 1 mm wide, winged. Spikelets lanceolate, ca. 3 mm, those of a pair usually different; lower spikelet glabrous, upper spikelet pubescent; lower glume very small, almost absent or up to 0.4 mm, triangular or bifid, veinless; upper glume lanceolate, ca. 2/3 length of spikelet, 3-­veined, pilose; lower lemma as long as spikelet, 7-­veined, lower spikelet with equidistant veins, upper spikelet with wider glabrous interspaces on either side of midvein, lateral veins crowded near margins, rows of silky hairs between lateral veins, usually also setose, the hairs spreading halo-­like at maturity; upper lemma yellowish, slightly shorter than spikelet.

Plant Type

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Grass / sedge
Perennial
Seed propagated

Distribution

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D. bicornis is present mainly in tropical and subtropical regions, with few occurrences in temperate regions (Webster, 1987). The species is native to tropical Asia extending into Australia, although a few references cite the species as being native in the New World or Africa (Webster, 1980; Broome et al., 2007; Valdés et al., 2009; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016). It is currently found in North America (USA, Mexico), Central America, the Caribbean, South America, Africa, Asia and Oceania (See Distribution Table for details).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
CambodiaPresentNative Not invasive PIER, 2016
ChinaPresentNative Not invasive PIER, 2016
-FujianPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
-HainanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
-YunnanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
IndiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
-KarnatakaPresentNativeSingh, 1978
-KeralaPresentNativeEncyclopedia of Life, 2016
IndonesiaPresentNativePIER, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016
-JavaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
-Nusa TenggaraPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
MalaysiaPresentNativePIER, 2016
MyanmarPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
NepalPresentIntroducedSiwakoti and Varma, 1997
PakistanPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
PhilippinesPresentNativePIER, 2016
SingaporePresentNativePIER, 2016
Sri LankaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
ThailandPresentNativePIER, 2016
VietnamPresentNativePIER, 2016

Africa

EgyptPresentNativeValdés et al., 2009
EthiopiaPresentIntroducedVirtual Herbaria Austria, 2016
LibyaPresentNativeValdés et al., 2009
MadagascarPresentIntroducedAfrican Plant Database, 2016
MauritiusPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
RéunionPresentIntroducedMuséum National D’Histoire Naturelle, 2016
Rodriguez IslandPresentIntroducedMuséum National D’Histoire Naturelle, 2016
SenegalPresentIntroducedVirtual Herbaria Austria, 2016
SeychellesPresentNativePIER, 2016Agalega Island

North America

MexicoWidespreadIntroduced1867Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016; PIER, 2016Baja California, Baja California Sur, Chiapas. Colima, Distrito Federal, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, México, Michoacán, Nayarit, Nuevo León, Oaxaca, Puebla, Querétaro, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatán
USAPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedNatureServe, 2016
-ArkansasPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
-FloridaPresentIntroduced1903Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedNatureServe, 2016
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016Maui Island
-IowaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedNatureServe, 2016
-MississippiPresentIntroduced1983Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016; New York Botanical Garden, 2016
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedNatureServe, 2016
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedNatureServe, 2016
-TexasPresentIntroducedNatureServe, 2016
-VirginiaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2016

Central America and Caribbean

AnguillaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
BahamasPresentIntroduced1890Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016
BarbadosPresentNativeBroome et al., 2007
BelizePresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedVega et al., 2010; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Anegada, Guana Islands, Tortola
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limón, Puntarenas, San José
CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive Catasús Guerra, 2015; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016; New York Botanical Garden, 2016
DominicaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedNew York Botanical Garden, 2016
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016; PIER, 2016Ahuachapán, Cabañas, Chalatenango, La Libertad, La Paz, La Unión, San Salvador, San Vicente, Santa Ana, Sonsonate
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016; PIER, 2016Chiquimula, Escuintla, Guatemala, Izabal, Petén, Sacatepéquez, Suchitepéquez, Zacapa
HaitiPresentIntroduced1925Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016; New York Botanical Garden, 2016
HondurasWidespreadIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016; PIER, 2016Atlántida, Choluteca, Comayagua, Copán, Cortés, El Paraíso, Francisco Morazán, Gracias a Dios, Islas de la Bahía, Olacho, Valle, Yoro
JamaicaPresentIntroduced1890Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016
MartiniquePresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
MontserratPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
NicaraguaWidespreadIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016; PIER, 2016Boaco, Carazo, Chontales, Estelí, Granada, León, Madriz, Managua, Mayasa, Matagalpa, Nueva Segovia, Rivas
PanamaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016; PIER, 2016Canal Area, Chiriquí, Coclé, Darién, Herrera, Panamá.
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedVega et al., 2010; USDA-NRCS, 2016Fajardo, Juana Díaz, Lajas, Loíza, Mayaguez, Río Grande
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentIntroduced1919Broome et al., 2007; Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, 2016
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
Turks and Caicos IslandsPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedNew York Botanical Garden, 2016St. Croix

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Corrientes, Formosa, Misiones, Salta
BoliviaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Beni, Chuquisaca, La Paz, Santa Cruz, Tajira
BrazilPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
-AcrePresentIntroducedFlora do Brasil, 2016
-AmapaPresentIntroducedFlora do Brasil, 2016
-BahiaPresentIntroducedFlora do Brasil, 2016
-CearaPresentIntroducedFlora do Brasil, 2016
-Mato GrossoPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
-ParaPresentIntroducedFlora do Brasil, 2016
-ParaibaPresentIntroducedFlora do Brasil, 2016
-ParanaPresentIntroduced1914Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016
-PernambucoPresentIntroducedFlora do Brasil, 2016
-PiauiPresentIntroducedFlora do Brasil, 2016
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroduced1836New York Botanical Garden, 2016
-Rio Grande do NortePresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
-Rio Grande do SulPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
-RondoniaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
-RoraimaPresentIntroducedFlora do Brasil, 2016
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroducedFlora do Brasil, 2016
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
-TocantinsPresentIntroducedFlora do Brasil, 2016
ColombiaWidespreadIntroducedGiraldo-Cañas, 2011; PIER, 2016Antioquia, Arauca, Atlántico, Bolívar, Caldas, Casanare, Chocó, Cundinamarca, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Risaralda, San Andrés, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupés< Vichada.
EcuadorPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016; PIER, 2016Chimborazo, El Oro, Guayas, Imbabura, Los Ríos
French GuianaPresentIntroducedHoff et al., 1996; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016Cayenne
GuyanaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
ParaguayPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Amambay, Boquerón, Central, Concepción, Nueva Asunción, Presidente Hayes
PeruPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Cajamarca, Lima
SurinamePresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Lara, Miranda, Monagas, Portuguesa, Sucre, Táchira, Zulia

Oceania

American SamoaPresentNativePIER, 2016
AustraliaPresentNative Not invasive PIER, 2016
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentNative Not invasive PIER, 2016
-QueenslandPresentNative Not invasive PIER, 2016
-Western AustraliaPresentNative Not invasive FloraBase, 2016
GuamPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016Pohnpei, Yap Islands
NauruPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016Agrigan, Guguan, Pagan, Rota, Saipan, Tinian Islands.
PalauPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016Babekdaob, Ngerkebesang Islands.
Papua New GuineaPresentNativePIER, 2016
SamoaPresentNative Not invasive PIER, 2016Upolu Island
Wake IslandPresentIntroduced Not invasive PIER, 2016

History of Introduction and Spread

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Information about the introduction of the species to areas outside its native range and/or its spread is not readily available. Catasús Guerra (2015) lists the species as being dispersed by wind, humans and animals. Due to the small size of the seeds it is highly probable that the species has been dispersed unintentionally as a contaminant in imported agricultural products, through soil or transported by humans. Outside its native range, there are reports of D. bicornis in Brazil by the mid 1800’s and for North America, Central America and the Caribbean in the mid to late 1800’s (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016; New York Botanical Garden, 2016). It was recorded for the first time in Honduras in 1979 (Nelson, 1979).

Risk of Introduction

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There is almost no information available about the introduction, dispersal and biology of the species to properly assess the risk of introduction. The species grows well in different types of habitats (Quattrocchi, 2006; Encyclopedia of Life, 2016; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016). Although it is reported as a forage and fodder species, it is not being cultivated for those uses (Forero-Montaña et al., 2003; Quattrocchi, 2006; Catasús Guerra, 2015). Based on its capability of growing in different habitats, and that grasses in general are easily dispersed, D. bicornis has a medium risk of introduction into tropical areas.

Habitat

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D. bicornis is reported as present in ruderal areas, open disturbed places, along roadsides, coastal regions, meadows, clearings, cultivated fields, waste places, grasslands, sandy riverbanks, wet sand, dry hillsides, palm forests and semi-deciduous to deciduous forests (Quattrocchi, 2006; Vega et al., 2010; CONABIO, 2016; Encyclopedia of Life, 2016; FloraBase, 2016; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016; India Biodiversity Portal, 2016). In the USA it is reported for disturbed areas, prairies, coastal marshes. sandy coastal plains, pine woods and oak savanna vegetation (Webster, 1980). It is found from sea level to about 2000 m elevation (Encyclopedia of Life, 2016).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Hosts/Species Affected

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D. bicornis is a weed that occurs in maize, rice, soyabean and sugar cane fields (Quattrocchi, 2006; Dias et al., 2007; Ramírez S et al., 2015). Plants of maize and rice have been reported as being affected by downy mildew disease caused by Sclerophthora rayssiae that was acquired from soil where seedlings of D. bicornis were previously growing (Chamswarng et al., 1976).

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for D. bicornis is 2n = 54, 72 (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016). Caponio and Rua (2003) list it as an octoploid (2n-8x=72) of possible alloploid origin. Accessions of the species are stored in the National Plant Germplasm System (USDA-ARS, 2016). D. bicornis and Anthephora hermaphrodita are reported as the parental species of Tarigidia axelrodii from Puerto Rico (Vega et al., 2010).

Reproductive Biology

D. bicornis reproduces by seeds, requiring light and temperatures between 20-35ºC for germination (Mondo et al., 2010). Caponio and Rua (2003) suggest that it is a mainly cleistogamous species. Embryology was described by Febulaus and Pullaiah (1996).

The plants root at the lower nodes, providing for some vegetative reproduction (Quattrocchi, 2006).

Physiology and Phenology

D. bicornis is an annual, to sometimes perennial grass (Quattrocchi, 2006). It is reported as flowering and fruiting from September to December in India (India Biodiversity Portal, 2016), and from June through April by Vega et al. (2010).

Environmental Requirements

Almost no information is available on the environmental requirements of the species. It is reported as growing in shallow or rocky soils, sand, coarse texture soils, clay, alluvium and laterite; with moderate to high rainfall (Webster, 1980; CONABIO, 2016; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016). It is salt tolerant (Webster, 1980).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
36 -34

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall1500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • impeded

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • saline

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

D. bicornis is wind dispersed (Catasús Guerra, 2015). The unit of dispersal reported for D. bicornis and other Digitaria species is the spikelet (Vega et al., 2010).

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

The species is reported by Catasús Guerra (2015) as being dispersed by animals, but without further details.

Accidental Introduction

Anthropochory is reported by Catasús Guerra (2015) as occurring for D. bicornis without further details.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionPresent in crop fields, possibly a seed contaminant, soil contaminant and in cultivation waste Yes Yes
DisturbanceA weed in disturbed areas Yes Quattrocchi, 2006
Forage Yes Quattrocchi, 2006
HitchhikerMight be carried unintentionally in clothes, shoes, etc., due to small size of seeds. Also carried in animal fur Yes Catasús Guerra, 2015
Off-site preservation Stored in the National Plant Germplasm System Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsMight be carried unintentionally in clothes, shoes, etc., due to small size of seeds Yes Yes Catasús Guerra, 2015
GermplasmStored in the National Plant Germplasm System Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2016
Soil, sand and gravel Yes Yes
Land vehiclesMight be carried unintentionally in agricultural machinery Yes
Wind Yes Catasús Guerra, 2015

Economic Impact

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D. bicornis is one of the weeds that has caused loss of productivity in soyabean fields in Brazil (Duarte et al., 2009).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Has high reproductive potential
Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
Impact mechanisms
  • Hybridization
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

Uses

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D. bicornis is recommended as having potential for saline wastewater purification systems for organic matter and suspended soils removal (Klomjek and Nitisoravut, 2005). It is used as forage or as a fodder for livestock (Quattrocchi, 2006; Catasús Guerra, 2015). In Colombia, it is part of the diet of the capybara, Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Forero-Montaña et al., 2003).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Forage

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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D. bicornis is easily confused with D. ciliaris, and the species usually grow together. D. bicornis plants are yellow-green, while D. ciliaris is darker green in colour. D. bicornis lacks an inflorescence main axis or the branches are in whorls, while D. ciliaris has some solitary primary branches. Also, the first glume in D. bicornis is significantly shorter than the second glume (Webster, 1987).

Prevention and Control

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Catasús Guerra (2015) suggest the species should be eliminated or controlled by intensive animal foraging or by manual and mechanical extraction.

The following herbicides have been recommended for the control of the species: dithiopyr, MSMA, mesotrione, ametryn, diuron, tryfloxysulfuron-sodium, hexazinone, tebuthiuron, clomazone, amicarbazone, isoxaflutole, eimazapic and metribuzin (Dias et al., 2007; McCurdy et al., 2008).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Information about the biology of the species, the environmental requirements and the effects on habitats or other species is needed for a complete assessment of the invasiveness of the species.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

African Plant Database, 2016. African Plant Database. Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève and South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria. http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/africa/

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Caponio, I., Rua, G. H., 2003. Reproductive biology of Digitaria bicornis, a common weed of northeastern Argentina. Revista Científica Agropecuaria, 7(2), 21-27.

Catasús Guerra L, 2015. Consideraciones sobre las gramíneas invasoras en Cuba. Revista del Jardín Botánico Nacional, 36, 115-150.

Chamswarng C, Pupipat U, Sommartaya T, Renfro BL, 1976. A downy mildew on white birdfoot grass (Digitaria bicornis (Lamk.) Roem. & Schult. ex Loud.). Kasetsart Journal, 10(1), 14-24.

CONABIO, 2016. Digitaria bicornis (Lam.) Roem. & Schultes. Mexico: Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad. http://www.conabio.gob.mx/malezasdemexico/poaceae/digitaria-bicornis/fichas/ficha.htm

Dias ACR, Carvalho SJP, Nicolai M, Christoffoleti PJ, 2007. Problemática da ocorrência de diferentes espécies de Capim-colchão (Digitaria spp.) na cultura da cana-de-açúcar. Planta Daninha, 25(2), 489-499.

Duarte, D. J., Pitelli, R. A., Carvalho, L. B. de, 2009. Interference of weed community on soybean in a no-tillage system. In: XII Congresso da Sociedad Española de Malherbologia (SEMh), XIX Congresso da Asociacion Latinoamericana de Malezas (ALAM), II Congresso Iberico de Ciencias de las Malezas (IBCM), Herbologia e Biodiversidade numa Agricultura Sustentável, Lisboa, Portugal, 10 a 13 de Novembro de 2009. Volume 1 and Volume 2 : Sociedad Española de Malherbología (Spanish Weed Science Society). 445-448.

Duistermaat, H., 2004. New grass (Poaceae) records for Singapore, including Panicum laxum new for Asia. Gardens' Bulletin (Singapore), 56(1/2), 29-42.

Encyclopedia of Life, 2016. Encyclopedia of Life. In: Encyclopedia of Life, http://www.eol.org

Febulaus, G. N. V., Pullaiah, T., 1996. Embryology of Digitaria (Poaceae). Phytomorphology, 46(2), 161-169.

Flora do Brasil, 2016. Brazilian Flora 2020 in construction. In: Brazilian Flora 2020 in construction, http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ConsultaPublicaUC.do#CondicaoTaxonCP

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

FloraBase, 2016. The Western Australia flora. In: The Western Australia flora, https://florabase.dpaw.wa.gov.au/

Forero-Montaña J, Betancour J, Cavelier J, 2003. Dieta del capybara Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Rodentia: Hydrochaeridae) en Caño Limón, Arauca, Colombia. Revista de Biología Tropical, 51(2), 1-17.

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Hoff M, Cremers G, Boggan J, 1996. Studies on the Flora of the Guianas No 84. New records from the French Giuana, 1992-1994. Willdenowia, 26(1/2), 301-320.

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Flora do Brasilhttp://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ConsultaPublicaUC.do#CondicaoTaxonCP
India Biodiversity Portalhttp://indiabiodiversity.org/biodiv/species/show/243228
Muséum National D’Histoire Naturelle databasehttps://science.mnhn.fr/all/search
National Museum of Natural History databasehttp://botany.si.edu/colls/collections_overview.htm
New York Botanical Garden databasehttp://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/vh/
Plants of the Eastern Caribbeanhttp://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/
The Grass Manual on the webhttp://herbarium.usu.edu/webmanual
UPRRP databasehttp://herbariodb.uprrp.edu/bol/

Contributors

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20/12/2016 Original text by:

Jeanine Vélez-Gavilán, University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez

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