Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Alternanthera bettzickiana
(calico plant)

Vélez-Gavilán J, 2016. Alternanthera bettzickiana (calico plant). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.120104.20203483345

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Datasheet

Alternanthera bettzickiana (calico plant)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Documented Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Alternanthera bettzickiana
  • Preferred Common Name
  • calico plant
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • There are no published reports about the invasiveness of A. bettzickiana, a cultivated herb not known from the wild other than where escaped from cultivation. In most of the countries where it occurs, it is reported as an ornamental speci...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Alternanthera bettzickiana (calico plant); habit. Rawlings Conservatory & Botanic Gardens, Baltimore MD, USA. Marh 2008.
TitleHabit
CaptionAlternanthera bettzickiana (calico plant); habit. Rawlings Conservatory & Botanic Gardens, Baltimore MD, USA. Marh 2008.
Copyright©David J. Stang/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Alternanthera bettzickiana (calico plant); habit. Rawlings Conservatory & Botanic Gardens, Baltimore MD, USA. Marh 2008.
HabitAlternanthera bettzickiana (calico plant); habit. Rawlings Conservatory & Botanic Gardens, Baltimore MD, USA. Marh 2008.©David J. Stang/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Alternanthera bettzickiana (calico plant); flower and foliage. Rawlings Conservatory & Botanic Gardens, Baltimore MD, USA. Marh 2008.
TitleFlower and foliage
CaptionAlternanthera bettzickiana (calico plant); flower and foliage. Rawlings Conservatory & Botanic Gardens, Baltimore MD, USA. Marh 2008.
Copyright©David J. Stang/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Alternanthera bettzickiana (calico plant); flower and foliage. Rawlings Conservatory & Botanic Gardens, Baltimore MD, USA. Marh 2008.
Flower and foliageAlternanthera bettzickiana (calico plant); flower and foliage. Rawlings Conservatory & Botanic Gardens, Baltimore MD, USA. Marh 2008.©David J. Stang/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Alternanthera bettzickiana (Regel) G.Nicholson

Preferred Common Name

  • calico plant

Other Scientific Names

  • Achyranthes bettzickiana (Regel) Standl.
  • Achyranthes picta Passarge
  • Alternanthera amabilis Lem.
  • Alternanthera amabilis var. tricolor Linden & André
  • Alternanthera amoena (Lem.) Voss
  • Alternanthera articulata O.Stützer
  • Alternanthera articulata var. minuta O.Stützer
  • Alternanthera bettzickiana (Regel) Standl.
  • Alternanthera bettzickiana (Regel) Voss
  • Alternanthera bettzickiana var. spathulata (Lem.) Seub.
  • Alternanthera coerilis Voss
  • Alternanthera cyclophylla (Seub.) Schinz
  • Alternanthera ficoidea var. amonea (Lem.) L.B.Sm. & Downs
  • Alternanthera ficoidea var. bettzickiana (Regel) Backer
  • Alternanthera ficoidea var. spathulata (Lem.) L.B.Sm & Downs
  • Alternanthera ficoidea var. versicolor (Lem.) L.B.Sm. & Downs
  • Alternanthera kerberi Uline & W.L.Bray
  • Alternanthera paronychioides Klotzch ex K.Koch
  • Alternanthera paronychioides var. bettzickiana (Regel) Fosberg
  • Alternanthera purpurea Pynaert
  • Alternanthera reinhardii Voss
  • Alternanthera rosea Voss
  • Alternanthera sessilis var. amoena Lem.
  • Alternanthera spathulata Lem.
  • Alternanthera tenella var. bettzickiana (Regel) Veldkamp
  • Alternanthera variegata K.Koch
  • Amarantesia brasiliensis Regel
  • Telanthera bettzickiana Regel
  • Telanthera ficoidea var. versicolor Lem.
  • Telanthera picta (Passarge) C.Koch

International Common Names

  • English: Baptist plant; border plant; Jacob’s coat; Joseph’s coat; parrot leaf; red calico plant
  • Spanish: sanguinaria
  • German: Papageienblatt

Local Common Names

  • Australia: joyweed
  • China: jin xiu xian
  • Cuba: adorno de jardín; alternante; borde de playa; San Pedro
  • Dominican Republic: jamón con pan verdes
  • El Salvador: perico
  • Honduras: colchón de niño
  • India: jal-sachiba; lal mehndi
  • Japan: akaba-moyo-biyu
  • Lesser Antilles: rabbit weed; zeb a albumin
  • Malaysia: djukut selon
  • Nicaragua: monte negro
  • Puerto Rico: jamón con huevo; pajarito; sanguinaria; sinvergüencita
  • Tanzania: mehicha; mehicha mana
  • Venezuela: awiri hawapo; woiituño

Summary of Invasiveness

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There are no published reports about the invasiveness of A. bettzickiana, a cultivated herb not known from the wild other than where escaped from cultivation. In most of the countries where it occurs, it is reported as an ornamental species (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016). In Palau, although is listed as only planted near the Capitol, it is listed as a species of possible threat without further information (Space et al., 2009). In Texas it is not considered as a threat to native plant communities, although occasionally escaping to disturbed areas near where planted (Nesom, 2009). It is reported as a short-term escape for India (Sankaran et al., 2014) and common and not invasive in Taiwan (Wu et al., 2004). It is also escaped and naturalized in the British Virgin Islands, Costa Rica, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Peru and St. Lucia (D’Arcy, 1967; Graveson, 2012; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016), but without further details.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Caryophyllales
  •                         Family: Amaranthaceae
  •                             Genus: Alternanthera
  •                                 Species: Alternanthera bettzickiana

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Alternanthera is a genus of up to 150 species, most of which are native to South America (Mears, 1977; Flora of Pakistan, 2016). The genus refers to the anthers being alternately barren (Nicholson, 1884). Agudelo and Franco Rosselli (1991) report that of all the genera of Amaranthaceae, the delimitation of Alternanthera species is a challenge, especially those from South America.

A. bettzickiana is a common ornamental which is believed by some to be a cultivar of Alternanthera ficoidea (Quattrocchi, 2012). The use of the name A. ficoidea has been the cause of a debate for its validity (Mears, 1977, Veldkamp, 1978; Mears, 1980, Pedersen, 1980, Kanis, 1983). Veldkamp (1978) proposed to reject A. ficoidea for the use of A. tenella, also proposing the use of A. tenella var. bettzickiana, citing this variety being somewhat more erect, with coloured foliage, more variable in shape and hardly setting seeds. After various considerations by the Committee for Spermatophyta of the International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT), A. tenella use was rejected and the traditional name A. ficoidea was conserved (Brummit, 1989). This compendium follows The Plant List (2013) and uses A. ficoidea and A. bettzickiana as accepted names. The epithet bettzickiana is for August Bettzick, a German gardener (Gujarat Forestry Research Foundation, 2016).

Description

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The following description is from Flora Zambesiaca (2016): Erect or ascending, bushy perennial herb (commonly cultivated as an annual), c. 5–45 cm tall, stem and branches villous when young but soon glabrescent, older parts terete, younger bluntly quadrangular. Leaves narrowly or more broadly elliptical to oblanceolate or rhomboid-ovate, acute to acuminate at the apex, attenuate into a slender, indistinctly demarcated petiole below, thinly furnished with fine, whitish hairs to subglabrous, often reddish or purple suffused and not rarely variegated. Heads axillary, sessile, usually solitary, globose to ovoid, 4–6 mm in diam.; bracts pale, deltoid-ovate, c. 2 mm long, glabrous, lacerate-margined, aristate with the excurrent midrib; bracteoles similar but slightly shorter. Tepals white, lanceolate to oblong-elliptic, 3.5–4 mm long, acute, mucronate with the excurrent midrib; outer 2 prominently 3-nerved below and darker in the nerved area, with a line of whitish, minutely barbellate hairs on each side of this area, the hairs becoming denser towards the base of the tepal; inner 2 slightly shorter, narrower and less rigid, mostly 1–2-nerved; central tepal intermediate. Stamens 5, at anthesis much exceeding the ovary and style, the alternating pseudostaminodes subequalling the filaments plus anthers, narrowly oblong, laciniate at the apex. Ovary strongly compressed, obpyriform, 0.6 mm long, style about the same length. Ripe fruits and seeds usually not seen.

Plant Type

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Herbaceous
Perennial
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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A. bettzickiana is reported mainly from the tropics and sub-tropics (Hanelt and IPK, 2016). In temperate regions it is used as an annual or an indoor plant that can be brought outside during summer (Moldenke, 1946; PROTA, 2016). It is cultivated in Asia (especially popular in China), Africa, North America, Central America, the Caribbean, South America, Europe and Oceania (see Distribution Table for details).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EgyptPresentIntroduced
MalawiPresentIntroduced
MauritiusPresentIntroduced
SeychellesPresentIntroduced
Sierra LeonePresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedOrnamental.
TanzaniaPresentIntroduced
UgandaPresentIntroduced
ZambiaPresentIntroduced

Asia

ChinaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedWidely used as an ornamental in big cities.
-AnhuiPresentIntroduced
-BeijingPresentIntroduced
-FujianPresentIntroduced
-GansuPresentIntroduced
-GuangdongPresentIntroduced
-GuangxiPresentIntroduced
-GuizhouPresentIntroduced
-HainanPresentIntroduced
-HebeiPresentIntroduced
-HeilongjiangPresentIntroduced
-HenanPresentIntroduced
-HubeiPresentIntroduced
-HunanPresentIntroduced
-Inner MongoliaPresentIntroduced
-JiangsuPresentIntroduced
-JiangxiPresentIntroduced
-JilinPresentIntroduced
-LiaoningPresentIntroduced
-NingxiaPresentIntroduced
-QinghaiPresentIntroduced
-ShaanxiPresentIntroduced
-ShandongPresentIntroduced
-ShanghaiPresentIntroduced
-ShanxiPresentIntroduced
-SichuanPresentIntroduced
-TianjinPresentIntroduced
-TibetPresentIntroduced
-XinjiangPresentIntroduced
-YunnanPresentIntroduced
-ZhejiangPresentIntroduced
Hong KongPresentIntroduced
IndiaPresentIntroducedShort term escape.
IndonesiaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
-JavaPresentIntroduced
-SumatraPresentIntroduced
MacauPresentIntroduced
OmanPresent, Few occurrencesIntroduced2014
Saudi ArabiaPresent, Few occurrencesIntroduced1996
Sri LankaPresentIntroduced
TaiwanPresentIntroduced1928Common, not invasive.
ThailandPresentIntroduced
VietnamPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedHa Noi, ornamental.

Europe

SpainPresent, LocalizedIntroducedCanary Islands only; Original citation: Reyes Betancort and Pérez De Paz (2000)
-Canary IslandsPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedOriginal citation: Reyes Betancort and Pérez De Paz (2000)

North America

BarbadosPresentNative
BelizePresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedCultivated and occasionally escaped on Tortola; Original citation: D’Arcy (1967)
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedRiver margin. Heredia.
CubaPresentIntroducedFrequently used in gardens; Original citation: Alvarez de Zayas (2008)
DominicaPresentNative
Dominican RepublicPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced1929Escaped.
GrenadaPresentNative
GuadeloupePresentNativeMarie Galante
GuatemalaPresentIntroduced
HondurasPresentIntroduced
MartiniquePresentNative
MexicoPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced1909Veracruz, Querétaro, Michoacán.
MontserratPresentNative
NicaraguaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedOrnamental. Managua, Estelí, Chontales, Atlántico Sur, Atlántico Norte.
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced
Saint LuciaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPersistent and possibly escaped.
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentNative
United StatesPresentIntroduced
-CaliforniaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedUnconfirmed reports of spread from cultivation; Original citation: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2016)
-FloridaPresentIntroducedOriginal citation: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2016)
-MarylandPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedUnconfirmed reports of spread from cultivation; Original citation: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2016)
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroducedIndoor plant and in summer for outdoor cultivation.
-TexasPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedListed as occurring in few populations outside of cultivation, with little or no increase in geographic range.

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroduced
-QueenslandPresent
Federated States of MicronesiaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedCultivated; used locally in soups and salads.
PalauPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedOnly listed as planted near the Capitol, but also regarded as a cultivated species of possible threat with the recommendation of doing a risk assessment.
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroduced

South America

BoliviaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedBeni, Pando, Santa Cruz. Ornamental.
BrazilPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalised, not endemic.
-BahiaPresentIntroduced
-GoiasPresentIntroduced
-MaranhaoPresentIntroduced
-Mato GrossoPresentIntroduced
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentIntroduced
-ParaPresentIntroduced
-ParanaPresentIntroduced
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroduced
-Sao PauloPresentIntroduced
ColombiaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedIntroduced ornamental below 1000m; Original citation: Agudelo and Franco Rosselli (1991)
EcuadorPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedNapo
PeruPresentIntroducedUsed by indigenous people for food. On open ground and cultivated in gardens. San Martín, Madre de Dios, Loreto, Hiánuco.
VenezuelaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedAmazonas

History of Introduction and Spread

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Although A. bettzickiana is cited as originally being from Brazil (Nicholson, 1884), in the Flora do Brasil (2016) it is cited as non-native and as naturalised. Mears (1977) argued that it was collected in Brazil previously due to its use as a cultivated species, but without giving details or references to any collection. Although it is regarded as native to some of the Lesser Antilles (Broome et al., 2007), most of the literature cites the species as only native to Brazil. It has been widely introduced as an ornamental (PROTA, 2016; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016). In India is reported as being an accidental introduction with a low risk of spreading and a short term escape (Sankaran et al., 2014). It has escaped from cultivation in Taiwan, the British Virgin Islands, Costa Rica, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Peru, St. Lucia and Taiwan (D’Arcy, 1967; Wu et al., 2004; Graveson, 2012; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016). It has been used in Indonesia since the beginning of the twentieth century in tea plantations to prevent soil erosion (Hanelt and IPK, 2016).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Taiwan Brazil 1929 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No Wu et al. (2004) Not invasive; common weed.
Mexico 1909 Horticulture (pathway cause) No No Missouri Botanical Garden (2016) Ornamental
Dominican Republic 1929 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No Missouri Botanical Garden (2016) Escaped

Habitat

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A. bettzickiana is generally found in cultivation in gardens and flower beds and is cited as an occasional escape. It has been reported in open areas of degraded deciduous forest, wastelands and river margins (India Biodiversity Portal, 2016; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016). It can occur from sea level to 2000 m elevation (Burger, 1983).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedBuildings Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Reproductive Biology 

Seeds are usually not seen in A. bettzickiana (Flora Zambesiaca, 2016). Reproduction in the species is by cuttings that root at nodes (PROTA, 2016).

Physiology and Phenology

Flowering and fruiting is reported for A. bettzickiana in October to February in India (India Biodiversity Portal, 2016).  Seeds are not normally seen (PROTA, 2016).

Longevity

A. bettzickiana is a perennial species, but cultivated as an annual in temperate regions (PROTA, 2016).

Environmental Requirements

Little information is available on the environmental requirements for A. bettzickiana, part of it coming from horticulture internet sites, where is reported as preferring a full sun exposure to partial shade, and liking moist, well-drained soils. There is some information about the soil requirements, but for the common name “calico plant”, which is used for both A. ficoidea and A. bettzickiana. The recommended pH for the soil is from 6.1 to 7.6 and a medium soil texture (Garden Guides, 2016). A. bettzickiana does not tolerate frosts (Moldenke, 1946).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
33 -30

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -12
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 30

Soil Tolerances

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Special soil tolerances

  • saline

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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A. bettzickiana has been introduced as an ornamental in all its range (Deighton, 1936; Moldenke, 1946; Burger, 1983; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; PROTA, 2016; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016). In India the species is reported as accidentally introduced, but without further information (Sankaran et al., 2014).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes Missouri Botanical Garden (2016)
ForageAs a fodder for goats and rabbits. Yes Quattrocchi (2012)
Garden waste disposal Yes
Habitat restoration and improvementUsed for erosion control in plantations, croplands and orchards. Yes PROTA (2016)
HorticultureOrnamental. Yes Yes PROTA (2016)
Internet salesAdvertised at a few internet sites as an ornamental. Yes Yes
Medicinal useUsed locally to treat various ailments. Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2016)
Nursery tradeAvailable at some nurseries. Yes
Ornamental purposesCommon ornamental. Yes Yes PROTA (2016)
People foragingUsed as a vegetable. Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2016)

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Mulch, straw, baskets and sodAs a contaminant in baled hay. Yes Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants (2016)

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Positive
Human health Positive

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact mechanisms
  • Pest and disease transmission
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Economic value

A. bettzickiana is cultivated as an ornamental (USDA-ARS, 2016).

Social benefit

A. bettzickiana is used to treat anaemia in children (Useful Tropical Plants, 2016). It is also used to treat arthritis, gastrointestinal distress, emmenagogue, menstrual cramps, to promote lactation, to improve blood circulation and prevent dementia (Phusrisom et al., 2013; Maneenoon et al., 2015). The leaves and young shoots are edible, eaten in salads or as a vegetable (Useful Tropical Plants, 2016). It is also ground and used to treat snake bites (PROTA, 2016).

Environmental services

A. bettzickiana is used for erosion control and soil improvement due to its extensive root system (USDA-ARS, 2016). It is used in tea plantations, croplands and orchards to hold soil (PROTA, 2016). It is also used as a fodder for goats and rabbits (Quattrocchi, 2012). In Central America is used as an ant repellent (Secoy and Smith, 1983).

The species has the potential to be used for phytoremediation of cadmium and lead (Tauqeer et al., 2016) and for the improvement of salt affected soils, as it can tolerate salinity of up to 40 dS m-1 (Ali et al., 2012).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed

Drugs, stimulants, social uses

  • Narcotic

Environmental

  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Land reclamation
  • Soil conservation
  • Soil improvement

Human food and beverage

  • Vegetable

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • garden plant
  • Potted plant

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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The genus Alternanthera could be confused vegetatively with Ammannia, Gymnocornis, Hygrophila, Ludwigia, Nesaea and Persicaria (Aquarium and Pond Plants of the World, 2016). The genus can be differentiated by the flowers being in the axil of persistent bracts that form a spike or a rounded head inflorescence (Flora of Pakistan, 2016). 

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Research is needed to clarify the taxonomic status of this species. If with new information A. bettzickiana is regarded as a cultivar of A. ficoidea, a new assessment should be made. If the species is validated, more information about its biology and the environmental requirements is needed. Also needed is information to determine the potential invasiveness of this species.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Agudelo HCA, Franco Rosselli P, 1991. Sinopsis de Amaranthaceae de Colombia., Caldasia, 16(79):439-448

Aguilar-Støen M, Moe SR, Camargo-Ricalde SL, 2009. Home gardens sustain crop diversity and improve farm resilience in Candelaria Loxicha, Oaxaca, Mexico, Human Ecology, 37(1):55-77

Ali A, Iqbal N, Ali F, Afzal B, 2012. Alternanthera bettzickiana (Regel) G.Nicholson, a potential halophytic ornamental plant: growth and physiological adaptations., Flora, 207:318-321

Alvarez de Zayas A, 2008. Plantas ornamentales en Cuba: usos, diversidad y amenazas., Revista del Jardín Botánico Nacional, 29:83-100

Aquarium and Pond Plants of the World, 2016. Aquarium and Pond Plants of the World, Edition 2.0. http://idtools.org/id/aquariumplants/Aquarium_&_Pond_Plants_of_the_World/key/Aquarium_&_Pond_Plants/Media/Html/Other/Home.html

Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants, 2010. Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants. Version 6.1 - December 2010. CSIRO, Queensland, Australia. http://keys.trin.org.au/key-server/data/0e0f0504-0103-430d-8004-060d07080d04/media/Html/index.html

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Brummit RK, 1989. Report of the Committee for Spermatophyta: 36., Taxon, 38:299

Burger WC, 1983. Flora Costaricensis., Fieldiana, 13:1-255

D'Arcy WG, 1967. Annotated checklist of the dicotyledons of Tortola, Virgin Islands., Rhodora, 69(780):385-450

Deighton FC, 1936. Preliminary list of fungi and diseases of plants in Sierra Leone., Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew), 7:397-424

Encyclopedia of Life, 2016. Encyclopedia of Life. http://www.eol.org

Flora do Brasil, 2016. Brazilian Flora 2020 in construction. http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ConsultaPublicaUC.do#CondicaoTaxonCP

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of North America North of Mexico. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1

Flora of Pakistan, 2016. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Tropicos website. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

Flora Zambesiaca, 2016. Flora Zambesiaca online (eFloras). Richmond, Surrey, UK: Kew Databases. http://apps.kew.org/efloras/search.do

Garden Guides, 2016. How to care for Calico plant. http://www.gardenguides.com/69876-care-calico-plant.html

Graveson R, 2012. The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). http://www.saintlucianplants.com

Gujarat Forestry Research Foundation, 2016. E-Flora of Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India. http://www.efloraofgandhinagar.in/

Hanelt P, IPK, 2016. Mansfeld's World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops. Gatersleben, Germany: Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK). http://mansfeld.ipk-gatersleben.de/apex/f?p=185:3:0::NO

Herrera K, Lorence DH, Flynn T, Balick M, 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia with local names and uses. Allertonia, 10:1-192. http://www.jstor.org/stable/23193787

Holcomb GE, 1978. Alternaria alternantherae from alligatorweed also is pathogenic on ornamental Amaranthaceae species., Phytopathology, 68:265-266

India Biodiversity Portal, 2016. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

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Distribution References

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Patzelt A, Harrison T, Knees S G, Al-Harthy L, 2014. Studies in the flora of Arabia: XXXI. New records from the Sultanate of Oman. Edinburgh Journal of Botany. 71 (2), 161-180. http://www.journals.cup.org/action/displayJournal?jid=EJB DOI:10.1017/S0960428614000067

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Space JC, Lorence DH, LaRosa AM, 2009. Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on invasive plant species., Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station. 233 pp.

Wu S H, Hsieh ChangFu, Rejmánek M, 2004. Catalogue of the naturalized flora of Taiwan. Taiwania. 49 (1), 16-31.

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02/06/2016 Original text by:

Jeanine Vélez-Gavilán, University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez

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