Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

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Grapevine red blotch virus
(grapevine red blotch virus)

Fuchs M, 2020. Grapevine red blotch virus (grapevine red blotch virus). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.120024.20210200728

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Grapevine red blotch virus (grapevine red blotch virus)

Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Grapevine red blotch virus (grapevine red blotch virus); foliar symptoms on Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Franc.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionGrapevine red blotch virus (grapevine red blotch virus); foliar symptoms on Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Franc.
Copyright©Marc Fuchs/Cornell University
Grapevine red blotch virus (grapevine red blotch virus); foliar symptoms on Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Franc.
SymptomsGrapevine red blotch virus (grapevine red blotch virus); foliar symptoms on Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Franc.©Marc Fuchs/Cornell University

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Grapevine red blotch virus

Preferred Common Name

  • grapevine red blotch virus

Other Scientific Names

  • Grapevine cabernet franc-associated virus
  • Grapevine red blotch-associated virus
  • Grapevine red leaf-associated virus

English acronym

  • GRBV

EPPO code

  • GRBAV0

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "ssDNA viruses"
  •         Group: "DNA viruses"
  •             Family: Geminiviridae
  •                 Genus: Grablovirus
  •                     Species: Grapevine red blotch virus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Grapevine red blotch virus (GRBV) is the type member of the genus Grablovirus in the family Geminiviridae (Varsani et al., 2017). This virus was identified for the first time in 2011 (Sudarshana et al., 2015; Cieniewicz et al., 2017a).

Description

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The genome of GRBV consists of a single-stranded circular DNA molecule that encodes seven putative open reading frames, four in the genome sense orientation and three in the complementary sense orientation (Vargas-Asencio et al., 2019). Populations of GRBV isolates group into two distinct phylogenetic clades, I and II, with nucleotide variation of up to 9% between the clades. Isolates within clade I show a maximum of 5% sequence heterogeneity, while those within clade II are more homogeneous with a 2% or less nucleotide variation (Krenz et al., 2014).

Distribution

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GRBV has been reported in Argentina (Luna et al. 2019), Canada (Xiao et al., 2015; Poojari et al., 2017), India (Marwal et al., 2019), Mexico (Gasperin-Bulbarela et al., 2019), Korea Republic (Lim et al., 2016), Switzerland (Reynard et al., 2018) and the USA (Rwahnih et al., 2013; Krenz et al., 2014).

Red blotch disease was described for the first time in the mid 2000s in California, USA (Sudarshana et al., 2015; Cieniewicz et al., 2017a). GRBV was characterized from red blotch diseased vines in 2011 (Krenz et al., 2012; Rwahnih et al., 2013; Sudarshana et al., 2015; Cieniewicz et al., 2017a) and later shown to be the causal agent of the disease (Yepes et al., 2018). Interestingly, GRBV was found in an archival Vitis herbarium specimen collected in 1940 in California, suggesting the virus was present in vineyards for some time before its discovery (Al-Rwahnih et al., 2015b).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

IndiaPresent2019Present based on regional distribution
-PunjabPresent2019GRBV identified in symptomless Vitis vinifera
South KoreaPresent2014

Europe

SwitzerlandAbsent, Formerly present2012Six grapevine accessions, all originating from the USA, were found to be GRBV infected in a grapevine virus repository. A 2018 survey on more than 3000 plants, found no occurrences of GRBV in three major grape-growing regions in Switzerland.

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution
-British ColumbiaPresent, Few occurrences20151.6% of samples tested in British Columbia in the 2014 and 2015 growing seasons were positive for GRBV
-Nova ScotiaPresent
-OntarioPresent
MexicoPresent2017Ensenada, Baja California
United StatesPresent, WidespreadGrapevine red blotch disease first reported in 2008. GRBV identified as a cause in 2013
-ArizonaPresent
-ArkansasPresent
-CaliforniaPresent2013First molecular identification of GRBV as the cause of grapevine red blotch disease
-GeorgiaPresent2012
-IdahoPresent2011
-MarylandPresent2014
-MissouriPresent
-New JerseyPresent2014
-New YorkPresent2012Virus first sequenced from samples of Vitis vinifera collected in New York in 2012, but at that point not linked to grapevine red blotch disease
-North CarolinaPresent2018
-OhioPresent2015
-OklahomaPresent2015
-OregonPresent2014
-PennsylvaniaPresent2014
-TennesseePresent
-TexasPresent
-VirginiaPresent, Widespread
-WashingtonPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent2018

Risk of Introduction

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The major means of GRBV dispersal is via the distribution and use of infected cuttings and propagative units of grape. The risk of accidentally introducing GRBV to new areas is high if the grape material originates from unverified sources in the USA, where the virus is widespread. Similarly, the risk of introduction of GRBV to new areas is also high if the grape material is sourced from Vitis germplasm repositories in North America (Al-Rwahnih et al., 2015a).

In the state of New York in the USA, GRBV does not seem to spread to or within vineyards (Cieniewicz et al., 2019a). Similarly, there is no indication of GRBV spread in Switzerland (Reynard et al., 2018).

Habitat

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The natural host range of GRBV is restricted to Vitis spp. in managed (e.g., vines in commercial vineyards) and unmanaged (e.g., free-living vines in riparian areas) vineyard ecosystems (Perry et al., 2016; Bahder et al., 2016b; Cieniewicz et al., 2018b; 2019a).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Vitis (grape)VitaceaeMain
    Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeMain

      Symptoms

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      Foliar symptoms caused by GRBV in red-berried Vitis vinifera cultivars consist of red blotches that expand and coalesce in late summer and autumn, while in white-berried V. vinifera cultivars foliar symptoms consist of irregular chlorotic areas that become necrotic late in the season (Sudarshana et al., 2015; Yepes et al., 2018). The severity of symptoms and their onset vary with cultivar, vineyard location and growing season. For fruits, delays in ripening, lower anthocyanin content in berry skin and altered fruit juice chemistry indices, particularly of total soluble solids, are characteristics of GRBV (Sudarshana et al. 2015; Cieniewicz et al., 2017a; Reynard et al., 2018).

      List of Symptoms/Signs

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      SignLife StagesType
      Fruit / discoloration
      Leaves / abnormal colours
      Whole plant / discoloration

      Biology and Ecology

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      Genetics

      The genome of GRBV consist of a single-stranded DNA molecule encoding seven open reading frames, four in the genome sense orientation and three in the complementary sense orientation (Vargas-Asencio et al., 2019).

      Population Size and Structure

      Analysis of the genetic variability of GRBV populations reveals two distinct phylogenetic clades, I and II, with nucleotide variation of up to 9% (Krenz et al., 2014). The majority of GRBV isolates group within clade II, which is relatively homogeneous with a 2% or less nucleotide variation while GRBV isolates within clade I are more heterogenous with a maximum of 5% nucleotide variation (Krenz et al., 2014).

      Means of Movement and Dispersal

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      Vector Transmission (Biotic)

      An insect vector best explains the spatiotemporal increase of infected vines on the west coast of the USA (Bahder et al., 2016b; Cieniewicz et al., 2017b; 2018a; 2019). GRBV was detected in free-living vines proximal to diseased commercial vineyards in California (Bahder et al., 2016a; Perry et al., 2016; Cieniewicz et al., 2018b), further suggesting the involvement of an insect vector in the spread of GRBV to and from cultivated and free-living grapes.

      The Virginia creeper leafhopper (Erythroneura ziczac) was initially reported as a vector of GRBV in greenhouses (Poojari et al., 2013), but this result was not confirmed in an independent study (Bahder et al., 2016b). Instead, the three-cornered alfalfa treehopper (Spissistilus festinus) was shown to transmit GRBV under greenhouse conditions (Bahder et al., 2016b), and to act as a likely vector of epidemiological importance (Cieniewicz et al., 2018a). However, the extent to which it transmits GRBV in the vineyard needs to be determined. The three-cornered alfalfa treehopper does not reproduce on grape, is a generalist feeder, and has legumes as preferred feeding and reproductive hosts (Preto et al., 2018).

      Accidental Introduction

      GRBV is graft-transmissible (Poojari et al., 2013; Rwahnih et al., 2013), so long-distance dissemination and local spread of GRBV can be facilitated by the exchange of infected propagation material and cuttings.

      Seedborne Aspects

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      GRBV is not seed transmitted.

      Pathway Causes

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      CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
      Breeding and propagationThe careless selection of infected grape propagation material results in long-distance or local spread of GRBV Yes Yes Sudarshana et al. (2015); Bahder et al. (2016a); Cieniewicz et al. (2017a; b; 2018a; 2019a);
      Crop productionThe careless selection of infected grape propagation material results in long-distance or local spread of GRBV Yes Yes Sudarshana et al. (2015); Bahder et al. (2016a); Cieniewicz et al. (2017a; b; 2018a; 2019a); Dalton et al. (2019)
      Nursery trade Yes Yes Cieniewicz et al. (2017a); Sudarshana et al. (2015)
      Research Yes Reynard et al. (2018)

      Pathway Vectors

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      VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
      Germplasm Yes Yes Al-Rwahnih et al. (2015a)
      Host and vector organismsGRBV is spread locally by the three-cornered alfalfa hopper Yes Bahder et al. (2016a)
      Plants or parts of plants Yes Yes Sudarshana et al. (2015)

      Plant Trade

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      Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
      Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
      Fruits (inc. pods)
      Leaves
      Roots
      Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
      Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
      Wood
      Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
      Bark
      Growing medium accompanying plants
      True seeds (inc. grain)

      Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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      VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
      Spissistilus festinusCaribbean; North America; North America; South America; South America

      Impact Summary

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      CategoryImpact
      Economic/livelihood Negative

      Impact: Economic

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      The economic cost of GRBV is estimated to range from US $2,213/ha to $68,548/ha, depending on the initial infection rate and quality penalties for sub-standard fruits (Ricketts et al., 2017). In addition, there has been an unprecedented rate of vineyard removals in areas where the virus is widespread due to a substantially-reduced productive lifespan of GRBV-infected vineyard parcels.

      Impact: Social

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      The widespread occurrence of GRBV in grapevine propagation material in the USA in early 2010 resulted in nurseries establishing new vineyard blocks with clean vines derived from virus-tested foundations stocks. 

      Risk and Impact Factors

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      Invasiveness
      • Abundant in its native range
      • Highly adaptable to different environments
      Impact outcomes
      • Host damage
      • Negatively impacts agriculture
      • Negatively impacts cultural/traditional practices
      • Negatively impacts animal/plant collections
      • Damages animal/plant products
      • Negatively impacts trade/international relations
      Impact mechanisms
      • Pest and disease transmission
      • Pathogenic
      Likelihood of entry/control
      • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
      • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
      • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
      • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

      Uses List

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      General

      • Laboratory use
      • Research model

      Diagnosis

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      Visual diagnosis is often unreliable due to several confounding abiotic and biotic factors, including similarities with leafroll disease symptoms. Therefore, laboratory assays are recommended for an accurate diagnosis of GRBV. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays (Poojari et al., 2013; Rwahnih et al., 2013; Krenz et al., 2014; Reynard et al., 2018), for example, an AmplifyRP Acceler8 assay based on recombinase polymerase amplification (Li et al., 2017) and a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay (Romero Romero et al., 2019) have been used to diagnose GRBV.

      Detection and Inspection

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      Old leaves at the bottom of the grapevine canopy should be inspected in late summer and autumn for irregular colouration and discolouration (reddening in red-berried cultivars and chlorosis in white-berried cultivars). Other detection methods include measuring basic fruit juice indices (Brix) and monitoring berry skin in red-berried cultivars, and checking for sub-optimal sugar levels and poor colouration and discolouration in white-berried cultivars.

      Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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      A visual diagnosis of red blotch disease can be challenging due to similarities of foliar and fruit symptoms with leafroll disease (Sudarshana et al., 2015; Cieniewicz et al., 2017a). Similarities also exist between red blotch symptoms in red-berried cultivars and symptoms caused by other biotic factors such as Pierce’s disease (Xylella fastidiosa), crown gall (Agrobacterium vitis) and mite damage, as well as abiotic factors such as poor root health, shoot girdling due to insect damage and trunk injury. Red blotch symptoms are also similar to symptoms elicited by nutrient deficiencies such as magnesium or potassium deficiency. These numerous confounding factors and the variation in symptom expression make a visual diagnosis of red blotch disease difficult; only polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or similar assays are reliable for an accurate diagnosis (Sudarshana et al., 2015; Cieniewicz et al., 2017a).

      Prevention and Control

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      Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

      SPS Measures

      Certification programs including standards for GRBV are critical to limit the presence of the virus in foundation vineyards and in grapevine propagation material in areas where the virus is widespread and recognized as a threat to grape production.

      Rapid Response

      Scouting, identifying GRBV-infected vines using robust diagnostic assays and eliminating infected vines is the best response to contain red blotch disease

      Movement Control

      Certification limits the presence of GRBV in grapevine vine stocks and its dissemination by restricting the exchange of infected propagative and planting material.

      References

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      Al-Rwahnih, M., Rowhani, A., Golino, D. A., Islas, C. M., Preece, J. E., Sudarshana, M. R., 2015. Detection and genetic diversity of grapevine red blotch-associated virus isolates in table grape accessions in the National Clonal Germplasm Repository in California. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 37(1), 130-135. doi: 10.1080/07060661.2014.999705

      Al-Rwahnih, M., Rowhani, A., Golino, D., 2015. First report of grapevine red blotch-associated virus in archival grapevine material from Sonoma County, California. Plant Disease, 99(6), 895. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

      Avinash Marwal, Rajesh Kumar, Khurana, S. M. P., Gaur, R. K., 2019. Complete nucleotide sequence of a new geminivirus isolated from Vitis vinifera in India: a symptomless host of Grapevine red blotch virus. VirusDisease, 30(1), 106-111. doi: 10.1007/s13337-018-0477-x

      Bahder, B. W., Zalom, F. G., Maya Jayanth, Sudarshana, M. R., 2016. Phylogeny of geminivirus coat protein sequences and digital PCR aid in identifying Spissistilus festinus as a vector of grapevine red blotch-associated virus. Phytopathology, 106(10), 1223-1230. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/phyto

      Bahder, B. W., Zalom, F. G., Sudarshana, M. R., 2016. An evaluation of the flora adjacent to wine grape vineyards for the presence of alternative host plants of grapevine red blotch-associated virus. Plant Disease, 100(8), 1571-1574. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-02-16-0153-RE

      Brannen PM, Deom CM, Alabi OJ, Naidu RA, 2018. Prevalence of viruses in commercial wine grape vineyards in Georgia. Plant Health Progress, 19, 342–346.

      CABI/EPPO, 2016. Grapevine red blotch-associated virus. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No.October. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 1190 (Edition 1)

      Cieniewicz E, Flasco M, Brunelli M, Flasco M, Onwumelu A, Wise A, Fuchs MF, 2019. Differential spread of grapevine red blotch virus in California and New York vineyards. Phytobiomes, 3, 203-211.

      Cieniewicz E, Perry K, Fuchs M, 2017. Grapevine red blotch virus: Molecular biology of the virus and management of the disease. In: Grapevine Viruses: Molecular Biology, Diagnostics and Management, [ed. by Meng B, Martelli G, Golino D, Fuchs M]. Berlin, Germany: Springer Verlag. 303–314.

      Cieniewicz E, Wise A, Smith R, Cooper M, Martinson T, Fuchs M, 2019. Studies on red blotch ecology inform disease management recommendations. Wine Business Monthly, March issue, 92-102.

      Cieniewicz, E. J., Pethybridge, S. J., Gorny, A., Madden, L. V., McLane, H., Perry, K. L., Fuchs, M., 2017. Spatiotemporal spread of grapevine red blotch-associated virus in a California vineyard. Virus Research, 241, 156-162. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2017.03.020

      Cieniewicz, E. J., Pethybridge, S. J., Loeb, G., Perry, K., Fuchs, M., 2018. Insights into the ecology of Grapevine red blotch virus in a diseased vineyard. Phytopathology, 108(1), 94-102. doi: 10.1094/PHYTO-07-17-0239-R

      Cieniewicz, E., Thompson, J. R., McLane, H., Perry, K. L., Dangl, G. S., Corbett, Q., Martinson, T., Wise, A., Wallis, A., O'Connell, J., Dunst, R., Cox, K., Fuchs, M., 2018. Prevalence and genetic diversity of grabloviruses in free-living Vitis spp. Plant Disease, 102(11), 2308-2316. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-03-18-0496-RE

      Dalton DT, Hilton RJ, Kaiser C, Daane KM, Sudarshana MR, Vo J, Zalom FG, Buser JZ, Walton VM, 2019. Spatial associations of vines infected with grapevine red blotch virus in Oregon vineyards. Plant Disease, 103, 1507-1514.

      Gasperin-Bulbarela J, Licea-Navarro AF, Pino-Villar C, Hernández-Martinez R, Carillo-Tripp J, 2019. First report of grapevine red blotch virus in Mexico. Plant Disease, 103(2), 381. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-07-18-1227-PDN

      Hoffmann M, Talton W, Nita M, Jones TJ, Al Rwahnih M, Sudarshana MR, Almeyda CV, 2020. First report of grapevine red blotch virus, the causal agent of grapevine red blotch disease in Vitis vinifera in North Carolina. Plant Disease , doi: 10.1094/PDIS-07-19-1539-PDN

      Krenz B, Thompson J, Fuchs MF, Perry KL, 2012. Complete genome sequence of a new circular DNA virus from grapevine. Journal of Virology, 86, 7715.

      Krenz, B., Thompson, J. R., McLane, H. L., Fuchs, M., Perry, K. L., 2014. Grapevine red blotch-associated virus is widespread in the United States. Phytopathology, 104(11), 1232-1240. doi: 10.1094/PHYTO-02-14-0053-R

      Li, R., Fuchs, M. F., Perry, K. L., Mekuria, T., Zhang, S., 2017. Development of a fast AmplifyRP Acceler8 diagnostic assay for grapevine red blotch virus. Journal of Plant Pathology, 99(3), 657-662. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3952/2596

      Lim S, Igori D, Zhao F, Moon JS, 2016. First report of Grapevine red blotch-associated virus on grapevine in Korea. Plant Disease, 100, 1957.

      Luna F, Debat H, Moyano S, Zavallo D, Asurmendi S, Gomez-Talquenca S, 2019. First report of grapevine red blotch virus infecting grapevine in Argentina. Journal of Plant Pathology, 101, 1239. doi: 10.1007/s42161-019-00298-3

      Perry, K. L., McLane, H., Hyder, M. Z., Dangl, G. S., Thompson, J. R., Fuchs, M. F., 2016. Grapevine red blotch-associated virus is present in free-living Vitis spp. proximal to cultivated grapevines. Phytopathology, 106(6), 663-670. doi: 10.1094/PHYTO-01-16-0035-R

      Poojari, S., Alabi, O. J., Fofanov, V. Y., Naidu, R. A., 2013. A leafhopper-transmissible DNA virus with novel evolutionary lineage in the family Geminiviridae implicated in grapevine redleaf disease by next-generation sequencing. PLoS ONE, 8(6), e64194. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064194

      Poojari, S., Lowery, D. T., Rott, M., Schmidt, A. M., Úrbez-Torres, J. R., 2017. Incidence, distribution and genetic diversity of Grapevine red blotch virus in British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 39(2), 201-211. doi: 10.1080/07060661.2017.1312532

      Preto, C. R., Sudarshana, M. R., Bollinger, M. L., Zalom, F. G., 2018. Vitis vinifera (Vitales: Vitaceae) as a reproductive host of Spissistilus festinus (Hemiptera: Membracidae). Journal of Insect Science, 18(6), 20. doi: 10.1093/jisesa/iey129

      Reynard, J. S., Brodard, J., Dubuis, N., Zufferey, V., Schumpp, O., Schaerer, S., Gugerli, P., 2018. Grapevine red blotch virus: absence in Swiss vineyards and analysis of potential detrimental effect on viticultural performance. Plant Disease, 102(3), 651-655. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-07-17-1069-RE

      Ricketts, K. D., Gómez, M. I., Fuchs, M. F., Martinson, T. E., Smith, R. J., Cooper, M. L., Moyer, M. M., Wise, A., 2017. Mitigating the economic impact of grapevine red blotch: optimizing disease management strategies in U.S. vineyards. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 68(1), 127-135. doi: 10.5344/ajev.2016.16009

      Romero Romero, J. L., Dena Carver, G., Arce Johnson, P., Perry, K. L., Thompson, J. R., 2019. A rapid, sensitive and inexpensive method for detection of grapevine red blotch virus without tissue extraction using loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Archives of Virology, 164(5), 1453-1457. http://rd.springer.com/journal/705 doi: 10.1007/s00705-019-04207-y

      Rwahnih MA, Dave A, Anderson MM, Rowhani A, Uyemoto JK, Sudarshana MR, 2013. Association of a DNA virus with grapevines affected by red blotch disease in California. Phytopathology, 103(10):1069-1076. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/phyto

      Schoelz, J. E., Adhab, M., Qiu, W., Petersen, S., Volenberg, D., 2019. First report of grapevine red blotch virus in hybrid grapes in Missouri. Plant Disease, 103(2), 379. doi: 10.1094/pdis-07-18-1202-pdn

      Seguin, J., Rajeswaran, R., Malpica-López, N., Martin, R. R., Kasschau, K., Dolja, V. V., Otten, P., Farinelli, L., Pooggin, M. M., 2014. De novo reconstruction of consensus master genomes of plant RNA and DNA viruses from siRNAs. PLoS ONE, 9(2), e88513. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088513

      Sudarshana MR, Perry KL, Fuchs MF, 2015. Grapevine red blotch-associated virus, an emerging threat to the grapevine industry. Phytopathology, 105, 1026-1032.

      Vargas-Asencio, J., Liou, H., Perry, K. L., Thompson, J. R., 2019. Evidence for the splicing of grablovirus transcripts reveals a putative novel open reading frame. Journal of General Virology, 100(4), 709-720. doi: 10.1099/jgv.0.001234

      Varsani, A., Roumagnac, P., Fuchs, M., Navas-Castillo, J., Moriones, E., Idris, A., Briddon, R. W., Rivera-Bustamante, R., Zerbini, F. M., Martin, D. P., 2017. Capulavirus and Grablovirus: two new genera in the family Geminiviridae. Archives of Virology, 162(6), 1819-1831. doi: 10.1007/s00705-017-3268-6

      Xiao HuoGen, Kim WonSik, Meng BaoZhong, 2015. A highly effective and versatile technology for the isolation of RNAs from grapevines and other woody perennials for use in virus diagnostics. Virology Journal, 12(171), (20 October 2015). http://www.virologyj.com/content/12/1/171

      Yao, X. L., Han, J., Domier, L. L., Qu, F., Ivey, M. L. L., 2018. First report of Grapevine red blotch virus in Ohio Vineyards. Plant Disease, 102(2), 463. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-08-17-1141-PDN

      Yepes LM, Cieniewicz EJ, Krenz B, McLane H, Thompson JR, Perry KL, Fuchs M, 2018. Causative role of grapevine red blotch virus in red blotch disease. Phytopathology, 108, 902–909.

      Distribution References

      Al-Rwahnih M, Rowhani A, Golino D A, Islas C M, Preece J E, Sudarshana M R, 2015a. Detection and genetic diversity of grapevine red blotch-associated virus isolates in table grape accessions in the National Clonal Germplasm Repository in California. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology. 37 (1), 130-135. DOI:10.1080/07060661.2014.999705

      Al-Rwahnih M, Rowhani A, Golino D, 2015. First report of grapevine red blotch-associated virus in archival grapevine material from Sonoma County, California. Plant Disease. 99 (6), 895. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

      Avinash Marwal, Rajesh Kumar, Khurana S M P, Gaur R K, 2019. Complete nucleotide sequence of a new geminivirus isolated from Vitis vinifera in India: a symptomless host of Grapevine red blotch virus. VirusDisease. 30 (1), 106-111. DOI:10.1007/s13337-018-0477-x

      Brannen PM, Deom CM, Alabi OJ, Naidu RA, 2018. Prevalence of viruses in commercial wine grape vineyards in Georgia. Plant Health Progress. 342-346.

      CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

      EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

      EPPO, 2021. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

      Gasperin-Bulbarela J, Licea-Navarro A F, Pino-Villar C, Hernández-Martínez R, Carrillo-Tripp J, 2019. First report of grapevine red blotch virus in Mexico. Plant Disease. 103 (2), 381. DOI:10.1094/pdis-07-18-1227-pdn

      Hoffmann M, Talton W, Nita M, Jones T, Al-Rwahnih M, Sudarshana M R, Almeyda C, 2020a. First report of Grapevine red blotch virus, the causal agent of grapevine red blotch disease, in Vitis vinifera in North Carolina. Plant Disease. 104 (4), 1266-1266. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-19-1539-PDN

      Hoffmann M, Talton W, Nita M, Jones TJ, Al Rwahnih M, Sudarshana MR, Almeyda CV, 2020. First report of grapevine red blotch virus, the causal agent of grapevine red blotch disease in Vitis vinifera in North Carolina. Plant Disease. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-19-1539-PDN

      Jones T, Nita M, 2019. A survey of Virginia vineyards revealed high incidences of grapevine Rupestris stem-pitting-associated virus, grapevine red blotch virus and two mealybug species. Plant Health Progress. 20 (4), 207-214.

      Krenz B, Thompson J R, McLane H L, Fuchs M, Perry K L, 2014. Grapevine red blotch-associated virus is widespread in the United States. Phytopathology. 104 (11), 1232-1240. DOI:10.1094/PHYTO-02-14-0053-R

      Krenz J, Thompson JR, Fuchs M, Perry KL, 2012. Complete Genome Sequence of a New Circular DNA Virus from Grapevine. Journal of Virology. 86 (14), 7715. DOI:10.1128/JVI.00943-12

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      Links to Websites

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      WebsiteURLComment
      National Clean Plant Networkhttp://ncpngrapes.org/files/271694.pdfGrapevine Red Blotch Disease Factsheet
      Oregon State Universityhttps://owri.oregonstate.edu/sites/agscid7/files/red_blotch_tri-fold_final_1.pdfGrapevine Red Blotch Disease Factsheet

      Contributors

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      14/02/20 Original text by:

      Marc Fuchs, Plant Pathology and Plant-Microbe Biology, Cornell University, Geneva, NY, USA

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