Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Euphorbia hypericifolia
(graceful spurge)

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Datasheet

Euphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Euphorbia hypericifolia
  • Preferred Common Name
  • graceful spurge
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • E. hypericifolia is a herbaceous shrub native to the Americas. It is regarded as an invasive weed in many of the Pacific Islands in which it occurs, especially Hawaii, where it is rated ‘high risk’. It is also...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Euphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); habit. Mangrove Nature Park, Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionEuphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); habit. Mangrove Nature Park, Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Euphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); habit. Mangrove Nature Park, Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September 2009.
HabitEuphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); habit. Mangrove Nature Park, Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Euphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); habit. Mangrove Nature Park, Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionEuphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); habit. Mangrove Nature Park, Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Euphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); habit. Mangrove Nature Park, Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September 2009.
HabitEuphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); habit. Mangrove Nature Park, Boynton Beach, Florida, USA. September 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Euphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); mature habit. Piilani Villages Shopping Center, Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2007.
TitleHabit
CaptionEuphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); mature habit. Piilani Villages Shopping Center, Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2007.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Euphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); mature habit. Piilani Villages Shopping Center, Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2007.
HabitEuphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); mature habit. Piilani Villages Shopping Center, Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2007.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Euphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); habit, showing leaves, flowers and fruit. Radar Hill Field, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.
TitleLeaves, flowers and fruit
CaptionEuphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); habit, showing leaves, flowers and fruit. Radar Hill Field, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Euphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); habit, showing leaves, flowers and fruit. Radar Hill Field, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.
Leaves, flowers and fruitEuphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); habit, showing leaves, flowers and fruit. Radar Hill Field, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Euphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); close-up of flowers, fruits and leaves. Commodore Avenue,  Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.
TitleFlowers, fruits and leaves
CaptionEuphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); close-up of flowers, fruits and leaves. Commodore Avenue, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Euphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); close-up of flowers, fruits and leaves. Commodore Avenue,  Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.
Flowers, fruits and leavesEuphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); close-up of flowers, fruits and leaves. Commodore Avenue, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Euphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); close-up of flowers and fruits. Mokuauia, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. February 2005.
TitleFlowers and fruits
CaptionEuphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); close-up of flowers and fruits. Mokuauia, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. February 2005.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Euphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); close-up of flowers and fruits. Mokuauia, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. February 2005.
Flowers and fruitsEuphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); close-up of flowers and fruits. Mokuauia, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. February 2005.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Euphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); close-up of flowers and fruits Nr Ave Maria, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
TitleFlowers and fruits
CaptionEuphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); close-up of flowers and fruits Nr Ave Maria, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Euphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); close-up of flowers and fruits Nr Ave Maria, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
Flowers and fruitsEuphorbia hypericifolia (graceful spurge); close-up of flowers and fruits Nr Ave Maria, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Euphorbia hypericifolia L.

Preferred Common Name

  • graceful spurge

Other Scientific Names

  • Anisophyllum hypericifolium (L.) Haw.
  • Chamaesyce bolivianat (Rusby) Croizat
  • Chamaesyce glomerifera Millsp.
  • Chamaesyce hypericifolia (L.) Millsp.
  • Ditritea obliqua Raf.
  • Euphorbia boliviana (Rusby)
  • Euphorbia decumbens W.
  • Euphorbia glomerifera (Millsp.) L.C. Wheeler
  • Euphorbia papilligera Boiss.

International Common Names

  • English: black purslane; chickenweed; flux weed; garden spurge; large spotted spurge; milk purslane; tropical euphorbia

Local Common Names

  • China: tong nai cao
  • France: herbe colique
  • Marshall Islands: bwilbwilikkaj
  • Palau: karkar
  • Portugal: canchlagua
  • Spain: golondrina; lechera; lechosa
  • USA: graceful sandmat

Summary of Invasiveness

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E. hypericifolia is a herbaceous shrub native to the Americas. It is regarded as an invasive weed in many of the Pacific Islands in which it occurs, especially Hawaii, where it is rated ‘high risk’. It is also a weed in Singapore and Taiwan, though the situations in which it is causing problems are not well documented. It is recognized as a weed in soyabean, sugar cane and cotton in some countries and is presumably also threatening native flora in others.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Euphorbiales
  •                         Family: Euphorbiaceae
  •                             Genus: Euphorbia
  •                                 Species: Euphorbia hypericifolia

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Euphorbia hypericifolia was named by Linnaeus, based on a specimen from Jamaica. It is native to the Americas, but the name has been loosely applied to an aggregate of closely related species with a much wider distribution. The mainly Old World taxa such as E. parviflora,E. reniformis, E. braeolaris and E.indica are now treated as separate species (e.g. Raju and Rao, 1979). The synonym Chamaesyce hypericifolia is still in use by some authorities, especially in the USA.

E. hypericifolia belongs to subgenus Chamaesyce section Hypericifoliae, a group of annual herbs with obvious stipules, further characterized by the main stem aborting at the seedling stage (PROTA, 2013).

E. hypericifolia is widely available as an ornamental. Commercial varieties include ‘Breathless Blush Euphorbia,’ with red tinged leaves and white flowers, and ‘Diamond Frost,’ with slender green leaves and delicate white flowers. ‘Diamond Frost’ was a random mutation, found in a collection of E. hypericifolia in Germany in 2004, with more uniform growth with a lot of branching, and more numerous and smaller flowers . However, whether these derive from E. hypericifolia sensu stricta or from other species in the E. hypericifolia aggregate is not completely certain.

Description

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From PROTA (2013):

Glabrous annual, branched herb, spreading or erect, up to 60 cm tall, apex of branches drooping, with latex. Leaves opposite, simple; stipules triangular, 1–2 mm long, one pair often fused, hairy at margins; petiole 1–2 mm long; blade elliptical-oblong to oblong, 1–2(–3.5) cm × 0.5–1(–1.5) cm, base cuneate, asymmetric, apex obtuse, margin obscurely toothed. Inflorescence an axillary cluster of flowers, called a ‘cyathium’, cyathia densely clustered into a head c. 1.5 cm in diameter; peduncle up to 3 cm long; cyathia almost sessile, c. 1 mm long, with a cup-shaped involucre, lobes triangular, minute, glands 4, tiny, almost round, stiped, with circular, white to pink appendage, each involucre containing 1 female flower surrounded by many male flowers. Flowers unisexual; male flowers sessile, bracteoles linear, perianth absent, stamen c. 0.5 mm long; female flowers with short pedicel, perianth a rim, ovary superior, glabrous, 3-celled, styles 3, minute. Fruit a 3-lobed capsule c. 1.5 mm in diameter, 3-seeded. Seeds ovoid, c. 1 mm long, 4-angled, slightly wrinkled, greyish purple, without caruncle.

Distribution

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E. hypericifolia is native to the Americas, where it has been recorded from southern USA, the Caribbean and throughout South America. It is not certain whether all the records from the latter represent native populations or if they have arisen from introduction.

Elsewhere, E. hypericifolia has been widely introduced to the Pacific Islands, and to some extent in Africa and Southeast Asia. According to PROTA (2013), its distribution in tropical Africa is not clear as it is confused with E. indica, although ‘It occurs with certainty in West Africa, Burundi and on Mauritius.’ The distribution may be somewhat wider than has been indicated in the distribution table, but many records listed for Africa and Asia by GBIF (2013), including those for Madagascar, India, New Zealand, Thailand, Sri Lanka and Japan, have been ignored on the grounds of possible confusion with E. indica and other species previously included in the ‘E. hypericifolia aggregate.’

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentIntroducedFlora of China, 2013
-BeijingPresentIntroducedFlora of China, 2013
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedFlora of China, 2013
-GuizhouPresentIntroducedFlora of China, 2013
-HainanPresentIntroducedFlora of China, 2013
-HunanPresentIntroducedFlora of China, 2013
-JiangxiPresentIntroducedFlora of China, 2013
-SichuanPresentIntroducedFlora of China, 2013
-YunnanPresentIntroducedFlora of China, 2013
SingaporePresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2013
TaiwanPresentIntroduced Invasive Flora of China, 2013

Africa

BurundiPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2013; PROTA, 2013
Cape VerdePresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2013
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroducedMessou et al., 2013
GhanaPresentIntroducedHutchinson and Daliziel, 1958As E. glomerifera
LiberiaPresentIntroducedHutchinson and Daliziel, 1958As E. glomerifera
MauritiusPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2013
MayottePresentIntroducedGBIF, 2013
SenegalPresentIntroducedHutchinson and Daliziel, 1958As E. glomerifera
Sierra LeonePresentIntroducedHutchinson and Daliziel, 1958As E. glomerifera

North America

MexicoPresentNativePIER, 2013
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-ArkansasPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-CaliforniaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-FloridaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-GeorgiaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2013; USDA-NRCS, 2013French Frigate, Big Island, Katua’I, Kure, Lana’I, Maui, Moloka’I, O’ahu islands
-LouisianaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-MarylandPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-New MexicoPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-South CarolinaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2013
-TexasPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2013

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
ArubaPresentNativeGBIF, 2013
BahamasPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
BarbadosPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
BelizePresentNativeGBIF, 2013
British Virgin IslandsPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013Tortola
Costa RicaPresentNativePIER, 2013
CubaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
DominicaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
Dominican RepublicPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
El SalvadorPresentNativePIER, 2013
GrenadaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
GuadeloupePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
GuatemalaPresentNativePIER, 2013
HaitiPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
HondurasPresentNativePIER, 2013
JamaicaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
MartiniquePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
MontserratPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
Netherlands AntillesPresentNativeGBIF, 2013
NicaraguaPresentNativePIER, 2013
PanamaPresentNativePIER, 2013
Puerto RicoPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2013
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
United States Virgin IslandsPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2013

South America

ArgentinaPresentNativeGBIF, 2013
BoliviaPresentNativeGBIF, 2013
BrazilPresentNativeGBIF, 2013
-AmazonasPresentNativeGBIF, 2013
-ParaPresentNativeGBIF, 2013
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNativeGBIF, 2013
-Rio Grande do NortePresentNativeGBIF, 2013
-RoraimaPresentNativeGBIF, 2013
ChilePresentNativePIER, 2013
ColombiaPresentNativePIER, 2013
EcuadorPresentNativePIER, 2013
French GuianaPresentNativeGBIF, 2013Ile de Cayenne
ParaguayPresentNativeGBIF, 2013
PeruPresentNativePIER, 2013
SurinamePresentNativeGBIF, 2013
UruguayPresentNativeGBIF, 2013
VenezuelaPresentNativeGBIF, 2013

Europe

ItalyPresentIntroducedSciandrello et al., 2016

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2013Ofu, Tau, Tutuila Island
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2013Penrhyn (Tongareva) isalnd
FijiPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2013Viti Levu
French PolynesiaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2013Tahiti
GuamPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2013
KiribatiPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2013Flint, Kiritimat, Enderbury, Kanton, Abemama, Bi=utaritair, Tarawa Islands
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2013Bikini, Enewetak, Jaluit, Kili, Kwajalein, Rongerik,Arno, Majuro, Mili islands
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2013Chuuk, Namoluk, Kosrae,, Pohnpei, Ulithi, Yap,
New CaledoniaPresentIntroduced Invasive Loyalty, Ile Grande, New Caledonia islands
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2013Saipan island
PalauPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2013Angaur, Babeldaob, Kayangel islands
SamoaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2013Savai’I, Upolu islands
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2013
TongaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2013

History of Introduction and Spread

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Chen and Wu (2004) recorded the first occurrence of E. hypericifolia in Taiwan in 2012. No other records have been found which define exact dates of introduction outside the Americas, but for the Pacific islands, some of the earliest specimens listed by GBIF (2013) include Hawaii in 1924, Niue in 1965, Palau in 1970, Vanuatu in 1971, the US Virgin Islands in 1972, New Caledonia in 1975, Kiribati in 1976, Tonga in 1978, the Northern Mariana Islands in 1982, and the Marshall Islands in 1988. Elsewhere, China has a record from 1911, Indonesia from 1924 and Burundi from 1966.

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction is moderate. E. hypericifolia is available as an ornamental, though it is not widely advertised on the internet. A small risk of spread through contaminated crop seed is possible.

Habitat

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E. hypericifolia occurs along roadsides, stony river sides, in waste places and as a weed in cultivation, from sea-level up to 600 m altitude (PROTA, 2013). In Guam, it is almost exclusively found on roadsides and vacant lots (Reddy, 2011). In Taiwan, it is found in gardens, on roadsides, waste ground and along borders of ponds and marshes (Chen and Wu, 2004).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Principal habitat Natural
Rail / roadsides Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Principal habitat

Hosts/Species Affected

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E. hypericifolia is recorded as a weed in soyabean, sugarcane and cotton.

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Chromosome number is apparently quite variable. Missouri Botanic Garden (2013) indicated a basic number of n = 8, although one reference is quoted for a somatic number of 32. PROTA (2013) indicated n = 7, 8, 16 or 28, and 2n = 16, 18, 22 or 32. Wang et al. (1999) reported that ‘the basic chromosome number of x = 8 is new for E. hypericifolia, in which x = 7 was previously reported, indicating that this species has both ploidy (2n = 4x = 48 and 8x = 56) and dysploidy (x = 7 or 8) variations.’

Reproductive biology

Pollination of E. hypericifolia is probably effected by small insects. Seeds have been seen to be dispersed by ants (PROTA, 2013).

Physiology and phenology

The Chamaesyce clade of Euphorbia is the largest lineage of C4 plants among the eudicots, with 350 species, including both narrow endemics and cosmopolitan weeds (Yang and Berry, 2011). Flowering and fruiting occur throughout the year (PROTA, 2013).

Associations

In Taiwan, E. hypericifolia grows in association with other weedy plants commonly found in disturbed areas, such as Aster subulatus,Bidens pilosa, Emilia sonchifolia, Chenopodium serotinum, Veronica undulata and Mazus pumilus (Chen and Wu, 2004).

Environmental requirements

In the USA, E. hypericifolia is associated with US hardiness zones 9b to 11. Soil pH requirements are from 6-8.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
35 35

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f.sp. clidemiae Indonesia
Phytomonas Venezuela, USA
Pratylenchus brachyurus USA

Notes on Natural Enemies

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A number of organisms are recorded attacking E. hypericifolia (see Natural Enemies Table), but none are apparently common or serious.

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Human health Negative

Economic Impact

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E. hypericifola is a major weed in sugarcane and soyabean in Peru (Diaz, 1976; Doll and Piedrahita, 1975). It is also a ‘predominant’ weed of coffee in Puerto Rico (Semidey et al., 2002). No data have been found on economic losses caused.

Environmental Impact

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Impact on biodiversity

E. hypericifolia is listed among the top 20 invasive plants on Guam, which, although they may not be presently causing serious damage to wild ecosystems, are certainly not desirable species (Reddy, 2011).

Social Impact

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All parts of the plant are poisonous if ingested, and handling the plant may cause skin irritation or an allergic reaction (Dave’s Garden, 2013).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts human health
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Poisoning

Uses

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Economic value

E. hypericifolia products are widely traded in the USA in tablets and powders, mainly to treat bowel disorders. It is traded internationally through the internet. Aliphatic alcohols have been isolated from the aerial parts, as have the sterols taraxerol, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, campestol and the flavonoids kaemferol, quercetin, quercetrin (quercetin-3-rhamnoside), rhamnetin-3-galactoside, rhamnetin-3-rhamnoside and ellagic acid (PROTA, 2013). Other medicinal uses listed by USDA-ARS (2013) include for treating toothache, asthma, bronchitis, conjunctivitis, dysentery, dysuria, fever and vaginitis. It is also used for the treatment of measles and skin rashes (Lans, 2007).

Leaf extracts showed significant growth inhibitory effect against Aspergillus flavus in vitro, as well as inhibition of the production of aflatoxins almost completely, with greater inhibition at higher concentrations (PROTA, 2013).

E. hypericifolia has shown inhibition of quorum sensing-controlled virulence factor production in Chromobacterium violaceum and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Koh et al. 2013) and in Psedomonas aeruginosa (Adonzio et al., 2008).

E. hypericifolia may also have potential for renovation of contaminated soils. It was found to be thriving on a landfill site in Cote d’Ivoire (Messou et al., 2013).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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E. hypericifolia, with which E. indica has been confused ever since early editions of the Flora of Tropical Africa, is a widespread species of the New World tropics and sub-tropics. The two species are very closely related, but distinguished by the larger, usually pubescent capsule of E. indica and its stipules which remain separated.

E. hypericifolia is similar to Cuphea hyssopifolia. However, E. hypericifolia seeds are orange brown, ovate with a testa covered with an irregular, polygonal reticulum under SEM, whereas C. hyssopifolia seeds are blackish brown and oblong, with a testa covered with cuticular platelets. The capsules in E. hypericifolia are about 1 mm across, much smaller than those of C. hyssopifolia, which is usually distinguished by its larger, more ovoid capsules about 1.5-2 mm across. In addition, the stipules of E. hypericifolia are conspicuous, outspreading and as much as 2 mm long, making a considerable difference from the inconspicuous ones in C. hyssopifolia, in which the stipules are attached to the nodes and are hardly 1 mm in length. Also, in E. hypericifolia the usually purplish red coloration of fresh stipules is quite distinct (Chen and Wu, 2004).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Cultural control and sanitary measures

In coffee in Puerto Rico, E. hypericifolia was among weeds better controlled by a live mulch of Paspalum dilatatum than by repeated glyphosate applications (Semidey et al., 2002).

Chemical control

Hexazinone is recommended by the manufacturers for control of E. hypericifolia in sugarcane. E. hypericifolia has also been controlled by prodiamine and by oxadiazon (Nagata, 2010). It is not controlled by linuron, which leads to an increase in broad-leaved weeds (primarily E. hypericifolia) in soyabean when applied for four consecutive seasons (Doll and Piedrahita, 1975).

References

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Adonizio A; Kong KF; Mathee K, 2008. Inhibition of quorum sensing-controlled virulence factor production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by south Florida plant extracts. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 52(1):198-203.

Chen ShihHuei; Wu MingJou, 2004. Chamaesyce hypericifolia (L.) Millsp., a newly naturalized spurge species in Taiwan. Taiwania, 49(2):102-108.

Dave's Garden, 2013. Dave's Garden. California, USA: Internet Brands. http://davesgarden.com/

Diaz CA, 1976. Identification and quantitative analysis of weeds in rice, sugar cane, cotton and chickpea. In: Trabajos y Resumenes, III Congreso Asociacion Latinoamericana de Malezas "ALAM" y VIII Reunion Argentina de Malezas y su Control, "ASAM", Mar del Plata, 1976, 1. 15-30.

Doll J; Piedrahita W, 1975. The effects of crop and herbicide rotation on the complex of dominant weeds. In: Sociedad Colombiana de Control de Malezas y Fisiologia Vegetal "COMALFI". Resumenes de los Trabajos en el VII Seminario, Bogota, 1975. 54.

Flora of China, 2013. Flora of China. http://www.efloras.org/

GBIF, 2013. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). http://data.gbif.org/species/

Hutchinson J; Dalziel JM, 1958. Flora of West Tropical Africa. Vol. 1 Part 2, 2nd ed. (rev.). Revised by Keay RWJ.

Koh ChongLek; Sam ChoonKook; Yin WaiFong; Tan LiYing; Krishnan T; Chong YeeMeng; Chan KokGan, 2013. Plant-derived natural products as sources of anti-quorum sensing compounds. Sensors, 13(5):6217-6228. http://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/13/5/6217

Lans C, 2007. Comparison of plants used for skin and stomach problems in Trinidad and Tobago with Asian ethnomedicine. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 3(3):(05 January 2007). http://www.ethnobiomed.com/content/pdf/1746-4269-3-3.pdf

Messou A; Coulibaly L; Doumbia L; Gourene G, 2013. Plants diversity and phytoaccumulators identification on the Akouedo landfill (Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire). African Journal of Biotechnology, 12(3):253-264. http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB/PDF/pdf2013/16Jan/Messou%20et%20al.pdf

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2013. Tropicos database. St Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Nagata NM, 2010. Efficacy of granular pre-emergent herbicide. Malaysian Association of Landscape Professionals Newsletter, Summer 2010. http://www.malp.org/efficacy-of-granular-preemergent-herbicides.html

PIER, 2013. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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03/12/13 Original text by:

Chris Parker, consultant, UK

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