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East Asian Passiflora virus

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Datasheet

East Asian Passiflora virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • East Asian Passiflora virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •       Family: Potyviridae
  •         Genus: Potyvirus
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • East Asian Passiflora virus (EAPV) is a potyvirus that infects passion fruit Passiflora edulis. It can produce mosaic symptoms on leaves and severely malformed and woody fruits (

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Mosaic symptom of leaves of the passionfruit infected with EAPV-AO strain seen in the plantation in Amami Oshima island.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionMosaic symptom of leaves of the passionfruit infected with EAPV-AO strain seen in the plantation in Amami Oshima island.
Copyright©Dr Hisashi Iwai, Kagoshima University, Japan
Mosaic symptom of leaves of the passionfruit infected with EAPV-AO strain seen in the plantation in Amami Oshima island.
SymptomsMosaic symptom of leaves of the passionfruit infected with EAPV-AO strain seen in the plantation in Amami Oshima island.©Dr Hisashi Iwai, Kagoshima University, Japan
The malformed fruit of the passionfruit infected with EAPV-AO strain seen in the plantation in Amami Oshima island.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionThe malformed fruit of the passionfruit infected with EAPV-AO strain seen in the plantation in Amami Oshima island.
Copyright©Dr Hisashi Iwai, Kagoshima University, Japan
The malformed fruit of the passionfruit infected with EAPV-AO strain seen in the plantation in Amami Oshima island.
SymptomsThe malformed fruit of the passionfruit infected with EAPV-AO strain seen in the plantation in Amami Oshima island. ©Dr Hisashi Iwai, Kagoshima University, Japan
Various fruits malformation of the passionfruit in Amami Oshima island induced by the natural infection of EAPV-AO strain. Owing to hardening of the peel, a crack arises on the surface while ripening.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionVarious fruits malformation of the passionfruit in Amami Oshima island induced by the natural infection of EAPV-AO strain. Owing to hardening of the peel, a crack arises on the surface while ripening.
Copyright©Dr Hisashi Iwai, Kagoshima University, Japan
Various fruits malformation of the passionfruit in Amami Oshima island induced by the natural infection of EAPV-AO strain. Owing to hardening of the peel, a crack arises on the surface while ripening.
SymptomsVarious fruits malformation of the passionfruit in Amami Oshima island induced by the natural infection of EAPV-AO strain. Owing to hardening of the peel, a crack arises on the surface while ripening.©Dr Hisashi Iwai, Kagoshima University, Japan
The local lesion observed on the inoculated leaf of Chenopodium quinoa 10 days after the mechanical inoculation of EAPV-AO strain. This host is good for the single lesion isolation of EAPV.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionThe local lesion observed on the inoculated leaf of Chenopodium quinoa 10 days after the mechanical inoculation of EAPV-AO strain. This host is good for the single lesion isolation of EAPV.
Copyright©Dr Hisashi Iwai, Kagoshima University, Japan
The local lesion observed on the inoculated leaf of Chenopodium quinoa 10 days after the mechanical inoculation of EAPV-AO strain. This host is good for the single lesion isolation of EAPV.
SymptomsThe local lesion observed on the inoculated leaf of Chenopodium quinoa 10 days after the mechanical inoculation of EAPV-AO strain. This host is good for the single lesion isolation of EAPV. ©Dr Hisashi Iwai, Kagoshima University, Japan
The local lesion onserved on the inoculated leaf of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cv. Sujinashi Edogawa 10 days after the mechanical inoculation of EAPV-AO strain. This host is good for the single lesion isolation of EAPV.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionThe local lesion onserved on the inoculated leaf of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cv. Sujinashi Edogawa 10 days after the mechanical inoculation of EAPV-AO strain. This host is good for the single lesion isolation of EAPV.
Copyright©Dr Hisashi Iwai, Kagoshima University, Japan
The local lesion onserved on the inoculated leaf of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cv. Sujinashi Edogawa 10 days after the mechanical inoculation of EAPV-AO strain. This host is good for the single lesion isolation of EAPV.
SymptomsThe local lesion onserved on the inoculated leaf of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cv. Sujinashi Edogawa 10 days after the mechanical inoculation of EAPV-AO strain. This host is good for the single lesion isolation of EAPV. ©Dr Hisashi Iwai, Kagoshima University, Japan
Mottle symptom observed on the upper new developed leaf of Passiflora foetida two weeks after the mechanical inoculation of EAPV-AO type strain. This host is good for the propagation of EAPV.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionMottle symptom observed on the upper new developed leaf of Passiflora foetida two weeks after the mechanical inoculation of EAPV-AO type strain. This host is good for the propagation of EAPV.
Copyright©Dr Hisashi Iwai, Kagoshima University, Japan
Mottle symptom observed on the upper new developed leaf of Passiflora foetida two weeks after the mechanical inoculation of EAPV-AO type strain. This host is good for the propagation of EAPV.
SymptomsMottle symptom observed on the upper new developed leaf of Passiflora foetida two weeks after the mechanical inoculation of EAPV-AO type strain. This host is good for the propagation of EAPV. ©Dr Hisashi Iwai, Kagoshima University, Japan
Leaf curl accompanied by mottle symptom observed on the upper new developed leaves of Passiflora foetida two weeks after the mechanical inoculation of EAPV-IB type strain. This host is good for the propagation of EAPV.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionLeaf curl accompanied by mottle symptom observed on the upper new developed leaves of Passiflora foetida two weeks after the mechanical inoculation of EAPV-IB type strain. This host is good for the propagation of EAPV.
Copyright©Dr Hisashi Iwai, Kagoshima University, Japan
Leaf curl accompanied by mottle symptom observed on the upper new developed leaves of Passiflora foetida two weeks after the mechanical inoculation of EAPV-IB type strain. This host is good for the propagation of EAPV.
SymptomsLeaf curl accompanied by mottle symptom observed on the upper new developed leaves of Passiflora foetida two weeks after the mechanical inoculation of EAPV-IB type strain. This host is good for the propagation of EAPV. ©Dr Hisashi Iwai, Kagoshima University, Japan
Leaf curl and mosaic on the side shoot which developed from the lateral bud of recipient passionfruit one week after the graft inoculation of the EAPV-AO type strain infected stem. The stem cutting of donor plant has overlapped behind new shoot of recipient. The leaf of the root of a lateral bud has been excised.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionLeaf curl and mosaic on the side shoot which developed from the lateral bud of recipient passionfruit one week after the graft inoculation of the EAPV-AO type strain infected stem. The stem cutting of donor plant has overlapped behind new shoot of recipient. The leaf of the root of a lateral bud has been excised.
Copyright©Dr Hisashi Iwai, Kagoshima University, Japan
Leaf curl and mosaic on the side shoot which developed from the lateral bud of recipient passionfruit one week after the graft inoculation of the EAPV-AO type strain infected stem. The stem cutting of donor plant has overlapped behind new shoot of recipient. The leaf of the root of a lateral bud has been excised.
SymptomsLeaf curl and mosaic on the side shoot which developed from the lateral bud of recipient passionfruit one week after the graft inoculation of the EAPV-AO type strain infected stem. The stem cutting of donor plant has overlapped behind new shoot of recipient. The leaf of the root of a lateral bud has been excised. ©Dr Hisashi Iwai, Kagoshima University, Japan
The mosaic symptom on the leaf of passionfruit inoculated with EAPV-AO type strain.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionThe mosaic symptom on the leaf of passionfruit inoculated with EAPV-AO type strain.
Copyright©Dr Hisashi Iwai, Kagoshima University, Japan
The mosaic symptom on the leaf of passionfruit inoculated with EAPV-AO type strain.
SymptomsThe mosaic symptom on the leaf of passionfruit inoculated with EAPV-AO type strain. ©Dr Hisashi Iwai, Kagoshima University, Japan
The mosaic symptom on the leaf of passionfruit inoculated with EAPV-IB type strain. The disease symptoms of leaves do not have a difference in both strains.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionThe mosaic symptom on the leaf of passionfruit inoculated with EAPV-IB type strain. The disease symptoms of leaves do not have a difference in both strains.
Copyright©Dr Hisashi Iwai, Kagoshima University, Japan
The mosaic symptom on the leaf of passionfruit inoculated with EAPV-IB type strain. The disease symptoms of leaves do not have a difference in both strains.
SymptomsThe mosaic symptom on the leaf of passionfruit inoculated with EAPV-IB type strain. The disease symptoms of leaves do not have a difference in both strains. ©Dr Hisashi Iwai, Kagoshima University, Japan
Comparison of the disease symptom of the fruits on the passionfruit infected by type strains of EAPV-AO and –IB. EAPV-AO (left) of a deformed grade is larger than EAPV-IB (right).
TitleSymptoms
CaptionComparison of the disease symptom of the fruits on the passionfruit infected by type strains of EAPV-AO and –IB. EAPV-AO (left) of a deformed grade is larger than EAPV-IB (right).
Copyright©Dr Hisashi Iwai, Kagoshima University, Japan
Comparison of the disease symptom of the fruits on the passionfruit infected by type strains of EAPV-AO and –IB. EAPV-AO (left) of a deformed grade is larger than EAPV-IB (right).
SymptomsComparison of the disease symptom of the fruits on the passionfruit infected by type strains of EAPV-AO and –IB. EAPV-AO (left) of a deformed grade is larger than EAPV-IB (right). ©Dr Hisashi Iwai, Kagoshima University, Japan
Comparison of the disease symptom of the fruits on the passionfruit infected by type strains of EAPV-AO and –IB. The surface of EAPV-IB infected fruit also has some unevenness.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionComparison of the disease symptom of the fruits on the passionfruit infected by type strains of EAPV-AO and –IB. The surface of EAPV-IB infected fruit also has some unevenness.
Copyright©Dr Hisashi Iwai, Kagoshima University, Japan
Comparison of the disease symptom of the fruits on the passionfruit infected by type strains of EAPV-AO and –IB. The surface of EAPV-IB infected fruit also has some unevenness.
SymptomsComparison of the disease symptom of the fruits on the passionfruit infected by type strains of EAPV-AO and –IB. The surface of EAPV-IB infected fruit also has some unevenness. ©Dr Hisashi Iwai, Kagoshima University, Japan
Comparison inside the same things as No.12. Thickening of the peel is induced by the infection of EAPV-AO type strain. Its capacity of canopy is extremely small, and there are little seeds and fresh. Also in the infection by EAPV-IB type strain, the peel directly under the uneven surface is thick a little. S
TitleSymptoms
CaptionComparison inside the same things as No.12. Thickening of the peel is induced by the infection of EAPV-AO type strain. Its capacity of canopy is extremely small, and there are little seeds and fresh. Also in the infection by EAPV-IB type strain, the peel directly under the uneven surface is thick a little. S
Copyright©Dr Hisashi Iwai, Kagoshima University, Japan
Comparison inside the same things as No.12. Thickening of the peel is induced by the infection of EAPV-AO type strain. Its capacity of canopy is extremely small, and there are little seeds and fresh. Also in the infection by EAPV-IB type strain, the peel directly under the uneven surface is thick a little. S
SymptomsComparison inside the same things as No.12. Thickening of the peel is induced by the infection of EAPV-AO type strain. Its capacity of canopy is extremely small, and there are little seeds and fresh. Also in the infection by EAPV-IB type strain, the peel directly under the uneven surface is thick a little. S©Dr Hisashi Iwai, Kagoshima University, Japan
The malformed fruits of the passionfruit induced by the inoculation of EAPV-AO type strain.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionThe malformed fruits of the passionfruit induced by the inoculation of EAPV-AO type strain.
Copyright©Dr Hisashi Iwai, Kagoshima University, Japan
The malformed fruits of the passionfruit induced by the inoculation of EAPV-AO type strain.
SymptomsThe malformed fruits of the passionfruit induced by the inoculation of EAPV-AO type strain. ©Dr Hisashi Iwai, Kagoshima University, Japan
Comparison of healthy fruit and the fruits infected with EAPV-AO type strain. Like the fruits shown in the center, even if it carries out normal temperature preservation after harvest, it does not color and does not ripen completely in many cases.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionComparison of healthy fruit and the fruits infected with EAPV-AO type strain. Like the fruits shown in the center, even if it carries out normal temperature preservation after harvest, it does not color and does not ripen completely in many cases.
Copyright©Dr Hisashi Iwai, Kagoshima University, Japan
Comparison of healthy fruit and the fruits infected with EAPV-AO type strain. Like the fruits shown in the center, even if it carries out normal temperature preservation after harvest, it does not color and does not ripen completely in many cases.
SymptomsComparison of healthy fruit and the fruits infected with EAPV-AO type strain. Like the fruits shown in the center, even if it carries out normal temperature preservation after harvest, it does not color and does not ripen completely in many cases. ©Dr Hisashi Iwai, Kagoshima University, Japan

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • East Asian Passiflora virus

Local Common Names

  • Malaysia: Malaysian Passiflora virus

Summary of Invasiveness

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East Asian Passiflora virus (EAPV) is a potyvirus that infects passion fruit Passiflora edulis. It can produce mosaic symptoms on leaves and severely malformed and woody fruits (Iwai et al., 1996). It is currently found in Japan, Taiwan and Peninsular Malaysia, although its global distribution is not yet clear.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •             Family: Potyviridae
  •                 Genus: Potyvirus
  •                     Species: East Asian Passiflora virus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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This virus was first reported as a strain of passionfruit woodiness virus (PWV) (Iwai et al., 1996). Following the 7th International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) report (Van Regenmortel, 2000) and more recent analysis (Adams et al., 2005), East Asian Passiflora virus (EAPV) was proposed as the name of this Potyvirus species (Iwai et al., 2006), and was formally adopted by the ICTV.

At present, it seems that at least four distinct members of Potyvirus cause passionfruit woodiness disease (PWD): PWV in Australia, cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) in Brazil and South Africa, EAPV in East Asia and Ugandan Passiflora virus in Uganda.

Description

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Like the other potyviruses, the virion of EAPV consists of a non-enveloped capsid. The capsid of the viral strain EAPV-AO is elongated with a helical symmetry, filamentous and flexuous, with a length of 787 nm (Iwai et al., 1996). In ultrathin sections of infected Passiflora edulis x P. edulis f.flavicarpa  ‘Summer Queen’ leaf cells, pinwheel and scroll inclusions were observed in the cytoplasm (Iwai et al., 1996).

A further viral strain, EAPV-IB, exists in Japan. IB is an attenuated (pathogenic weak) strain which exists in the wild. It produces less severe symptoms, producing only light dapple on fruits and not malformed woody fruits. The host range of IB differs from AO a little (Iwai et al., 2006).

Distribution

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EAPV has been recorded in Kyushu (Japan), Taiwan and Peninsular Malaysia, although its global distribution is not yet clear.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

JapanPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-KyushuPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced Invasive Iwai et al., 2006First recorded on Amami Oshima Island in Kagoshima Prefecture in 1986. Still present on Amami Oshima.
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbdullah et al., 2009Virus isolates were recorded as Malaysian Passiflora virus. However, they can be clearly judged as EAPV from the sequence data of their nucleic acid.
TaiwanIntroduced1980Chang, 1992Virus isolates were released as Passionfruit woodiness virus. However, they can be clearly judged as EAPV from the sequence data of the nucleic acid later reported from Taiwan.

History of Introduction and Spread

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The invasion route of EAPV and its global distribution are not yet clear.

During the summer of 1986 at Setouchi, in the southern part of Amami Oshima island, Japan, some plants of the hybrid Passiflora cultivar ‘Ruby star’ (P. edulis Sims. x P. edulis Sims. f. flavicarpa Deg.), the most widely cultivated hybrid, showed systemic mosaic and rugose foliar symptoms, and produced severely malformed and woody fruits (Iwai, et al., 1996). These symptoms were caused by an isolate of EAPV and were the first record of EAPV in Japan (Iwai et al., 2006).

Although ‘Ruby star’ has been grown since about 1982, its origins are not known.. However, the characteristics of ‘Ruby star’ are similar to a hybrid cultivar ‘Tainung No.1’ which is widely grown in Taiwan. Furthermore, since the percent homology of the base sequence of the coat protein coding region of EAPV isolates from both Japan and Taiwan is high (95%), it is thought that EAPV reached Amami Oshima from Taiwan via a Passifora cultivar before 1982 (Iwai et al., 2006). The distribution and spread of the virus before then is still unknown.

Risk of Introduction

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EAPV is generally thought to spread by the artificial movement of infected plants.

It has been experimentally shown that three species of aphid, the cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii), green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) and sowthistle aphid (Hyperomyzuz lactucae), carry this virus effectively in a non-persistent manner (Iwai et al., 1996; Omatsu et al., 2004). However, no aphid clones have been observed on passionfruit vines in the field (Iwai et al., 1996). Moreover, neither M. persicae nor A. gossypii are common in passion fruit orchards (Omatsu et al., 2004). H. lactucae actively colonizes milk thistle (Silybum marianum), which can surround passionfruit orchards, so might be responsible for local EAPV transmission.

Although EAPV can be detected from fruit, it is not thought to be transmitted via fruit.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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Hosts

Although a wild host of EAPV is thought to probably exist, it has not yet been found.

EAPV has been experimentally shown to be carried by three species of aphid, the cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii), green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), and sowthistle aphid (Hyperomyzuz lactucae) (Iwai et al., 1996; Omatsu et al., 2004). However, no aphid clones have been observed on passionfruit vines in the field (Iwai et al., 1996).

Species Affected

In the field, EAPV infects Passiflora edulis, including P. edulis Sims. x P. edulis f. flavicarpa Deg. (a hybrid cultivar of passionfruit) and P. edulis f. flavicarpa Deg. (golden passionfruit).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Passiflora edulis (passionfruit)PassifloraceaeMain

Growth Stages

Top of page Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal patterns
Fruit / abnormal shape
Fruit / malformed skin
Fruit / premature drop
Inflorescence / twisting and distortion
Leaves / abnormal patterns
Seeds / discolorations
Seeds / distortion
Seeds / empty grains
Seeds / shrivelled

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Notes on Natural Enemies

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EAPV might be transmitted by the aphid vectors (Aphis gossyppi, Hyperomyzus lactucae  and Myzus persicae) between orchards or trees. From that point of view it is possible that various natural enemies of these aphid species contribute to secondary control of EAPV.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Accidental Introduction

EAPV is not seedborne, so the presence of EAPV on Amami Oshima island, Japan, where commercially cultivated purple passion fruit and golden passion fruit are generally propagated by seeding, suggests that EAPV may have been introduced via aphid vectors (see Hosts/Other Species Affected).

In addition, in a 1992 field survey covering the whole of Amami Oshima island, passionfruit woodiness disease (PWD) was found to be prevalent on the hybrid cultivars Ruby star and Summer Queen. In the case of hybrid cultivars, routine propagation depends on vegetative reproduction, so EAPV might also be spread by the use of infected scions, in addition to aphid transmission (Iwai et al., 1996). This suggests that, at either national or international levels, the trade and transport of host plants may spread EAPV.

Although EAPV can be detected from fruit, it is not thought to be transmitted via fruit.

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

Passion fruit will be infected by EAPV via the probing of aphids which have visited the plant by chance, as aphids have not been observed to breed on passion fruit in the field. At the local level, EAPV transmission between orchards or trees might be attributable to aphid vectors, particularly the sowthistle aphid (Hyperomyzus lactucae) (Omatsu et al., 2004).

Seedborne Aspects

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There is so far no proof that EAPV can infect seeds of Passifloraceae plants.

However, owing to the abnormalities of fruit development caused by EAPV, the quality of a seed deteriorates remarkably and embryo development and nutrient accumulation in seeds become insufficient for germination. As a result, germination rate becomes very low.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Botanical gardens and zoos Yes
Crop production Yes
Horticulture Yes
Nursery trade Yes Yes
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Host and vector organisms Yes Yes
Plants or parts of plants Yes Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Aphis gossypiiOmatsu et al., 2004. InsectJapan
Hyperomyzus lactucaeOmatsu et al., 2004. InsectJapan
Myzus persicaeIwai et al., 1996. InsectJapan

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Negative
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Human health Negative

Economic Impact

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Exports of passion fruit from Japan are small when compared with mandarin oranges or apples. Therefore, the economic damage caused by EAPV is not particularly serious. However, individual farmers may be seriously affected by infestations of passion fruit. Even though passion fruit can survive EAPV infection, it is then susceptible to infection by the fungal pathogens Phytophthora nicotianae and Haematonectria ipomoeae, and can easily wither and die due to damping-off, rot and vascular browning.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
Impact outcomes
  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Diagnosis

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In many cases, EAPV infects plants latently and disease symptoms do not appear.

Using a carborundum in the presence of phosphate buffer (pH 7.0, 0.025 M), EAPV strains induced systemic infection in mechanically inoculated passion flower (Passiflora caerulea, P. foetida and P. maliformis) and sesame (Sesamum indicum), but not P. edulis, P. edulis x P. edulis f. flavicarpa cv. Summer Queen or P. quadrangularis (Iwai et al., 1996; Iwai et al., 2006). Of these hosts, P. foetida was the best diagnostic host as the clear mottle on the upper non-inoculated leaves were induced at least a week after the inoculation. Although P. vulgaris cv. Rico 23 and cv. Rosinha are also systemically infected (Iwai et al., 2006), they were not adequate as propagation hosts because their non-inoculated upper leaves were shed due to vein necrosis and yellowing.

Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa and French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cv. Sujinashi Edogawa are the best assay hosts (Iwai et al., 1996). Their inoculated leaves induced local lesions 7 days after mechanical inoculation, and they can be used for isolation from a single lesion. When 31 cultivars of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) were inoculated, host responses varied depending on the cultivar (Iwai et al., 2006). Sap from diseased Summer Queen was infectious to P. vulgaris after dilution to 10-4 but not 10-5; after heating for 10 min at 55°C but not at 60°C, and after 2 days at 25°C but not 3 days (Iwai et al., 1996).

Molecular Diagnostics

It is best to conduct an inspection by ELISA or RT-PCR as diagnosis is much faster. The best detection and inspection methods are DAS-ELISA (Double Antibody Sandwich - Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) and RT-PCR (Reverse Transcription - Polymerase Chain Reaction) (Omatsu et al., 2004; Fukumoto et al., 2012).

For RT-PCR, to amplify the 3’-terminal region of the EAPV-AO and IB genomes, respectively, the strain-specific forward primers (EAPVAO-F: TGCATGTCCTAGACCTC and EAPVIB-200: GACAAGAACGCCAGTTTG), and a common reverse primer (EAPV-AOIB200: T16AGGACAAC), have been established (Fukumoto et al., 2012). The thermocycling conditions are detailed by Fukumoto et al. (2012).

The best plant sample to detect the virus from is the leaf, although it can also be detected from the stem and fruit.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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There are three other potyviruses that cause passionfruit woodiness disease (PWD) besides EAPV: passionfruit woodiness virus (PWV) in Australia, cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) in Brazil and South Africa and Ugandan Passiflora virus in Uganda.

Prevention and Control

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As there is no evidence that EAPV is seedborne, preventative measures should focus on the distribution of infected plants and plant materials as well as, on a local scale, the control of aphids.

In Japan, a tropical fruit local training association in Kagoshima Prefecture has successfully prevented EAPV from spreading on Amami Oshima island by distributing seedlings taken from EAPV-free plants to farmers on the island.

References

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Adams MJ; Antoniw JF; Fauquet CM, 2005. Molecular criteria for genus and species discrimination within the family Potyviridae. Archives of Virology, 150(3):459-479. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100423

Chang CA, 1992. Characterization and comparison of passionfruit mottle virus, a newly recognized potyvirus, with passionfruit woodiness virus. Phytopathology, 82(11):1358-1363

Fukumoto T; Nakamura M; Rikitake M; Iwai H, 2012. Molecular characterization and specific detection of two genetically distinguishable strains of East Asian Passiflora virus (EAPV) and their distribution in southern Japan. Virus Genes, 44(1):141-148. http://www.springerlink.com/content/q4852190725 m4106/

Iwai H; Ohmori T; Kurokawa Y; Muta T; Arai K, 1996. New record of passionfruit woodiness virus in Japan. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 62(5):459-465.

Iwai H; Yamashita Y; Nishi N; Nakamura M, 2006. The Potyvirus associated with the dappled fruit of Passiflora edulis in Kagoshima prefecture, Japan is the third strain of the proposed new species East Asian Passiflora virus (EAPV) phylogenetically distinguished from strains of Passion fruit woodiness virus. Archives of Virology, 151(4):811-818. http://springerlink.metapress.com/content/y10129467867132x/?p=9a7412d353c94cd7b4cfd577138f4c92&pi=14

Norzihan Abdullah; Ismanizan Ismail; Vilasini Pillai; Ruslan Abdullah; Shaiful Adzni Sharifudin, 2009. Nucleotide sequence of the coat protein gene of the Malaysian Passiflora Virus and its 3’ non-coding region. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 6(9):1633-1636. http://www.scipub.org/fulltext/ajas/ajas691633-1636.pdf

Omatsu N; Iwai H; Setokuchi O; Arai K, 2004. Immigrating aphid species and their importance as vectors of Passionfruit woodiness virus in the fields of Amami Oshima Island, Japan. Memoirs of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University, 39:1-5.

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24/09/13 Original text by:

Hisashi Iwai, Kagoshima University, Japan

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