East Asian Passiflora virus
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Seedborne Aspects
- Pathway Causes
- Pathway Vectors
- Plant Trade
- Vectors and Intermediate Hosts
- Impact Summary
- Economic Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- East Asian Passiflora virus
Local Common Names
- Malaysia: Malaysian Passiflora virus
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
East Asian Passiflora virus (EAPV) is a potyvirus that infects passion fruit Passiflora edulis. It can produce mosaic symptoms on leaves and severely malformed and woody fruits (Iwai et al., 1996). It is currently found in Japan, Taiwan and Peninsular Malaysia, although its global distribution is not yet clear.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Virus
- Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
- Unknown: "RNA viruses"
- Family: Potyviridae
- Genus: Potyvirus
- Species: East Asian Passiflora virus
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
This virus was first reported as a strain of passionfruit woodiness virus (PWV) (Iwai et al., 1996). Following the 7th International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) report (Van Regenmortel, 2000) and more recent analysis (Adams et al., 2005), East Asian Passiflora virus (EAPV) was proposed as the name of this Potyvirus species (Iwai et al., 2006), and was formally adopted by the ICTV.
At present, it seems that at least four distinct members of Potyvirus cause passionfruit woodiness disease (PWD): PWV in Australia, cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) in Brazil and South Africa, EAPV in East Asia and Ugandan Passiflora virus in Uganda.
DescriptionTop of page
Like the other potyviruses, the virion of EAPV consists of a non-enveloped capsid. The capsid of the viral strain EAPV-AO is elongated with a helical symmetry, filamentous and flexuous, with a length of 787 nm (Iwai et al., 1996). In ultrathin sections of infected Passiflora edulis x P. edulis f.flavicarpa ‘Summer Queen’ leaf cells, pinwheel and scroll inclusions were observed in the cytoplasm (Iwai et al., 1996).
A further viral strain, EAPV-IB, exists in Japan. IB is an attenuated (pathogenic weak) strain which exists in the wild. It produces less severe symptoms, producing only light dapple on fruits and not malformed woody fruits. The host range of IB differs from AO a little (Iwai et al., 2006).
DistributionTop of page
EAPV has been recorded in Kyushu (Japan), Taiwan and Peninsular Malaysia, although its global distribution is not yet clear.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Japan||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Kyushu||Present, few occurrences||Introduced||Invasive||Iwai et al., 2006||First recorded on Amami Oshima Island in Kagoshima Prefecture in 1986. Still present on Amami Oshima.|
|-Peninsular Malaysia||Abdullah et al., 2009||Virus isolates were recorded as Malaysian Passiflora virus. However, they can be clearly judged as EAPV from the sequence data of their nucleic acid.|
|Taiwan||Introduced||1980||Chang, 1992||Virus isolates were released as Passionfruit woodiness virus. However, they can be clearly judged as EAPV from the sequence data of the nucleic acid later reported from Taiwan.|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
The invasion route of EAPV and its global distribution are not yet clear.
During the summer of 1986 at Setouchi, in the southern part of Amami Oshima island, Japan, some plants of the hybrid Passiflora cultivar ‘Ruby star’ (P. edulis Sims. x P. edulis Sims. f. flavicarpa Deg.), the most widely cultivated hybrid, showed systemic mosaic and rugose foliar symptoms, and produced severely malformed and woody fruits (Iwai, et al., 1996). These symptoms were caused by an isolate of EAPV and were the first record of EAPV in Japan (Iwai et al., 2006).
Although ‘Ruby star’ has been grown since about 1982, its origins are not known.. However, the characteristics of ‘Ruby star’ are similar to a hybrid cultivar ‘Tainung No.1’ which is widely grown in Taiwan. Furthermore, since the percent homology of the base sequence of the coat protein coding region of EAPV isolates from both Japan and Taiwan is high (95%), it is thought that EAPV reached Amami Oshima from Taiwan via a Passifora cultivar before 1982 (Iwai et al., 2006). The distribution and spread of the virus before then is still unknown.
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
EAPV is generally thought to spread by the artificial movement of infected plants.
It has been experimentally shown that three species of aphid, the cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii), green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) and sowthistle aphid (Hyperomyzuz lactucae), carry this virus effectively in a non-persistent manner (Iwai et al., 1996; Omatsu et al., 2004). However, no aphid clones have been observed on passionfruit vines in the field (Iwai et al., 1996). Moreover, neither M. persicae nor A. gossypii are common in passion fruit orchards (Omatsu et al., 2004). H. lactucae actively colonizes milk thistle (Silybum marianum), which can surround passionfruit orchards, so might be responsible for local EAPV transmission.
Although EAPV can be detected from fruit, it is not thought to be transmitted via fruit.
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial – Managed||Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Productive/non-natural|
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
Although a wild host of EAPV is thought to probably exist, it has not yet been found.
EAPV has been experimentally shown to be carried by three species of aphid, the cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii), green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), and sowthistle aphid (Hyperomyzuz lactucae) (Iwai et al., 1996; Omatsu et al., 2004). However, no aphid clones have been observed on passionfruit vines in the field (Iwai et al., 1996).
In the field, EAPV infects Passiflora edulis, including P. edulis Sims. x P. edulis f. flavicarpa Deg. (a hybrid cultivar of passionfruit) and P. edulis f. flavicarpa Deg. (golden passionfruit).
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Passiflora edulis (passionfruit)||Passifloraceae||Main|
Growth StagesTop of page Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Fruit / abnormal patterns|
|Fruit / abnormal shape|
|Fruit / malformed skin|
|Fruit / premature drop|
|Inflorescence / twisting and distortion|
|Leaves / abnormal patterns|
|Seeds / discolorations|
|Seeds / distortion|
|Seeds / empty grains|
|Seeds / shrivelled|
ClimateTop of page
|Af - Tropical rainforest climate||Preferred||> 60mm precipitation per month|
|Am - Tropical monsoon climate||Preferred||Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))|
|Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year||Preferred||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
EAPV might be transmitted by the aphid vectors (Aphis gossyppi, Hyperomyzus lactucae and Myzus persicae) between orchards or trees. From that point of view it is possible that various natural enemies of these aphid species contribute to secondary control of EAPV.
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
EAPV is not seedborne, so the presence of EAPV on Amami Oshima island, Japan, where commercially cultivated purple passion fruit and golden passion fruit are generally propagated by seeding, suggests that EAPV may have been introduced via aphid vectors (see Hosts/Other Species Affected).
In addition, in a 1992 field survey covering the whole of Amami Oshima island, passionfruit woodiness disease (PWD) was found to be prevalent on the hybrid cultivars Ruby star and Summer Queen. In the case of hybrid cultivars, routine propagation depends on vegetative reproduction, so EAPV might also be spread by the use of infected scions, in addition to aphid transmission (Iwai et al., 1996). This suggests that, at either national or international levels, the trade and transport of host plants may spread EAPV.
Although EAPV can be detected from fruit, it is not thought to be transmitted via fruit.
Vector Transmission (Biotic)
Passion fruit will be infected by EAPV via the probing of aphids which have visited the plant by chance, as aphids have not been observed to breed on passion fruit in the field. At the local level, EAPV transmission between orchards or trees might be attributable to aphid vectors, particularly the sowthistle aphid (Hyperomyzus lactucae) (Omatsu et al., 2004).
Seedborne AspectsTop of page
There is so far no proof that EAPV can infect seeds of Passifloraceae plants.
However, owing to the abnormalities of fruit development caused by EAPV, the quality of a seed deteriorates remarkably and embryo development and nutrient accumulation in seeds become insufficient for germination. As a result, germination rate becomes very low.
Pathway CausesTop of page
Pathway VectorsTop of page
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Seedlings/Micropropagated plants||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
Vectors and Intermediate HostsTop of page
Impact SummaryTop of page
Economic ImpactTop of page
Exports of passion fruit from Japan are small when compared with mandarin oranges or apples. Therefore, the economic damage caused by EAPV is not particularly serious. However, individual farmers may be seriously affected by infestations of passion fruit. Even though passion fruit can survive EAPV infection, it is then susceptible to infection by the fungal pathogens Phytophthora nicotianae and Haematonectria ipomoeae, and can easily wither and die due to damping-off, rot and vascular browning.
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Host damage
- Negatively impacts agriculture
- Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
DiagnosisTop of page
In many cases, EAPV infects plants latently and disease symptoms do not appear.
Using a carborundum in the presence of phosphate buffer (pH 7.0, 0.025 M), EAPV strains induced systemic infection in mechanically inoculated passion flower (Passiflora caerulea, P. foetida and P. maliformis) and sesame (Sesamum indicum), but not P. edulis, P. edulis x P. edulis f. flavicarpa cv. Summer Queen or P. quadrangularis (Iwai et al., 1996; Iwai et al., 2006). Of these hosts, P. foetida was the best diagnostic host as the clear mottle on the upper non-inoculated leaves were induced at least a week after the inoculation. Although P. vulgaris cv. Rico 23 and cv. Rosinha are also systemically infected (Iwai et al., 2006), they were not adequate as propagation hosts because their non-inoculated upper leaves were shed due to vein necrosis and yellowing.
Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa and French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cv. Sujinashi Edogawa are the best assay hosts (Iwai et al., 1996). Their inoculated leaves induced local lesions 7 days after mechanical inoculation, and they can be used for isolation from a single lesion. When 31 cultivars of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) were inoculated, host responses varied depending on the cultivar (Iwai et al., 2006). Sap from diseased Summer Queen was infectious to P. vulgaris after dilution to 10-4 but not 10-5; after heating for 10 min at 55°C but not at 60°C, and after 2 days at 25°C but not 3 days (Iwai et al., 1996).
It is best to conduct an inspection by ELISA or RT-PCR as diagnosis is much faster. The best detection and inspection methods are DAS-ELISA (Double Antibody Sandwich - Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) and RT-PCR (Reverse Transcription - Polymerase Chain Reaction) (Omatsu et al., 2004; Fukumoto et al., 2012).
For RT-PCR, to amplify the 3’-terminal region of the EAPV-AO and IB genomes, respectively, the strain-specific forward primers (EAPVAO-F: TGCATGTCCTAGACCTC and EAPVIB-200: GACAAGAACGCCAGTTTG), and a common reverse primer (EAPV-AOIB200: T16AGGACAAC), have been established (Fukumoto et al., 2012). The thermocycling conditions are detailed by Fukumoto et al. (2012).
The best plant sample to detect the virus from is the leaf, although it can also be detected from the stem and fruit.
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
There are three other potyviruses that cause passionfruit woodiness disease (PWD) besides EAPV: passionfruit woodiness virus (PWV) in Australia, cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) in Brazil and South Africa and Ugandan Passiflora virus in Uganda.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
As there is no evidence that EAPV is seedborne, preventative measures should focus on the distribution of infected plants and plant materials as well as, on a local scale, the control of aphids.
In Japan, a tropical fruit local training association in Kagoshima Prefecture has successfully prevented EAPV from spreading on Amami Oshima island by distributing seedlings taken from EAPV-free plants to farmers on the island.
ReferencesTop of page
Adams MJ; Antoniw JF; Fauquet CM, 2005. Molecular criteria for genus and species discrimination within the family Potyviridae. Archives of Virology, 150(3):459-479. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100423
Fukumoto T; Nakamura M; Rikitake M; Iwai H, 2012. Molecular characterization and specific detection of two genetically distinguishable strains of East Asian Passiflora virus (EAPV) and their distribution in southern Japan. Virus Genes, 44(1):141-148. http://www.springerlink.com/content/q4852190725 m4106/
Iwai H; Yamashita Y; Nishi N; Nakamura M, 2006. The Potyvirus associated with the dappled fruit of Passiflora edulis in Kagoshima prefecture, Japan is the third strain of the proposed new species East Asian Passiflora virus (EAPV) phylogenetically distinguished from strains of Passion fruit woodiness virus. Archives of Virology, 151(4):811-818. http://springerlink.metapress.com/content/y10129467867132x/?p=9a7412d353c94cd7b4cfd577138f4c92&pi=14
Norzihan Abdullah; Ismanizan Ismail; Vilasini Pillai; Ruslan Abdullah; Shaiful Adzni Sharifudin, 2009. Nucleotide sequence of the coat protein gene of the Malaysian Passiflora Virus and its 3’ non-coding region. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 6(9):1633-1636. http://www.scipub.org/fulltext/ajas/ajas691633-1636.pdf
Omatsu N; Iwai H; Setokuchi O; Arai K, 2004. Immigrating aphid species and their importance as vectors of Passionfruit woodiness virus in the fields of Amami Oshima Island, Japan. Memoirs of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University, 39:1-5.
Regenmortel MHVVan, 2000. Virus species demarcation. In: Virus taxonomy, Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses [ed. by Regenmortel, M. H. V. van \Fauquet, C. M. \Bishop, D. H. L. \Carstens, E. B. \Estes, M. K. \Lemon, S. M. \Maniloff, J. \Mayo, M. A. \McGeoch, D. J. \Pringle, C. R. \Wickner, R. B.]., London: Academic Press, 11-13.
ContributorsTop of page
24/09/13 Original text by:
Hisashi Iwai, Kagoshima University, Japan
Distribution MapsTop of page
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