Invasive Species Compendium

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Triplaris americana
(ant tree)

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Datasheet

Triplaris americana (ant tree)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Triplaris americana
  • Preferred Common Name
  • ant tree
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Triplaris americana is a fast-growing, perennial tree native to South America and possibly parts of Central America and Mexico. It grows in disturbed areas and secondary forests. This attractive species has bec...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Triplaris americana L.

Preferred Common Name

  • ant tree

Other Scientific Names

  • Ruprechtia martii Meisn.
  • Triplaris boliviana Britton
  • Triplaris brasiliana Cham.
  • Triplaris estriata Kuntze
  • Triplaris euryphylla Blake
  • Triplaris felipensis Wedd.
  • Triplaris formicosa S. Moore
  • Triplaris guanaiensis Rusby
  • Triplaris laxa Blake
  • Triplaris noli-tangere Wedd.
  • Triplaris pavonii Meisn.
  • Triplaris pyramidalis Jacq.
  • Triplaris schomburgkiana Benth.
  • Triplaris striata Kuntze
  • Triplaris williamsii Rusby

International Common Names

  • English: triplaris
  • Spanish: palo de hormiga; palo santo

Local Common Names

  • Australia: long Jack; long John
  • Bolivia: jara santa; palo de diablo; palo diablo; palo santo macho
  • Brazil: formigueiro; pau-de-formiga; pau-de-novato; pau-formiga; tachí; taxizeiro
  • Colombia: guacamayo; vara santa
  • Costa Rica: tabaco; tabacón; tabacon de monte
  • Cuba: hormigo; palo hormiguero
  • Ecuador: tangarana; tangarana colorada
  • El Salvador: guayabo zancón; palo de Santa María
  • Peru: janin; tanagarana; tangarana blanca
  • South Africa: Indian almond
  • Venezuela: palo maría

Summary of Invasiveness

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Triplaris americana is a fast-growing, perennial tree native to South America and possibly parts of Central America and Mexico. It grows in disturbed areas and secondary forests. This attractive species has become a popular garden ornamental and has often been planted in gardens, parks and along roadsides. Currently, it is listed as invasive in Cuba and as an emerging invasive alien species in South Africa; it is also an environmental weed in northern Queensland, Australia. There is limited information about its impact as an invasive species, but in South Africa it has the potential to outcompete native species.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Polygonales
  •                         Family: Polygonaceae
  •                             Genus: Triplaris
  •                                 Species: Triplaris americana

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Polygonaceae comprises 55 genera and 1110 species of herbs, shrubs, trees and vines distributed worldwide (Stevens, 2012). This family is particularly diverse in temperate North America, Europe and South East Asia, with fewer representatives in South America, the Caribbean, Africa and Australasia. Notable members of the Polygonaceae include several invasive species and noxious weeds such as: Fallopia japonica, Emex spinosa, Rumex spp., Persicaria perfoliatum and Antigonon leptopus. Species within this family can usually be distinguished by the presence of an ‘ocrea’, a sheathing structure associated with leaf nodes. It is thought to be either a sheathing stipule, a fusion of two stipules or an outgrowth of the leaf base (Sanchez et al., 2011). 

Description

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The following description is from the Flora of Panama (2016):

Small trees up to 20 m high, the upper branches geniculate, glabrous to pubescent, mostly greyish-brown. Leaves mostly tapering to a petiole 1-4 cm long and canaliculate; blades ovate, about twice as long as broad, 15-30 cm long, 7-15 cm broad, apically abruptly acuminate, basally tapered, glabrous to hirsute on the veins below, with mostly 20-25 pairs of lateral veins. Staminate inflorescences of scattered fascicles forming lax spikes mostly less than 6 mm broad, the spikes simply or racemosely disposed; perianth in 1 series of 6 narrowly ovate tepals 2 mm long, 1 mm broad, connate for about 0.5 mm; filaments about 2 mm long, adnate to the tepals for about 0.5 mm; anthers about 0.5 mm long. Pistillate flowers with pedicels 2-5 mm long, sepals becoming 30-45 mm long; wings mostly about three times as long as the tubes, oblanceolate with rounded apices, with one conspicuous vein from which several laterals arise, plicate just above the tubes; tubes as pilose within as without; petals 4-7 mm long, 1-2 mm broad, essentially free of the tubes, narrowly ovate to obovate; ovary trigonous; styles 3, 3-4 mm long, their inner surfaces stigmatic. Achenes 7-8 mm long, 3-5 mm broad, yellowish brown, with a small sulcation in which the petals fit.

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Tree
Woody

Distribution

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T. americana is native to South America, occurring from southern Panama to southeastern Brazil (Flora do Brasil, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016). It is also recorded as native in Mexico (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012). In Central America, this species is present in Honduras and Costa Rica, however it is not clear whether it is native or introduced in these countries (Grandtner and Chevrette, 2013). T. americana is also naturalized in the Caribbean (Cuba, Hispaniola and Puerto Rico), South Africa and northern Queensland in Australia (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Lalla and Ivey, 2012; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; Weeds of Australia, 2016); it is cultivated in Singapore and Hawaii, but is not recorded as naturalized in either location (Chong et al., 2009; PIER, 2016). It is invasive in Cuba and an ‘emerging invasive alien’ in South Africa (Lalla and Ivey, 2012; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; Invasive Species South Africa, 2016).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

South AfricaPresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive Species South Africa (2016); Lalla and Ivey (2012)Emerging invasive alien plant in KwaZulu-Natal

Asia

SingaporePresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al. (2009)

North America

Costa RicaPresentGrandtner and Chevrette (2013)
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasiveOviedo Prieto et al. (2012); Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
HondurasPresentGrandtner and Chevrette (2013); Molina R. (1975)
MexicoPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); Breedlove (1986)
PanamaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
United StatesPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution
-HawaiiPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPIER (2016)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedWeeds of Australia (2016)Emerging environmental weed

South America

BoliviaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
BrazilPresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2016); USDA-ARS (2016)
-AcrePresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2016); USDA-ARS (2016)
-AmazonasPresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2016); USDA-ARS (2016)
-GoiasPresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2016); USDA-ARS (2016)
-Mato GrossoPresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2016); USDA-ARS (2016)
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2016); USDA-ARS (2016)
-Minas GeraisPresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2016)
-ParaPresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2016); USDA-ARS (2016)
-ParanaPresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2016); USDA-ARS (2016)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2016)
-RondoniaPresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2016)
-Santa CatarinaPresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2016)
-Sao PauloPresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2016); USDA-ARS (2016)
ColombiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
EcuadorPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
French GuianaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
GuyanaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
PeruPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
SurinamePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
VenezuelaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)

History of Introduction and Spread

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T. americana was introduced to South Africa in the 1970s for use as a horticultural and ornamental tree, but it is now considered an invasive plant in the KwaZulu-Natal region (Invasive Species South Africa, 2016).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
South Africa South America 1970s Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No Lalla and Ivey (2012)

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of T. americana is moderate because it is used in horticulture as an ornamental tree. Once established, the risk of escape from cultivation and spread is likely to be high due to mature trees producing large amounts of wind-dispersed seeds (Lalla and Ivey, 2012).

Habitat

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Within its native distribution range, T. americana is found in rainforests, dry forests, wet montane forests and in secondary successions (Flora of Panama, 2016). Outside its native range, this species can be found growing in secondary forests, forest edges, disturbed riparian sites, disturbed coastal sites and along roadsides (Lorenzi, 2002; Lalla and Ivey, 2012; Weeds of Australia, 2016).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for species in the genus Triplaris is n = 11 (Sanchez and Kron, 2011).

Reproductive Biology

T. americana is a dioecious tree (i.e. individual trees have either male or female flowers) and it is pollinated by small and relatively unspecialized insects. In Costa Rica, trees are pollinated by bees from the families Anthophoridae, Halictidae, Megachilidae and Meliponinae (Bawa and Opler, 1977; Melampy and Howe, 1977). Its seeds have a short viability of around four months. If cut down, the tree sprouts readily from its base (Lorenzi, 2002).

Physiology and Phenology

T. americana is fast growing - it can grow from seed to 3 m in height within two years, standing 8-10 m high when fully grown (Lorenzi, 2002; Invasive Species South Africa, 2016). In Central America it produces flowers in the dry season, during January and February (Melampy and Howe, 1977). In South Africa, it flowers and fruits between April and September (Lalla and Ivey, 2012; Invasive Species South Africa, 2016).

Associations

T. americana has a mutualistic association with several ant species within the genus Pseudomyrmex, e.g. P. dendroicus, P. triplarinus, P. mordax (Haddad Junior et al., 2009; Sanchez and Bellota, 2015). The trunk of T. americana is hollow and hosts Pseudomyrmex ants that attack aggressors, herbivores and plants that touch its trunk (Pires et al., 2015).

In Brazil, adults and immature stages of the leafhopper Aetalion reticulatum were observed colonizing T. americana. The presence of the leafhopper caused no damage to the plants and so T. americana is considered a host plant for A. reticulatum (Pires et al., 2015).

Environmental Requirements

T. americana grows in open sunny and moist habitats at low to moderate elevations (up to 2500 m). It prefers moist soils and tolerates seasonal waterlogged conditions (Lorenzi, 2002).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
22 30 0 2500

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 20 30

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall13003500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil texture

  • light

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal (non-biotic)

T. americana spreads by seed dispersal. The fruits of this species are surrounded by a winged calyx that enables the seeds to be dispersed over considerable distances by wind (Lalla and Ivey, 2012; Pires et al., 2015).

Intentional Introduction

T. americana has been introduced intentionally to a small number of countries including South Africa and Singapore for use as an ornamental (Chong et al., 2009; Lalla and Ivey, 2012; Weeds of Australia, 2016).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Habitat restoration and improvementReforestation of degraded areas Yes Yes Grandtner and Chevrette, 2013
Landscape improvementPlanted along roadsides Yes Yes Grandtner and Chevrette, 2013
Medicinal useTraditional medicine Yes Grandtner and Chevrette, 2013
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes Grandtner and Chevrette, 2013

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Wind Yes Yes Pires et al., 2015

Environmental Impact

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Due to its fast growth, pioneering habit and capacity for wind dispersal, T. americana has the potential to outcompete native vegetation and to alter successional pathways in invaded areas (Lalla and Ivey, 2012; Invasive Species South Africa, 2016). In South Africa, where it is an emerging invasive plant, it has escaped from cultivation and now it is spreading along roadsides and water courses, negatively affecting natural ecosystems (Lalla and Ivey, 2012).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Triplaris species, including T. americana, are harvested from the wild for their timber, which is mainly used locally for light construction, flooring, furniture and boxes. The wood is sometimes used for fuel (Chudnoff, 1984; Grandtner and Chevrette, 2013).

A bark infusion of T. americana is used in traditional medicine. This species is also used as an ornamental, for reforestation of degraded areas and for landscaping e.g. along roadsides (Lalla and Ivey, 2012; Grandtner and Chevrette, 2013; Pires et al., 2015; Invasive Species South Africa, 2016).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity
  • Landscape improvement

Fuels

  • Fuelwood

Materials

  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • garden plant

Wood Products

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Containers

  • Boxes

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Flooring
  • For light construction

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Bawa, K. S., Opler, P. A., 1977. Spatial relationships between staminate and pistillate plants of dioecious tropical forest trees. Evolution, 31(1), 64-68. doi: 10.2307/2407545

Breedlove, D. E., 1986. Floristic list of Mexico. IV. Flora of Chiapas. In: Listados florísticos de México. IV. Flora de Chiapas : Instituto de Biología, UNAM.v + 246pp.

Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Chudnoff, M., 1984. Tropical timbers of the world. In: Agriculture Handbook, USDA , (No. 607) . 464 pp.

Flora do Brasil, 2016. Brazilian Flora 2020 in construction. http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ConsultaPublicaUC.do#CondicaoTaxonCP

Flora of Panama, 2016. Flora of Panama. St. Louis, Missouri, USA and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FOPWFO

Grandtner MM, Chevrette J, 2013. Dictionary of Trees, Volume 2: South America: Nomenclature, Taxonomy and Ecology. Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, Academic Press, 1128 pp

Haddad Junior V, Bicudo LRH, Fransozo A, 2009. The Triplaria tree (Triplaris spp) and Pseudomyrmex ants: a symbiotic relationship with risks of attack for humans. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, 42(6):727-729

Invasive Species South Africa, 2016. Invasive Species South Africa. http://www.invasives.org.za/

Lalla, R., Ivey, P., 2012. Early detection of emerging invasive alien, Triplaris americana in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research, 18(Special Issue), 793-799. http://www.wssp.org.pk/94-si-18-793-799.pdf

Lorenzi H, 2002. Brazilian Trees: A Guide to the Identification and Cultivation of Brazilian Native Trees, Volume 1. Fourth Edition. Brazil: Instituto Plantarum, 384 pp

Melampy MN, Howe HF, 1977. Sex ratio in the tropical tree Triplaris americana (Polygonaceae). Evolution, 31(4):867-872

Molina R., A., 1975. A list of the plants of Honduras. Ceiba, 19(1), 1-118.

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al., 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6 (Special Issue 1):22-96

PIER, 2016. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.htm

Pires EM, Silva LC, Battirola LD, Nogueira RM, Barreto MR, Corassa JN, 2015. Triplaris americana L. (Polygonaceae), a New Host Plant For Aethalion reticulatum (Linnaeus, 1767) (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae). Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 58(1):31-33

Sanchez A, Bellota E, 2015. Protection against herbivory in the mutualism between Pseudomyrmex dendroicus (Formicidae) and Triplaris americana (Polygonaceae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research, 46:71-83

Sanchez A, Kron KA, 2011. Phylogenetic relationships of Triplaris and Ruprechtia: Re-Delimitation of the recognized genera and two new genera for Tribe Triplarideae (Polygonaceae). Systematic Botany, 36:702-710

Sanchez A, Schuster TM, Burke JM, Kron KA, 2011. Taxonomy of Polygonoideae (Polygonaceae): a new tribal classification. Taxon, 60:151-160

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

Weeds of Australia, 2016. Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition. http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/media/Html/index.htm

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Breedlove D E, 1986. Floristic list of Mexico. IV. Flora of Chiapas. (Listados florísticos de México. IV. Flora de Chiapas.). In: Listados florísticos de México. IV. Flora de Chiapas. Mexico: Instituto de Biología, UNAM. v + 246pp.

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chong K Y, Tan H T W, Corlett R T, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Flora do Brasil, 2016. Brazilian Flora 2020 in construction., http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ConsultaPublicaUC.do#CondicaoTaxonCP

Grandtner MM, Chevrette J, 2013. Dictionary of Trees: South America. Nomenclature, taxonomy and ecology., 2 Academic Press. 1176 pp.

Invasive Species South Africa, 2016. Invasive Species South Africa., http://www.invasives.org.za/

Lalla R, Ivey P, 2012. Early detection of emerging invasive alien, Triplaris americana in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 18 (Special Issue), 793-799. http://www.wssp.org.pk/94-si-18-793-799.pdf

Molina R A, 1975. A list of the plants of Honduras. (Enumeracion de las plantas de Honduras.). Ceiba. 19 (1), 1-118.

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

PIER, 2016. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.htm

USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Weeds of Australia, 2016. Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition.,

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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23/01/2017 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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