Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Sporobolus tenuissimus
(tropical dropseed)



Sporobolus tenuissimus (tropical dropseed)


  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Sporobolus tenuissimus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • tropical dropseed
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • S. tenuissimus is a tropical annual grass listed as invasive only in Cuba; where it is present and abundant throughout the country (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; ...

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Sporobolus tenuissimus (Schrank.) Kuntze

Preferred Common Name

  • tropical dropseed

Other Scientific Names

  • Agrosticula muralis Raddi
  • Agrostis minutiflora (Trin.) Desf. ex Steud.
  • Aira tenuissima (Mart. ex Schrank) Spreng.
  • Panicum tenuiflorum R.Br.
  • Panicum tenuiflorum Schrank
  • Panicum tenuissimum Mart. ex Schrank
  • Sporobolus bibansiensis Vanderyst
  • Sporobolus effusus Desv.
  • Sporobolus mangaloricus Hochst. ex Miq.
  • Sporobolus minutiflorus (Trin.) Link
  • Sporobolus muralis (Raddi) Hitchc. and Chase
  • Sporobolus tenuissimus Mart. ex Schrank) Hack.

Local Common Names

  • China: re dai shu wei su
  • Cook Islands: false love-grass
  • Cuba: espartillo; ilusión
  • Dominican Republic: cohitrillo fino
  • India: thoma garica; thoma garika
  • Vietnam: xạ tử hoa nhỏ

Summary of Invasiveness

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S. tenuissimus is a tropical annual grass listed as invasive only in Cuba; where it is present and abundant throughout the country (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; Catasús Guerra, 2015). Although Catasús Guerra (1997) listed the species as with almost no aggressive behaviour, by 2015 the same author listed it as a non-desirable grass. It is reported as present in Cuba since the second half of the twentieth century, possibly arriving with hurricane winds and extending through the whole country in less than 15 years (Catasús Guerra,1997). Duistermaat (2004) cites the species as spreading rapidly in India, Indonesia and Thailand and as expected to spread more in Singapore and Malaysia. It is possibly a contaminant in soil or garden material (Duistermaat, 2004). It is listed as introduced but non-invasive for south Florida, USA (Mortellaro et al., 2012).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Sporobolus
  •                                 Species: Sporobolus tenuissimus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Sporobolus is a genus of about 160 species that are distributed in tropical and temperate regions of the world. The name comes from the Greek “spora” (seeds) and “ballein” (throw) in reference to its seed being expelled when humidity dissolves the pericardium and dispersing them (Giraldo-Cañas and Peterson, 2009; Global Species, 2016). The epithet tenuissimus refers to the delicate nature of the inflorescence.


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The following description is from Veldekamp (2003):

Tufted annual. Culms up to 0.55 m high. Ligule a rim, 0.1–0.25 mm long, ciliolate. Blades homomorphous, folded, 8–18 cm by 1–3 mm, margins smooth. Panicles effuse, up to 26 by 6 cm, branches erecto-patent, solitary or fascicled, the lowermost few together, eglandular, lowest, longest branch 3–4 cm long. Spikelets 0.9–1.25 mm long, greenish to lead-coloured. Lower glumes 0.25–0.3 mm long, 0.2–0.37 times as long as the spikelet. Upper glumes 0.4–0.75 mm long, 0.5–0.62 times as long as the spikelet, acutish to obtuse. Lodicules c. 0.25 mm long. Anthers 3, 0.25–0.3 mm long. Seeds 0.5–0.7 mm long, turbinate, compressed, angular in transverse section. 2n = usually 12, also 40.


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S. tenuissimus is found in tropical areas of the New World, with some discrepancies as to whether one includes the Caribbean and/or USA as part of the native range (Liogier, 1965, Catasús Guerra, 1997; Encyclopedia of Life, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016). The Plants of the Eastern Caribbean Database lists it as native only in Brazil and the Lesser Antilles (Broome et al., 2007). Peterson et al. (2001) in the Catalogue of New World Grasses cites the native distribution as: North America (USA and Mexico), Central America (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras and Panamá), the Caribbean and South America (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guyana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru and Venezuela) and introduced to Africa and Asia.

Other authors have the species with a broader distribution. Duistermaat (2004) lists the species as native to tropical Africa, America and India. Quattrocchi (2006) and Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012) include both New and Old Worlds as the native distribution. The current distribution includes Europe (France), Africa, Asia and Oceania as well as the Americas. There are few occurrences in temperate regions (see Distribution Table for details).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


ChinaPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2016Disturbed or cultivated places at low elevations
IndiaPresentIntroduced1893Quattrocchi, 2006; JSTOR Global Plants, 2016; Naturalis, 2016
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentIntroducedVeldekamp, 2003Pt. Blair
-KeralaPresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-MaharashtraPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Java
-JavaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedVeldekamp, 2003Often growing together with Eragrostis tenella
MyanmarPresentIntroducedKress et al., 2003Yangon
SingaporePresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
TaiwanPresentIntroduced Not invasive Jung et al., 2005Cultivated and naturalised in urban areas in the south of Taiwan
ThailandPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
VietnamPresentIntroducedVietnam Plant Data Center, 2016


BeninPresentIntroducedNaturalis, 2016
BurundiPresentIntroducedNaturalis, 2016
CameroonPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
ComorosPresentIntroducedLeonard, 1951
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentIntroducedLeonard, 1951Stanleyville, Yangambi. Roadside, ruderal and along river
Equatorial GuineaPresentIntroducedFlora de Guinea, 2016Annabón, Río Muni
EthiopiaPresentIntroducedNaturalis, 2016Harar
GabonPresentNativeQuattrocchi, 2006
KenyaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
LiberiaPresentIntroducedFauna and Flora of Liberia, 2016
MadagascarPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
MauritiusPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
MozambiquePresentIntroducedFlora Zambesiaca, 2016Maputo, Malema, Quelimane. An introduced garden weed
SenegalPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
SeychellesPresentIntroducedLeonard, 1951
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedNaturalis, 2016

North America

MexicoPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Chiapas, Michoacán
USAPresentIntroducedPeterson et al., 2001; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-FloridaPresentIntroducedWunderlin and Hansen, 2016Martin, Miami-Dade
-IndianaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016

Central America and Caribbean

BahamasPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
BarbadosPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
BelizePresentNativePeterson et al., 2001Belize City
British Virgin IslandsPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, 2016Tortola
Costa RicaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016BriBri, Limón, San José
CubaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Catasús Guerra, 1997; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016In Cuba since the second half of 20th Century; present in all provinces, possibly introduced by hurricanes
Dominican RepublicPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016El Seibo
El SalvadorPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016La Libertad, San Salvador
GrenadaPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
GuadeloupePresentNativeBroome et al., 2007
HaitiPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
HondurasPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Cortés, El Paraiso, Francisco Morazán, Santa Bárbara
JamaicaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016St. Andrew
MartiniquePresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
NicaraguaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Managua
PanamaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Bocas del Toro, Canal Area, Panamá
Puerto RicoPresentNativeLiogier, 1965; Axelrod, 2011; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; New York Botanical Garden, 2016; Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, 2016; UPRRP, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
Saint LuciaPresent, few occurrencesNative Not invasive Daltry, 2009; Graveson, 2012Rare on moist open areas
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Trinidad and TobagoPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
United States Virgin IslandsPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; USDA-NRCS, 2016St. Croix, St. John

South America

BrazilPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
-AmazonasPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
-BahiaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
-GoiasPresentNativeBatalha and Martins, 2002
-ParaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
-PernambucoPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
-Sao PauloPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
ColombiaPresentNativeParra-O, 2006; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016Antioquia
EcuadorPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Bolivar, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Loja, Los Ríos, Manabí, Pichincha, Zamora-Chinchipe
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedCharles Darwin Foundation, 2008Introduced and naturalized
French GuianaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
GuyanaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
ParaguayPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Central
PeruPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Cajamarca, Junín
SurinamePresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016
VenezuelaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2016Aragua, Bolivar, Carabobo, Cojedes, Distrito Federal, Falcón, Guárico, Miranda, Monagas, Portuguesa, Sucre, Yaracuy


FrancePresentIntroducedLiu et al., 2005


Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedGardner, 2007Rarotonga, Avarua. Moist waste place
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedGardner, 2007; Wagner and Lorence, 2016Tahiti (abundant), Society Islands
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedGardner, 2007

History of Introduction and Spread

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Duistermaat (2004) report that S. tenuissimus has been present in Singapore since mid 2003 along roadsides and flower beds and that it was probably introduced from potting mix or garden material. He reports the species being in Vietnam, Indonesia and Java by 1991; as spreading rapidly in India, Indonesia and Thailand; and expecting it to spread more in Singapore and Malaysia. It is reported by McCormack (2007) as a recent introduction and naturalized in the Cook Islands, probably arriving from Tahiti where it is abundant (Gardner, 2007). Jung et al. (2005) report it as a new naturalized species for Taiwan, found in a cultivated and developed area.

It is reported as present in Cuba since the second half of the twentieth century, after possibly arriving with hurricane winds and extending through the whole country in less than 15 years (Catasús Guerra, 1997). Although Liogier reports the species as a new record to Puerto Rico in 1965, there is a collection from 1938 at the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, 2016). Giraldo-Cañas and Peterson (2009) list the species as first reported for Colombia in the late 1900’s, widespread in urban areas and open disturbed areas.

Risk of Introduction

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There is almost no information about the dispersal and biology of the species to properly assess the risk of introduction. The species is usually found in disturbed habitats, including urban areas. Although it is not advertised to be used for landscaping and horticulture, it has been used as an ornamental in some countries. Based on this potential use and the wind seed dispersal of the seeds, the species has a medium risk of introduction into tropical areas.


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S. tenuissimus is reported as present in ruderal areas, open disturbed places, along roadsides, wet prairies, coastal regions, meadows, clearings, cultivated fields, waste places, moist deciduous forests and grasslands (Barkworth et al., 2003; Duistermaat, 2004; Quattrocchi, 2006; Catasús Guerra, 2015; India Biodiversity Portal, 2016). It is also found in urban areas along streets and sidewalks, and as a weed or cultivated in gardens (Giraldo-Cañas and Peterson, 2009).

Habitat List

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Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Chromosome number is reported as 2n = usually 12, also 40 (Veldekamp, 2003).

Physiology and Phenology

S. tenuissimus is reported as flowering and fruiting from September to December in India (India Biodiversity Portal, 2016). S. tenuissimus reproduces by seeds reported as dispersed by wind and by being expelled from fruits (Catasús Guerra, 1997; Giraldo-Cañas and Peterson, 2009).

Environmental Requirements

Almost no information is available on the environmental requirements of the species. It is reported as growing in open areas (Duistermaat, 2004; Giraldo-Cañas and Peterson, 2009). The information available of the specimens collected in Singapore by Duistermaat (2004) has S. tenuissimus growing as a weed in pots with fertile humus-rich soil, on sandy roadsides and in clayey sand. It is reported to grow from 0 to1800 m elevation (Giraldo-Cañas and Peterson, 2009).


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Af - Tropical rainforest climate Tolerated > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
43 -28


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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall8002000mm; lower/upper limits

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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According to Duistermaat (2004) the species arrived into Singapore in potting soil or garden materials. Seeds are small and wind dispersed, which according to Catasús Guerra (1997) is the way the species arrived in Cuba. Sporobolus species expel seeds from fruits when humidity dissolves the pericardium, dispersing them nearby (Giraldo-Cañas and Peterson, 2009).

Impact Summary

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Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive

Risk and Impact Factors

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  • Invasive in its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally


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The species is used in Africa as an ornamental (Veldekamp, 2003). It is also reported as being used as an ornamental in Colombia (Giraldo-Cañas and Peterson, 2009).

S. tenuissimus is used in Sumatra to treat stomach disorders (Veldekamp, 2003).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Sporobolus is usually confused with Agrostis. Some differences are: Agrostis glumes are longer than the anthecium; the lemma is 3-5 nerved (with one nerve in Sporobolus) and the fruit is a caryopsis with a ventral groove (in Sporobolus it is an utricle without a groove) (Giraldo-Cañas and Peterson, 2009).

S. tenuissimus can be distinguished from other Sporobolus species by its divaricate panicle (Jung et al., 2005). It is very similar to S. engleri from Namibia, but this species has larger anthers, slightly larger spikelets and a longer superior glume (PROTA, 2016).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Other than distribution and description, there is almost no information available about the biology of the species, the environmental requirements or the effects on habitats or other species; all of which would be important for assessing the invasiveness of the species.


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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.

Axelrod F, 2011. A systematic vademecum to the vascular plants of Puerto Rico. Sida Botanical Miscellany, 34:1-428. Fort Worth, TX, Botanical Research Institute of Texas

Barkworth ME, Capels KM, Long S, Piep MB, 2003. Flora of North America. Volume 25. Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part): Poaceae, part 2. New York, USA: Oxford University Press. 783 pp..

Batalha MA, Martins FR, 2002. The vascular flora of the Cerrado in Emas National Park (Goiás, Central Brazil)., Sida, Contributions to Botany, 20(1):295-311

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies.

Catasús Guerra L, 1997. Las gramíneas (Poaceae) de Cuba, I., Fontqueria, 46:1-259

Catasús Guerra L, 2015. Consideraciones sobre las gramíneas invasoras en Cuba., Revista del Jardín Botánico Nacional, 36:115-150

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation

Daltry JC, 2009. Biodiversity assessment of Saint Lucia’s Forests, with management recommendations. Technical Report No. 10 to the National Forest Demarcation and Bio-Physical Resource Inventory Project, FCG International Ltd, Helsinki, Finland, 117 pp.

Duistermaat H, 2004. New grass (Poaceae) records for Singapore, including Panicum laxum new for Asia., Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore, 56:29-42

Encyclopedia of Life, 2016. Encyclopedia of Life.

Fauna and Flora of Liberia, 2016. Liberian Flora and Fauna.

Flora de Guinea, 2016. Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.

Flora Zambesiaca, 2016. Flora Zambesiaca online (eFloras). Richmond, Surrey, UK: Kew Databases.

Gardner R, 2007. Grasses (Gramineae) of the central Pacific Ocean region., Records of the Auckland Museum, 44:43-83

Giraldo-Cañas D, 2010. Distribución e invasion de gramíneas C3 Y C4 (Poaceae) en un gradient altitudinal de los Andes de Colombia., Caldasia, 32(1):65-86

Giraldo-Cañas D, Peterson PM, 2009. Revisión de las especies del género Sporobolus (Poaceae: Chloridoideae: Sporobolinae) del noroeste de Sudamérica: Perú, Ecuador, Colombia y Venezuela., Caldasia, 31(1):41-76

Global Species, 2016. Global Species

Graveson R, 2012. The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean).

India Biodiversity Portal, 2016. Online Portal of India Biodiversity.

JSTOR Global Plants, 2016. JSTOR Global Plants Database. Ann Arbor, MI and New York, NY, USA: JSTOR.

Jung M, Yang S, Kuoh C, 2005. Notes on two newly naturalized plants in Taiwan. , Taiwania, 50(3):191-199

Kress WJ, DeFilipps RA, Farr E, Yin Kyi D, 2003. A checklist of the trees, shrubs, herbs, and climbers of Myanmar., Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 45:1-590

Leonard J, 1951. Especes congolaises nouvelles ou intéressantes., Bulletin de la Société Royale de Botanique de Belgique, 84(1):47-60

Liogier A, 1965. Novitates Antillanae. II., Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 92(4):288-304

Liu Q, Zhao N, Hao G, 2005. Inflorescence structures and evolution in subfamily Chloridoideae (Gramineae)., Plant Systematics and Evolution, 251(2/4):183-198

McCormack G, 2007. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database. Rarotonga, Cook Islands: Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.

Mortellaro S, Barry M, Gann G, Zahina J, Channon S, Hilsenbeck C, Scofield D, Wilder G, Wilhelm G, 2012. Coefficients of conservatism values and the floristic quality index for the vascular plants of South Florida., Southeastern Naturalist, 11(3):1-62

Naturalis, 2016. Naturalis Collections Bioportal.

New York Botanical Garden, 2016. The C.V. Starr Virtual Herbarium. New York, USA: The New York Botanical Garden.

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96.

Parra-O C, 2006. Estudio general de la vegetación native de Puerto Carreño (Vichada, Colombia)., Caldasia, 28(2):165-177

Peterson PM, Soreng RJ, Davidse G, Filgueiras TS, Zuloaga FO, Judziewicz EJ, 2001. Catalogue of the New World grasses (Poaceae): II. Subfamily Chloridoideae., Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 41:1-255

PROTA, 2016. PROTA4U web database. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.

Quattrocchi U, 2006. World dictionary of grasses: common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press. 2408 pp.

Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, 2016. Smithsonian Museum of Natural History Botany Collections. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Museum of Natural History.

The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

UPRRP, 2016. UPRRP Herbarium. University of Puerto Rico.

USDA-NRCS, 2016. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center.

Veldekamp JF, 2003. Miscellaneous notes on Thai Gramineae., Blumea, 48:495-501

Vietnam Plant Data Center, 2016. Botany VN, Plant Database.

Wagner WL, Lorence DH, 2016. Flora of the Marquesas Islands website. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.

Wunderlin RP, Hansen BF, 2016. Atlas of Florida vascular plants. Tampa, Florida, USA: Institute for Systematic Botany, University of South Florida.

Links to Websites

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Atlas of Florida Plants
Flora de Guinea
Flora of the Marquesas Islands
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gateway source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
India Biodiversity Portal
Plants of Saint Lucia
The Grass Manual on the web


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21/08/2016 Original text by:

Jeanine Vélez-Gavilán, University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez

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