Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

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Sida linifolia
(flaxleaf fanpetals)

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Datasheet

Sida linifolia (flaxleaf fanpetals)

Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Sida linifolia (flaxleaf fanpetals); flowers.
TitleFlowers
CaptionSida linifolia (flaxleaf fanpetals); flowers.
Copyright©Antonio Sérgio Farias Castro/via flickr - CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
Sida linifolia (flaxleaf fanpetals); flowers.
FlowersSida linifolia (flaxleaf fanpetals); flowers.©Antonio Sérgio Farias Castro/via flickr - CC BY-NC-SA 2.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Sida linifolia Juss. ex Cav.

Preferred Common Name

  • flaxleaf fanpetals

Other Scientific Names

  • Malva hirsuta Aubl.
  • Sida angustissima Miq.
  • Sida campii Vell.
  • Sida fiebrigii Ulbr.
  • Sida graminifolia Rich.
  • Sida linearifolia A.St.Hil.
  • Sida linearifolia Thonn.
  • Sida longifolia Brandegee
  • Sida miqueliana Turcz.
  • Sida viminea Fisch. ex Link

International Common Names

  • English: balai grand
  • Spanish: hoja de lanceta; trebol sabanero
  • French: balai gaud

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: guanxuma; guanxuma-de-folha-fina; guanxuma-fina; guaxima; guaxima-miúda; língua-de-tucano; malvade-folha-estrela; malva-fina; malva-língua-de-tucano; malva-vassoura; vassoura
  • Congo Democratic Republic: kimvumvu
  • Côte d'Ivoire: bua hui
  • Dominican Republic: escoba; flor de Sabana
  • El Salvador: lengua de pájaro
  • Guadeloupe: balai gaud; balai grand
  • Guatemala: hoja de lanceta
  • Martinique: balai gaud; balai grand
  • Nigeria: a’a kai ka fito; kààkàà kaí ka fit; kaka; kakai ta fito; yaya
  • Sierra Leone: kpakpa-­niŋgivali; kpawulo; mεmamokape
  • Venezuela: trebol sabanero

Summary of Invasiveness

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S. linifolia is an herb or small shrub reported as invasive to Cuba and Hawaii, USA (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; PIER, 2016). No details are given on its invasiveness or the effects on habitats and/or biodiversity. Although it is listed as invasive for Hawaii by PIER (2016), it also is noted as “not common”.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Malvales
  •                         Family: Malvaceae
  •                             Genus: Sida
  •                                 Species: Sida linifolia

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Sida is a genus in the Malvaceae family with 100-150 species, mostly from the Americas (PROTA, 2016). The species are mainly herbaceous, with a few that are shrubs and trees (Viarouge et al., 1997). The genus name Sida is from the Greek for "pomegranate or water lily."

The Sida linifolia type locality is Peru; described from a specimen given to Cavanilles by Jussieu, hence “Juss. ex Cav.” being the correct citation for the authority (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016).

Among the synonyms for the species, Malva hirsuta is an unresolved name and S. angustissima and S. linearifolia Thonn. are both illegitimate names (The Plant List, 2013; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016).

Description

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The following description is from Flora of Panama (2016):

Herb, annual or biennial, the stem erect, simple or more or less branched above, up to more than 1 m high, the branches suberect, pubescent with simple and/or stellate hairs. Leaves short­petiolate, the petiole 3­10 mm long, pilose, the stipules filiform to narrowly lanceolate, 4­7 mm long, pilose; blade linear or narrowly lanceolate, rounded or truncate or infrequently shallowly subcordate at the base, acute at the apex, entire­margined, 2­14 cm long and 2­15 mm broad, 3-nerved from the base, pubescent with simple and/or stellate hairs, the indumentum usually denser beneath, the main veins prominulous beneath. Inflorescences terminal, corymbiform or short­racemose, 8­ to 20­flowered. Flowers with the pedicel 6-15 mm long, articulated 2­3 mm below the apex, hirtellous; calyx campanulate, subterete, 4.8­7 mm long, hirtellous to hirsute, persistent, the lobes triangular, acute, ca 2­4 mm long and 2.5­3 mm broad at the base; petals obovate, 8­15 mm long and 4­5 mm wide, cream­coloured or whitish, usually with a maroon or dark purple centre; staminal tube ca 2­3 mm long, minutely hyaline­puberulus near the apex, the filaments 0.5­1.0 mm long; styles 5­6 mm long, connate basally. Mericarps (5­)79, trigonous, shortly 2­apiculate, 2.5­3.5 mm long, papyraceolus, dull, brownish­black, glabrous, the lateral walls fragile and fragmenting at maturity; seeds ca 2 mm long, dull, dark brown, glabrous except for a few minute hairs around the hilum.

Although the species is described as an herb, it is also listed as a small shrub (India Biodiversity Portal, 2016; PROTA, 2016).

Plant Type

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Biennial
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Woody

Distribution

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There is no agreement on the native distribution of S. linifolia. Although the majority of the sources refer to the species as being from the neotropics (Broome et al., 2007; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Encyclopedia of Life, 2016; NatureServe, 2016), others refer to it as being pantropical (Porembski et al., 1996; USDA-ARS, 2016). In PIER (2016) it is cited as only native to Peru, Panama, Nicaragua, Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador and Costa Rica. Paleobotanical studies report pollen from S. linifolia in human coprolites in Brazil from 8,000 B.P. (Chaves, 2000).

The species is reported from Asia, Africa, North America, Central America, the Caribbean, South America and Oceania (see Distribution Table for details). It is reported in PROTA (2016) as present in Puerto Rico, but neither Axelrod (2011) nor Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012) have the species as occurring on the Island.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentIntroducedHutchinson (1921)
BeninPresentIntroducedPROTA (2016); USDA-ARS (2016)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentIntroducedRoyal Museum for Central Africa (2016)
Congo, Republic of thePresentIntroduced1910Wildeman (1919)Bokala, Wombali, Lemfu, Maydi
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroducedPorembski et al. (1995)At inselbergs
GabonPresentIntroducedPROTA (2016); USDA-ARS (2016)
GambiaPresentIntroducedPROTA (2016); USDA-ARS (2016)
GhanaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2016); USDA-ARS (2016)Northern, Western
GuineaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)Nzérékoré
LiberiaPresentIntroducedPROTA (2016); USDA-ARS (2016)
MaliPresentIntroducedPROTA (2016); USDA-ARS (2016)
NigeriaPresentIntroduced1921Hutchinson (1921); USDA-ARS (2016)Naraguta
SenegalPresentIntroducedPROTA (2016); USDA-ARS (2016)
Sierra LeonePresentIntroducedSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2016); USDA-ARS (2016)Tabora
TogoPresentIntroducedPROTA (2016); USDA-ARS (2016)
ZambiaPresentIntroducedPROTA (2016); USDA-ARS (2016)
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedPROTA (2016); USDA-ARS (2016)

Asia

IndiaPresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal (2016)Wastelands
-KeralaPresentIntroducedEncyclopedia of Life (2016)
ThailandPresentIntroducedSaensouk et al. (2016)

North America

BelizePresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)Belize, Cayo, Orange Walk, Stann, Creek, Toledo.
Costa RicaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)Alajuela, Guanacaste, Puntarenas, San José
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasiveOviedo Prieto et al. (2012); Missouri Botanical Garden (2016)
Dominican RepublicPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)Dajabón, Distrito Nacional, La Vega, Montecristi, Monte Plata, Sánchez Ramírez, Santiago Rodríguez
El SalvadorPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)Morazán, Santa Ana.
GuadeloupePresentNativeBroome et al. (2007)
GuatemalaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016); Encyclopedia of Life (2016)Chiquimula, Petén, Santa Rosa.
HaitiPresentNativeSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)
HondurasPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)Comayagua, Francisco Morazán, Gracias a Dios, Lempira, Olancho.
JamaicaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)Clarendon, St. Elizabeth.
MartiniquePresentNativeBroome et al. (2007)
MexicoPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)Campeche, Chiapas, Guerrero, Jalisco, México, Michoacán, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatán
NicaraguaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)Atlántico Norte, Boaco, Chontales, Nueva Segovia. Common
PanamaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)Canal area, Chiriquí, Coclé, Herrera, Los Santos, Panama, Veraguas.
Puerto RicoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)St. Kitts
Trinidad and TobagoPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)
United StatesPresentIntroducedSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedNatureServe (2016)
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2016); Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)Moloka’I, “not common”
-PennsylvaniaAbsent, Formerly present1878Ruiz and Carlton (2003); NatureServe (2016)On solid ship ballast around Philadelphia harbour

South America

ArgentinaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)
BoliviaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)Beni, La Paz, Santa Cruz
BrazilPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016); Flora do Brasil (2016)
-BahiaPresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2016)
-CearaPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)
-Espirito SantoPresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2016)
-GoiasPresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2016)
-MaranhaoPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)
-Mato GrossoPresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2016)
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2016)
-Minas GeraisPresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2016)
-ParaPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)
-ParaibaPresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2016)
-ParanaPresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2016)
-PernambucoPresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2016)
-PiauiPresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2016)
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2016)
-Rio Grande do NortePresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2016)
-RondoniaPresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2016)
-Sao PauloPresentNativeFlora do Brasil (2016)
ColombiaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016); Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)Antioquia, Magdalena, Tolima
French GuianaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)
GuyanaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)Rupununi, Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo
ParaguayPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2016)Amambay, Canindeyú, Central, Concepción, Cordillera, Guairá, Paraguarí, San Pedro
PeruPresentNativeEncyclopedia of Life (2016)San Martín
SurinamePresentNativePROTA (2016)
UruguayPresentNativePROTA (2016)
VenezuelaPresentNativeEncyclopedia of Life (2016); Missouri Botanical Garden (2016)Amazonas, Bolívar, Carabobo, Delta Amacuro, Distrito Federal, Guárico, Monagas, Táchira.

History of Introduction and Spread

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Almost no information is available on the introduction and spread of S. linifolia. It is reported as introduced in various countries of Africa by the early 1900’s, also present in India, Fiji, New Caledonia and USA (Hawaii, Pennsylvania and Alabama) (India Biodiversity Portal, 2016; NatureServe, 2016; PIER, 2016; PROTA, 2016). It was on a list of seeds available for exchange at the experimental fields of the Botany Department, at the University of Sao Paulo, (Anon, 1947). It is reported as growing on the remnants of ship ballast in the Philadelphia harbour at Pennsylvania, USA, although it is no longer present (Ruiz and Carlton; 2003). The most recent new geographic record lists it as a new record for Thailand in 2016 (Saensouk et al., 2016).

Risk of Introduction

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There is almost no information about the invasiveness of S. linifolia, its effects on habitats or biodiversity or its environmental requirements with which to make a proper assessment of its risk of introduction. The species is not used as an ornamental; it is used as a medicinal plant and a source of fibres (PROTA, 2016). It is possibly of medium risk of introduction to areas with similar environmental conditions to the ones where it is currently occurring.

Habitat

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S. linifolia occurs mostly in tropical savannas (Donselaar, 1969; Martínez-Quesada, 2010; PROTA, 2016; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016). It is also reported for brushy and grassy slopes, grassy fields, roadsides, fallow lands, semideciduous forests, sandy ground, very humid and shaded soils, ruderal areas, open forests and temporarily inundated savannas (Porembski et al., 1996; Martínez-Quesada, 2010; Flora of Panama, 2016; PROTA, 2016; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016). In Brazil it is also reported as occurring in the “restinga”, a coastal type of forest, and for the “campo rupestre”, a subtropical montane savanna (Flora do Brasil, 2016). It is found in pine forests in Honduras and Cuba (Hadač and Hadačová, 1971; Clewell, 1973; Chang Fentes and Vilamajó Alberdi, 2002), and in inselberg formations in west Africa (Porembski et al., 1996).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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The species occurs as a weed in cultivated land and plantations (Fariñas et al., 2011; JIRCAS, 2016). It is one of the species affected by the Okra Mosaic Virus strain, NIN-OKMV, and could be a source of infection for some crops (Igwegbe, 1983).

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for the species is 2n=14 (PROTA, 2016). Information about DNA sequences is available at the Barcode of Life Data Systems database (BOLDS, 2016).

Reproductive Biology

S. linifolia reproduction is by seeds (Moreira da Costa and Nippes Braganca, 2011). Although it is reported as an autogamous species in Nigeria (Ugborogho, 1978), bees are listed as pollinators in Venezuela (Ramírez, 2004). Pollen of S. linifolia has been found, in low frequency, in pollen pellets collected by Apis mellifera in Brazil (Simeao et al., 2015). Germination percentages reported for the species are low (PROTA, 2016).

Moura et al. (2011) could not determine the dispersal syndrome for the species in Brazil. Batalha et al. (1997) report an autochoric seed dispersal.

Physiology and Phenology

S. linifolia produces flowers and fruits from January to November (Batalha et al., 1997; Moura et al., 2011; Encyclopedia of Life, 2016; India Biodiversity Portal, 2016). The species is present in seed banks in Venezuela in October and April (Pérez and Santiago, 2001). Temperature and photoperiod affect flowering in S. linifolia as well as other Sida species (Ugborogho, 1977). The most favourable range of temperature for flower opening is 25-28°C. Excess periods of illumination as well as darkness delay the opening of flowers.

Longevity

S. linifolia is reported as an annual or biennial (Clewell, 1973; Flora of Panama, 2016; PROTA, 2016), but also as a perennial (USDA-NRCS, 2016).

Environmental Requirements

Reported as a therophyte (Batalha et al., 1997). It grows in soils of low fertility including serpentine soils (Berazaín et al., 1985; Reeves et al., 2007; Flora do Brasil, 2016). It is also reported from sand, gravel, fine to medium texture soils and andosols (Gledhill, 1970; PROTA, 2016). In Colombia it is regarded as an indicator of fertile soils since it responds when soil fertility improves (Alzate et al., 2003). S. linifolia grows in sunny places (PROTA, 2016). The species can be found in altitudes of 0 to 2500 metres (PROTA, 2016; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Tolerated > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
35 47

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 10 30

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall7501500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • impeded

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile

Notes on Natural Enemies

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A new strain of the okra mosaic virus, NIN-OKMV, was identified in Nigeria affecting S. linifolia and other Malvaceae species (Igwegbe, 1983). Irenopsis molleriana is a parasitic fungus found on its leaves (Deighton, 1936).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

No disperser is known for the species; seeds are reported to have autochoric dispersal (Batalha et al., 1997).

Accidental Introduction

The plant was accidentally introduced in Pennsylvania on ship ballast residues around the Philadelphia harbour (Ruiz and Carlton, 2003).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
DisturbanceAt roadsides and ruderal areas Yes Yes PROTA, 2016
Medicinal useVarious traditional medicinal uses are reported Yes Yes PROTA, 2016

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Ship ballast water and sedimentGrowing at the remnants of ship ballast in the Philadelphia harbour at Pennsylvania, USA Yes Yes Ruiz and Carlton, 2003

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Negative
Human health Positive

Economic Impact

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S. linifolia is one of the hosts of a strain of the okra mosaic virus, NIN-OKMV, which could affect crops as the species is a weed in cultivated lands and plantations (Igwegbe, 1983).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Tolerant of shade
Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
Impact mechanisms
  • Pest and disease transmission
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally

Uses

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S. linifolia has a number of medicinal uses, including: as genital stimulants/depressants; for leg ulcers; as a post-coital contraceptive; and for cutaneous and subcutaneous parasitic infection (Nwobodo et al., 1996; PROTA, 2016; Royal Museum for Central Africa, 2016). Plants are sold in Beninese markets to combat malaria (Hermans et al., 2004). The whole plant is also used to make brooms in Gabon (PROTA, 2016). It has non-specified artisanal use in Venezuela (Calzadilla and Lárez R., 2008).

Uses List

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Materials

  • Fibre

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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S. linifolia is easily distinguished from other weedy species of Sida in Africa by its leaf shape, as it is the only species with very long narrow leaves (Viarouge et al., 1997). In Thailand, the distinctive feature compared with other Sida species is the corolla being basally dark red inside (Saensouk et al., 2016).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

A key for the identification of Sida species in western Africa was developed by Viarouge et al. (1997) to help researchers and farmers in the establishment of weed control strategies.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Information about its invasiveness and effects on habitats and biodiversity is needed. There is also little published information about the environmental requirements and biology of the species.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Alzate AM, Sánchez MN, Prager-M M, 2003. Vegetación herbácea del barbecho como indicadora de la fertilidad de un andisol (Typic Distrandept) en diferentes sistemas de manejo en el norte del Cauca., Acta Agronómica, 52(1-4):65-70

Anon, 1947. Lista de plantas e sementes para permuta., Boletim da Facultade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 5:141-145

Axelrod F, 2011. A systematic vademecum to the vascular plants of Puerto Rico. Sida Botanical Miscellany, 34:1-428. Fort Worth, TX, Botanical Research Institute of Texas

Batalha MA, Aragaki S, Mantovani W, 1997. Florística do Cerrado em Emas (Pirassununga, SP)., Boletim de Botánica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, 16:49-64

Berazaín R, Rankin R, Arias I, Gutiérrez J, 1985. Notas sobre la vegetación de serpentina en Camagüey., Revista del Jardín Botánico Nacional, 62(2):63-78

BOLDS, 2016. Kingdoms of Life being barcoded. BOLD Systems. http://www.boldsystems.org/index.php/TaxBrowser_Home

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Calzadilla JJ, Lárez-R A, 2008. Flora y vegetación de la cuenta alta del Río Aragua, Municipio Piar, Estado Monagas, Venezuela., Acta Botánica Venezuélica, 31(1):251-271

Chang Fentes S, Vilamajó Alberdi D, 2002. Zonificación ecológica económica en el noroeste de la Isla de la Juventud, Cuba., Revista del Jardín Botánico Nacional, 23(2):285-301

Chaves SAM, 2000. Estudo palinológico de coprólitos pré-históricos holocenos coletados na Toca de Boqueirao do sitio de Pedra Furada., Revista do Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia, Sao Paulo, 10:103-120

Clewell AF, 1973. Floristic composition of a stand of Pinus oocarpa in Honduras., Biotropica, 5(3):175-182

Deighton FC, 1936. Preliminary list of fungi and diseases of plants in Sierra Leone., Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew), 7:397-424

Donselaar J van, 1969. Observations on savanna vegetation-types in the Guianas., Vegetatio, 17(1):271-312

Encyclopedia of Life, 2016. Encyclopedia of Life. http://www.eol.org

EPPO, 2016. EPPO Global database (available online). Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

Fariñas J, Vásquez M, Cumana LJ, Barrios R, Leonett L, Rodríguez G, Mark D, 2011. Flórula de plantaciones de palma aceitera establecidas en el estado Monagas, Venezuela., Revista Científica UDO Agrícola, 11(1):71-82

Flora do Brasil, 2016. Brazilian Flora 2020 in construction. http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ConsultaPublicaUC.do#CondicaoTaxonCP

Flora of Panama, 2016. Flora of Panama (WFO), Tropicos website. St. Louis, MO and Cambridge, MA, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FOPWFO

Gledhill D, 1970. The vegetation of superficial ironstone hardpans in Sierra Leone., Journal of Ecology, 58(1):265-274

Hadac E, Hadacová V, 1971. The association Blechno serrulati-Acoeloraphetum Wrightii in the Retames de Guane, W, Cuba and its ecology., Folia Geobotanica & Phytotaxonomica, 6(4):369-388

Hermans M, Akoègninou A, Maesen L, Jos G van der, 2004. Medicinal plants used to treat malaria in southern Benin., Economic Botany, 58:S239-S252

Hutchinson J, 1921. A contribution to the flora of northern Nigeria. Plants collected on the Bauchi Plateau by Mr. H.V.Lely., Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew), 10:353-407

Igwegbe ECK, 1983. New strain of Okra Mosaic Virus in Nigeria., Plant Disease, 67(3):320-322

India Biodiversity Portal, 2016. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

JIRCAS, 2016. Sida linifolia Juss. ex Cav. https://www.jircas.affrc.go.jp/project/Ghana/contents/botanical_pages/sida_linifolia.html

Martínez-Quesada E, 2010. Caracterización de la flora vascular en la meseta de San Felipe, Provincia Camagüey (Cuba), para su conservación., Caldasia, 32(1):87-111

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Moreira da Costa HJ, Nippes Braganca HB, 2011. Manual de identificacao de plantas infestantes: hortifruti. Sao Paulo, Brazil: FMC Agricultural Products. 1017 pp.

Moura FBP, Duarte JMM, Lemos RPL, 2011. Floristic composition and dispersal syndromes at an urban remnant from the Atlantic forest in Brazilian Northeast., Acta Scientiarum, 33(4):471-478

NatureServe, 2016. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. Arlington, Virginia, USA: NatureServe. http://explorer.natureserve.org/index.htm

Nwobodo EO, Nwafia WC, Ezeigbo JC, Onwughalu J, 1996. The post-coital contraceptive activity of Sida linifolia., Fitoterapia, 67(4):291-293

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al., 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96.

Pérez EM, Santiago ET, 2001. Dinámica estacional del banco de semillas en una sabana en los llanos centro-orientales de Venezuela., Biotropica, 33(3):435-446

PIER, 2016. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.htm

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Distribution References

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PIER, 2016. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.htm

Porembski S, Brown G, Barthlott W, 1995. An inverted latitudinal gradient of plant diversity in shallow depressions on Ivorian inselbergs. Vegetatio. 117 (2), 151-163. DOI:10.1007/BF00045506

PROTA, 2016. PROTA4U web database., Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp

Royal Museum for Central Africa, 2016. Prelude Medicinal Plants Database., Tervuren, Belgium: Royal Museum for Central Africa. http://www.africamuseum.be/collections/external/prelude

Ruiz GM, Carlton JT, 2003. Invasive species: vectors and managements strategies., Washington, USA: Island Press. 536 pp.

Saensouk P, Saensouk S, Pasorn P, 2016. Sida linifolia (Malvaceae), a New Record for Thailand. In: Journal of Japanese Botany, 91 (5) 295-297.

Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, 2016. Smithsonian Museum of Natural History Botany Collections., Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Museum of Natural History. http://collections.nmnh.si.edu/search/botany/

USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Wildeman E de, 1919. (Additions a la Flore du Congo II). In: Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de l'Etat a Bruxelles, 5 (3) 269-364.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
EPPO Global Databasehttps://gd.eppoo.in/taxon/SIDLI
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Royal Museum of Central Africahttp://www.africamuseum.be/home

Contributors

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25/09/2016 Original text by:

Jeanine Vélez-Gavilán, University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez

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