Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pteris vittata
(Chinese ladder brake fern)

Vélez-Gavilán J, 2020. Pteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.119837.20203482711

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Datasheet

Pteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 31 July 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pteris vittata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Chinese ladder brake fern
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Pteridophyta
  •       Class: Filicopsida
  •         Order: Polypodiales
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Pteris vittata is a herbaceous fern native to the tropics and subtropics of the Old World. It is mostly found in disturbed and urban areas, usually growing on limestone substrates, including buildings walls, pavement cracks and tombs. Alt...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Pteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern); Habit. Jardin Exotique de Monaco. June 2017.
TitleHabit
CaptionPteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern); Habit. Jardin Exotique de Monaco. June 2017.
Copyright©Bernard Dupont/via Flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Pteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern); Habit. Jardin Exotique de Monaco. June 2017.
HabitPteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern); Habit. Jardin Exotique de Monaco. June 2017.©Bernard Dupont/via Flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Pteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern); Botanical Specimen. University of Helsinki Botanical Garden at Kaisaniemi. August 2012.
TitleBotanical Specimen
CaptionPteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern); Botanical Specimen. University of Helsinki Botanical Garden at Kaisaniemi. August 2012.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by Daderot/via Wikimedia Commons - CC0
Pteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern); Botanical Specimen. University of Helsinki Botanical Garden at Kaisaniemi. August 2012.
Botanical SpecimenPteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern); Botanical Specimen. University of Helsinki Botanical Garden at Kaisaniemi. August 2012.Public Domain - Released by Daderot/via Wikimedia Commons - CC0
Pteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern); Growing from wall. Tai Tam, Hong Kong. December 2018.
TitleHabit
CaptionPteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern); Growing from wall. Tai Tam, Hong Kong. December 2018.
Copyright©Cheng-Tao Lin/via inaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Pteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern); Growing from wall. Tai Tam, Hong Kong. December 2018.
HabitPteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern); Growing from wall. Tai Tam, Hong Kong. December 2018.©Cheng-Tao Lin/via inaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Pteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern); Growing between paving slabs. Napier Botanic Gardens, New Zealand. February 2018.
TitleHabit
CaptionPteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern); Growing between paving slabs. Napier Botanic Gardens, New Zealand. February 2018.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by Peter de Lange/via inaturalist - CC0
Pteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern); Growing between paving slabs. Napier Botanic Gardens, New Zealand. February 2018.
HabitPteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern); Growing between paving slabs. Napier Botanic Gardens, New Zealand. February 2018.Public Domain - Released by Peter de Lange/via inaturalist - CC0
Pteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern); Foliage. Miami, FL, USA. January 2018.
TitleFoliage
CaptionPteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern); Foliage. Miami, FL, USA. January 2018.
Copyright©Alison Northup/via inaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Pteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern); Foliage. Miami, FL, USA. January 2018.
FoliagePteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern); Foliage. Miami, FL, USA. January 2018.©Alison Northup/via inaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Pteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern); Sporangium on dorsal side of fertilised leaf. Interlachen, FL, USA. June 2020.
TitleLeaf
CaptionPteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern); Sporangium on dorsal side of fertilised leaf. Interlachen, FL, USA. June 2020.
Copyright©Laura Gaudette/via inaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Pteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern); Sporangium on dorsal side of fertilised leaf. Interlachen, FL, USA. June 2020.
LeafPteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern); Sporangium on dorsal side of fertilised leaf. Interlachen, FL, USA. June 2020.©Laura Gaudette/via inaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Pteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern); Dorsal side of unfertilised leaf. Tai Tam, Hong Kong. December 2018.
TitleLeaf
CaptionPteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern); Dorsal side of unfertilised leaf. Tai Tam, Hong Kong. December 2018.
Copyright©Cheng-Tao Lin/via inaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Pteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern); Dorsal side of unfertilised leaf. Tai Tam, Hong Kong. December 2018.
LeafPteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern); Dorsal side of unfertilised leaf. Tai Tam, Hong Kong. December 2018.©Cheng-Tao Lin/via inaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Pteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern); Close up of dorsal side of unfertilised leaf. La Estanzuela Monterrey Natural Park, Monterrey, NL, Mexico. February 2019.
TitleLeaf
CaptionPteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern); Close up of dorsal side of unfertilised leaf. La Estanzuela Monterrey Natural Park, Monterrey, NL, Mexico. February 2019.
Copyright©Adriana Nelly Correa Sandoval/via inaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Pteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern); Close up of dorsal side of unfertilised leaf. La Estanzuela Monterrey Natural Park, Monterrey, NL, Mexico. February 2019.
LeafPteris vittata (Chinese ladder brake fern); Close up of dorsal side of unfertilised leaf. La Estanzuela Monterrey Natural Park, Monterrey, NL, Mexico. February 2019.©Adriana Nelly Correa Sandoval/via inaturalist - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pteris vittata L.

Preferred Common Name

  • Chinese ladder brake fern

Other Scientific Names

  • Pteris inaequilateralis Poir.
  • Pteris costata Bory
  • Pteris diversifolia Sw.
  • Pteris ensifolia Poir.
  • Pteris microdonata Gaudin
  • Pycnodoria vittata (L.) Small

International Common Names

  • English: Chinese brake; ladder break fern
  • Spanish: filipodio cordobés; helecho; helecho de habichuela; polipodio; polipodio cordobés

Local Common Names

  • Cuba: cucaracha; helecho macho
  • Italy: pteride a foglia lunghe
  • Turkey: uzuneğrelti
  • USA: ladder brake

Summary of Invasiveness

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Pteris vittata is a herbaceous fern native to the tropics and subtropics of the Old World. It is mostly found in disturbed and urban areas, usually growing on limestone substrates, including buildings walls, pavement cracks and tombs. Although no details are available on its introduction to areas outside its native range, the dispersal of the species occurs naturally through air-borne spores or by its occasional use as an ornamental. It is reported as an urban weed in the European Mediterranean region and in Lucknow in India. In Azerbaijan it is categorized as a species that has the ability to self-sustain for a certain period of time, but not invading natural ecosystems. P. vittata is categorized in Florida, USA as an exotic species that has increased in abundance or frequency but has yet to alter natural plant communities. P. vittata is reported as invasive on Diego García Island, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Malaysia, Micronesia, Guam, Palau, USA (Florida and Hawaii), Cuba and Brazil. Although there are no data available on its effects on natural habitats or native species, it is still regarded as an invasive species due to the vast number of spores produced.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Pteridophyta
  •             Class: Filicopsida
  •                 Order: Polypodiales
  •                     Family: Pteridaceae
  •                         Genus: Pteris
  •                             Species: Pteris vittata

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Pteris is a fern genus in the Pteridaceae with about 250 species, mostly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. The genus is distinguished by the linear sori on the frond margins, usually not reaching the apices of the segments (Puspitasari et al., 2015). The epithet ‘vittata’ comes from the Latin ‘vitta’ meaning strip or band in reference to the stripes formed by the sori (NZPCN, 2019).

Description

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The following description is from Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2019):

Stems stout, short-creeping, densely scaly; scales pale brown. Fronds clustered, 1-10 dm. Petiole green to pale brown, 1-30 cm, densely scaly; scales dense proximally, extending to and along rachis. Blade oblanceolate, 1-pinnate, (15-)25-50(-80) × (6-)13-25 cm; rachis not winged. Pinnae numerous, separated proximally, closely spaced to barely overlapping distally, not remaining green through winter, not decurrent on rachis, not articulate to rachis, linear-lanceolate to linear-attenuate, simple, 2-18 cm × 4-9 mm; base asymmetrically cordate to widened or truncate; margins serrulate, prominently so near apex; apex acuminate, attenuate or acute; scales of rachis grading into uniseriate hairs on abaxial costae, or hairs absent on abaxial costae; proximal pinnae not divided or lobed. Veins free, forked. Sori narrow, blade tissue exposed abaxially.

Plant Type

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Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed / spore propagated

Distribution

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Pteris vittata is a herbaceous fern with a tropical and subtropical distribution (UF-IAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, 2019; USDA-ARS, 2019). Most references list it as being native to Asia, Africa, parts of Oceania (PIER, 2018; Euro+Med, 2019; I3N-Brasil, 2019; PROTA, 2019) and the south of Europe (USDA-ARS, 2019). According to Robinson (2009) the species range will likely expand into mid- to northern Europe as winters get milder due to climate change. P. vittata has been reported in Africa, Asia, North America, Central America, the Caribbean, South America, Europe and Oceania (Guala et al., 2002; PIER, 2018, Euro+Med, 2019; Flora do Brasil, 2019; I3N-Brasil, 2019; India Biodiversity Portal, 2019; Instituto de Botánica Darwinion, 2019; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2019; NZPCN, 2019; PROTA, 2019; Shaheen et al., 2019; USDA-ARS, 2019).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Jul 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentNative
AngolaPresentNative
BurundiPresentNative
Cabo VerdePresentNative
CameroonPresentNative
ComorosPresentNative
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentNative
EgyptPresentNative
EritreaPresentNative
EthiopiaPresentNative
GhanaPresentNative
KenyaPresentNative
LesothoPresentNative
LibyaPresentNative
MadagascarPresentNative
MalawiPresentNative
MauritiusPresentNative
MayottePresent
MoroccoPresentNative
MozambiquePresentNative
NamibiaPresentNative
RéunionPresentNative
SeychellesPresentIntroduced
SomaliaPresentNative
South AfricaPresentIntroduced
SudanPresentNative
TanzaniaPresentNative
TunisiaPresentNative
UgandaPresentNative
ZambiaPresentNative
ZimbabwePresentNative

Asia

ArmeniaPresentIntroduced
AzerbaijanPresentIntroduced
British Indian Ocean TerritoryPresentIntroducedInvasiveDiego Garcia
BruneiPresentIntroducedInvasive
CambodiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
ChinaPresentNative
-AnhuiPresentNative
-FujianPresentNative
-GansuPresentNative
-GuangdongPresentNative
-GuangxiPresentNative
-GuizhouPresentNative
-HenanPresentNative
-HubeiPresentNative
-HunanPresentNative
-JiangxiPresentNative
-ShaanxiPresentNative
-SichuanPresentNative
-XinjiangPresentNative
-YunnanPresentNative
-ZhejiangPresentNative
GeorgiaPresentIntroduced
Hong KongPresentNative
IndiaPresent
-AssamPresentNative
-KeralaPresentNative
-MeghalayaPresentNative
-PunjabPresentNative
-Uttar PradeshPresentIntroducedInvasiveA noxious weed in Lucknow
-UttarakhandPresentNative
IranPresentNative
IsraelPresentNative
JapanPresentNative
-HonshuPresentNative
-KyushuPresentNative
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentNative
-ShikokuPresentNative
JordanPresentNative
LaosPresent
LebanonPresentNative
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
NepalPresentNative
PakistanPresentIntroduced
PhilippinesPresentNative
SingaporePresentOrigin uncertain
Sri LankaPresentNative
SyriaPresentNative
TaiwanPresentNative
ThailandPresentNative
TurkeyPresentNative
VietnamPresentIntroduced
YemenPresentNative

Europe

CyprusPresentNative
FrancePresentIntroducedNaturalized
GreecePresentNative
HungaryPresentIntroduced
ItalyPresentNative
MaltaPresentIntroduced
MonacoPresentIntroducedNaturalized
MontenegroPresentIntroduced
PortugalPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-AzoresPresentIntroduced
-MadeiraPresentIntroduced
SpainPresentNative
-Balearic IslandsPresentNative
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroduced
SwitzerlandPresentIntroduced
United KingdomPresentIntroducedAdventitious

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroduced
BahamasPresentIntroduced
BarbadosPresentIntroduced1898
BermudaPresentIntroduced1900At a hotel
Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba
-SabaPresentIntroduced
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroduced
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasive
DominicaPresentIntroduced1903
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced1913
GrenadaPresentIntroduced
GuadeloupePresentIntroduced
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedHuehuetenango
HaitiPresentIntroduced
HondurasPresentIntroduced
MartiniquePresentIntroduced1879
MexicoPresentIntroducedOaxaca, Yucatan, Puebla
MontserratPresentIntroduced
Netherlands AntillesPresentIntroducedSaba
PanamaPresentIntroduced1926
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentIntroduced
Saint LuciaPresentIntroduced
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroduced
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced1913St. Croix, St. John, St. Thomas
United StatesPresentIntroduced
-AlabamaPresentIntroduced
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced
-District of ColumbiaPresentIntroduced1942On brick foundation of house
-FloridaPresentIntroducedInvasiveFirst reported in 1929
-GeorgiaPresentIntroduced
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced1922InvasiveHawaii, Kauai, Lanai, Maui, Molokai, Oahu Islands. Listed as common in cultivation which often runs wild
-LouisianaPresentIntroduced
-MississippiPresentIntroduced
-South CarolinaPresentIntroduced1968
-TexasPresentIntroduced1987

Oceania

AustraliaPresentNative
-New South WalesPresentNative
-QueenslandPresentNative
-VictoriaPresentNative
-Western AustraliaPresentNative
Christmas IslandPresentNative
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroduced
-KosraePresentIntroducedInvasive
-PohnpeiPresentIntroducedInvasive
-YapPresentIntroduced
GuamPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated
New ZealandPresent
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedNaturalized
PalauPresentIntroduced
Papua New GuineaPresentNative
TongaPresent
U.S. Minor Outlying IslandsPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroduced1929Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chaco, Cordoba, Corrientes, Distrito Federal, Entre Rios, Jujuy, Misiones, Salta, Santa Fe, Tucuman
BrazilPresentIntroducedInvasive
-AcrePresentIntroduced
-AlagoasPresentIntroduced
-AmazonasPresentIntroduced
-BahiaPresentIntroduced
-Distrito FederalPresentIntroduced
-Espirito SantoPresentIntroduced
-GoiasPresentIntroduced
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentIntroduced
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroduced
-ParaPresentIntroduced
-ParanaPresentIntroduced
-PernambucoPresentIntroduced
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroduced1902
-Rio Grande do SulPresentIntroduced
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroduced
-Sao PauloPresentIntroduced
-SergipePresentIntroduced
-TocantinsPresentIntroduced
ColombiaPresentIntroducedAntioquia, Valle del Cauca
PeruPresentIntroduced
SurinamePresentIntroduced
UruguayPresentIntroducedMontevideo, Paysandu, Salto
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedFalcon, Lara, Nueva Esparta

History of Introduction and Spread

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There are no details about the introduction of P. vittata to areas outside its native range. The species is reported as having escaped from cultivation in the United States with no further details (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2019). It has been present in the Caribbean since the late 1800s and on continental America since the early 1900s (Knappen, 1929; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2019; New York Botanical Garden, 2019).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
USA 1929 Horticulture (pathway cause) No No Knappen (1929) Possibly introduced as an ornamental
Panama 1926 No No Missouri Botanical Garden (2019)
Argentina 1929 No No Missouri Botanical Garden (2019)
Brazil 1902 No No Missouri Botanical Garden (2019)
Barbados 1898 No No New York Botanical Garden (2019)
Bermuda 1900 Horticulture (pathway cause) No No New York Botanical Garden (2019) Possibly introduced as an ornamental as reported from a hotel
Dominica 1903 No No New York Botanical Garden (2019)
Dominican Republic 1913 No No New York Botanical Garden (2019)
Martinique 1879 No No New York Botanical Garden (2019)
Panama 1926 No No New York Botanical Garden (2019)
United States Virgin Islands 1913 No No New York Botanical Garden (2019)

Risk of Introduction

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Pteris vittata is a herbaceous fern with a medium risk of introduction. Although P. vittata has been reported as an ornamental species (PIER, 2018; Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2019), it is not available at nurseries or on internet sites. The species is mostly confined to urban areas or disturbed sites where it colonizes calcareous substrates, including walls, pavement cracks and tombs (Boza et al., 2008; Robinson, 2009; I3N-Brasil, 2019).The risk of introduction of P. vittata could increase due to its use in the bioremediation of areas contaminated with arsenic (Muthukumar et al., 2013; UF-IAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, 2019).

Habitat

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Pteris vittata is a herbaceous terrestrial or epiphytic fern reported from sea level to elevations of about 2000 m in tropical and subtropical areas (Irving, 1943; World Flora Online, 2019). It is reported as growing at sides of canals, along streams, banks, road cuttings, forest margins, shaded rock crevices, bases of limestone boulders and exposed areas of pinelands (PIER, 2018; Flora do Brasil, 2019; Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2019; I3N-Brasil, 2019; India Biodiversity Portal, 2019; World Flora Online, 2019). It is also regarded as an ‘urban weed’ growing in cemeteries, walls, pavement crevices, stairs and buildings (Ransier, 1929; Pérez, 2009; I3N-Brasil, 2019; India Biodiversity Portal, 2019).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedBuildings Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedBuildings Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

According to Srivastava et al. (2007)P. vittata is a species complex with five cytotypes, i.e. diploid, triploid, tetraploid, pentaploid and hexaploid with only the tetraploid cytotype being abundant in natural habitats. The chromosome numbers reported for the tetraploid are n = 58 and 2n = 116 (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2019; PROTA, 2019). Spore accessions are stored in the Germplasm Bank of the University of Valencia (Ballesteros et al., 2012).

P. vittata and P. bahamensis produce a hybrid, P. x delchampsii, found in Florida and the Bahamas (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2019). The gametophytes of P. vittata hyperaccumulate arsenic in a similar manner to that observed in the sporophyte; Gumaelius et al. (2004) suggest the fast-growing gametophyte is potentially an ideal system for genetic studies into arsenic hyperaccumulation compared with the slow-growing sporophyte stage.

Reproductive Biology

Pteris vittata reproduces by spores, which retain a high viability after storage for several months (Yang et al., 2010). The spores have been reported as having 54% germination success after three years of storage at 25°C (Ballesteros et al., 2012). According to UF/IFAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants (2019) the survival of the spores is low, when compared to the vast number of spores produced.

Physiology and Phenology

The spores of P. vittata are reported as being able to survive hot water. The gametophytes need light to grow and the sporophyte grows best in 40% shade (Yang et al., 2010).

Longevity

Pteris vittata is reported as a fast-growing perennial fern (Gumaelius et al., 2004).

Environmental Requirements

Pteris vittata is a herbaceous fern that will grow either as a terrestrial or epiphytic species (World Flora Online, 2019). It tolerates dry conditions but grows best in moist to seasonally moist substrates (PIER, 2018; World Flora Online, 2019). P. vittata prefers full sun but will grow in shaded areas (Irving, 1943; Yang et al., 2010; PIER, 2018) and on exposed limestone soils and on rocks (Irving, 1943; Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2019). P. vittata can grow in sandy soils and prefers fertile substrates (Yang et al., 2010). It is reported as not edaphically bound (World Flora Online, 2019). There is no information on its temperature requirements (PIER, 2018; Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2019).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
39 40

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 10 35

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall475 4500 mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Bimodal
Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil texture

  • light

Notes on Natural Enemies

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The beetle, Schenklingia bhaumiki is reported as feeding on the fronds of P. vittata in India (Patra and Bera, 2007).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

The spores of P. vittata can be easily transported via wind and possibly by water (UF-IAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, 2019).

Accidental Introduction

The spores of P. vittata can be accidentally transported on clothing, so contamination is a constant threat (UF-IAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, 2019).

Intentional Introduction

Although not normally sold in nurseries, P. vittata is reported as an ornamental species that has escaped from cultivation (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2019).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Botanical gardens and zoosPresent in collections of various botanical gardens Yes Yes Ballesteros et al. (2012); New York Botanical Garden (2019)
Breeding and propagationPossibly for use as an ornamental Yes Yes
DisturbancePresent at disturbed sites, urban areas and cleared areas Yes PIER (2018); I3N-Brasil (2019); Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2019)
Escape from confinement or garden escapeEscaped from cultivation Yes Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2019)
Garden waste disposalPossible, as it is recorded as an ornamental that has escaped from cultivation Yes Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2019)
Habitat restoration and improvementUsed to restore areas contaminated with arsenic Yes Yes Chen et al. (2002); Rathinasabapathi et al. (2007)
HitchhikerSpores can be transported via clothing and equipment Yes UF-IFAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants (2019)
HorticultureAs an ornamental Yes Yes Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2019)
Interconnected waterwaysSpores reported as possibly transported via water Yes UF-IFAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants (2019)
Off-site preservation Present in collections of various botanical gardens Yes Yes Ballesteros et al. (2012); New York Botanical Garden (2019)
Ornamental purposesRecorded as escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2019)

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsSpores can be transported via clothing and equipment Yes UF/IFAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants (2019)
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesPossible, as it grows in urban areas and it is reported as an ornamental species Yes UF/IFAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants (2019)
GermplasmPresent in collections of various botanical gardens Yes Yes Ballesteros et al. (2012); New York Botanical Garden (2019)
Soil, sand and gravelPossible, as it is reported as an ornamental Yes Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2019)
Land vehiclesSpores can be transported via clothing and equipment Yes UF/IFAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants (2019)
WaterPossibly dispersed by water Yes UF/IFAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants (2019)
WindSpores are easily transported by wind Yes Yes UF/IFAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants (2019)

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive and negative
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Negative

Environmental Impact

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Although P. vittata is reported as an invasive species, no details are given of the impact of the species to habitats (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; Cabrera et al., 2016; PIER, 2018; I3N-Brasil, 2019; UF-IAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, 2019). Most of its impact is in urban areas as it grows in crevices of various structures and pavements (Boza et al., 2008; Robinson, 2009; I3N-Brasil, 2019). In India, P. vittata has spread all over Lucknow and has established itself as a noxious weed (Singh and Khare, 2017). According to Singh and Prem (2020), P. vittata can colonize an area from spores in 3-4 months.

Impact: Biodiversity

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No information of the species impact on the biodiversity is available for P. vittata. The species is reported as not altering natural plant communities in Florida, USA (Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2019).

Social Impact

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Pteris vittata grows on walls and old masonry, which is a threat to historical buildings (Pérez, 2009). Burg et al. (2012) report that the spores can cause allergies and that spore extracts are damaging to human DNA; no further details are given.

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Infrastructure damage
  • Negatively impacts human health
Impact mechanisms
  • Causes allergic responses
  • Hybridization
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Economic Value

Pteris vittata is being considered for use in the treatment of soils contaminated with arsenic, a highly toxic heavy metal found in some herbicides and insecticides (UF-IAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, 2019). Muthukumar et al. (2013) reported a 52% reduction in arsenic content in rice grains and an increased crop yield in rice fields bioremediated with P. vittata.

Social Benefit

Rathinasabapathi (2006) has suggested using P. vittata as a model for the study of arsenic uptake, translocation, speciation, distribution and detoxification in plants. According to Xie et al. (2010) the species is a good resource for the observation of meiosis. Extracts from P. vittata have shown activity against the gastrointestinal pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae (Singh et al., 2008).

Environmental Services

Pteris vittata is recognized for the use of both the sporophytes and gametophytes in the phytoremediation of areas contaminated with arsenic (Chen et al., 2002; Rathinasabapathi et al., 2007). Rathinasabapathi et al. (2007) also observed that the accumulation of arsenic in the fronds of P. vittata deters herbivory by the grasshopper Schistocerca americana. P. vittata is also able to accumulate cadmium (Balestri et al., 2014), copper, nickel and zinc (Sarma, 2011).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo
  • Research model
  • Sociocultural value

Ornamental

  • garden plant

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Pteris vittata can be confused with Blechnum serrulatum. Both species can be differentiated by the arrangement of the sori. The sori of P. vittata form lines along the edge of each pinna, whereas the sori of B. serrulatum form lines along the midrib of each pinna (UF-IAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, 2019). P. vittata is also similar to P. bahamensis as both have 1-2-pinnate fronds with free veins. The petiole and rachis in P. vittata are densely covered when young with light brown scales while in P. bahamensis they are sparsely scaly with dark brown-black scales. The sori in P. vittata are narrow, while in P. bahamensis the sori are broad, with little or no frond tissue being exposed (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2019). P. vittata can also be confused with P. cretica. However, P. vittata has pinnae which decrease in length from the apex to the frond base and also longer terminal pinnae (NZPCN, 2019).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures

The spores of P. vittata can be easily transported via clothing, wind and possibly water, so contamination is a constant threat. Control measures should be employed, such as prevention of workers travelling to other sites in the same day and not driving equipment through the fern foliage (UF-IAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, 2019).

Physical/Mechanical Control

Mowing or pulling the leaves of P. vittata is recommended as a control measure (UF-IAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, 2019).

Biological Control

There is limited information available on the biological control of P. vittata. Open areas that have been cleared, mowed or burned are susceptible to P. vittata infestation. Maintaining ecosystems with good species diversity will help to prevent the establishment of P. vittata (UF-IAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, 2019).

Chemical Control

There is limited information available on the chemical control of P. vittata. A 2-3% solution of glyphosate is recommended. Triclopyr (0.5-2% solution plus surfactant at 0.25%) is also used (UF-IAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, 2019).

References

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Balestri, M., Ceccarini, A., Forino, L. M. C., Zelko, I., Martinka, M., Lux, A., Castiglione, M. R., 2014. Cadmium uptake, localization and stress-induced morphogenic response in the fern Pteris vittata. Planta, 239(5), 1055-1064. doi: 10.1007/s00425-014-2036-z

Ballesteros, D., Estrelles, E., Walters, C., Ibars, A. M., 2012. Effects of temperature and desiccation on ex situ conservation of nongreen fern spores. American Journal of Botany, 99(4), 721-729. doi: 10.3732/ajb.1100257

Biplab Patra, Subir Bera, 2007. Herbivore damage to ferns caused by a chrysomelid beetle from Lower Gangetic Plains of West Bengal, India. American Fern Journal, 97(1), 19-29. doi: 10.1640/0002-8444(2007)97[19:HDTFCB]2.0.CO;2

Boza HS, Sorí DA, Pérez AC , 2008. (Las plantas y el deterioro de edificaciones no patrimoniales del Centro Histórico de la Habana Vieja). Revista del Jardín Botánico Nacional, 29, 145-150.

Burg, W. J. van der, Freitas, J. de, Debrot, A. O., Lotz, L. A. P., 2012. Naturalised and invasive alien plant species in the Caribbean Netherlands: status distribution, threats, priorities and recommendations. Report of a joint IMARES/CARMABI/PRI project. In: Naturalised and invasive alien plant species in the Caribbean Netherlands: status distribution, threats, priorities and recommendations. Report of a joint IMARES/CARMABI/PRI project . Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Research International.82 pp. http://www.ciasnet.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/C185-11%20Invasive%20plants%20Dutch%20Caribbean.pdf

Cabrera E , Vigil JLB , Hernández EG, Márquez RP, 2016. Exotic invasive or potentially invasive plants in the Soroa Orchid Botanical Garden, Cuba. (Plantas exóticas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en el Jardín Botánico Orquideario Soroa, Cuba). Revista del Jardín Botánico Nacional, 37, 115-119.

Chen T, Wei C, Huang Z, Huang Q, Lu Q , Fan Z, 2002. Arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. and its arsenic accumulation. Chinese Science Bulletin, 47, 902-905.

Euro+Med, 2019. Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. In: Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity . http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed

Flora do Brasil, 2019. Brazilian flora 2020. In: Brazilian flora 2020 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden.http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2019. Flora of North America North of Mexico. In: Flora of North America North of Mexico St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1

Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2019. Florida EPPC's 2019 list of invasive plant species. In: Florida EPPC's 2019 list of invasive plant species Tifton, Georgia, USA: Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health.https://www.fleppc.org/list/list.htm

Guala, G. F., Burton, F. J., Proctor, G. R., Clifford, S. P., 2002. Additions to the flora of the Cayman Islands. Kew Bulletin, 57(1), 235-237. doi: 10.2307/4110840

Gumaelius, L., Lahner, B., Salt, D. E., Banks, J. A., 2004. Arsenic hyperaccumulation in gametophytes of Pteris vittata. A new model system for analysis of arsenic hyperaccumulation. Plant Physiology, 136(2), 3198-3208. doi: 10.1104/pp.104.044073

Hemen Sarma, 2011. Metal hyperaccumulation in plants: a review focusing on phytoremediation technology. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 4(2), 118-138. http://scialert.net/fulltext/?doi=jest.2011.118.138&org=11

I3N-Brasil, 2019. I3N Brazil invasive alien species database. In: I3N Brazil invasive alien species database Florianópolis - SC, Brazil: Horus Institute for Environmental Conservation and Development.http://bd.institutohorus.org.br/www/

India Biodiversity Portal, 2019. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity . http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Instituto de Botánica Darwinion, 2019. Flora of the Southern Cone. (Flora del Conosur). In: Flora del Conosur San Isidro, Argentina: Instituto de Botánica Darwinion.http://www.darwin.edu.ar/Proyectos/FloraArgentina/BuscarEspecies.asp

Irving, FN, 1943. Pteris vittata Hardy in Washington, D. C. American Fern Journal, 33(1), 28.

Knappen, NC, 1929. Round about Florida for ferns. American Fern Journal, 19(4), 113-119.

Meenakshi Singh, Raghavan Govindarajan, Rawat, A. K. S., Khare, P. B., 2008. Antimicrobial flavonoid rutin from Pteris vittata L. against pathogenic gastrointestinal microflora. American Fern Journal, 98(2), 98-103. doi: 10.1640/0002-8444(2008)98[98:AFRFPV]2.0.CO;2

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2019. Tropicos database. In: Tropicos database St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org/

Muthukumar, B., Joyce, B. L., Elless, M. P., Stewart, C. N., Jr., 2013. Stable transformation of ferns using spores as targets: Pteris vittata and Ceratopteris thalictroides. Plant Physiology, 163(2), 648-658. doi: 10.1104/pp.113.224675

New York Botanical Garden, 2019. The C.V. Starr Virtual Herbarium. In: The C. Starr Virtual Herbarium New York, USA: New York Botanical Garden.http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/vh/

NZPCN, 2019. New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. In: New Zealand Plant Conservation Network Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Plant Conservation Network.http://www.nzpcn.org.nz/

Oviedo Prieto, R., Herrera Oliver, P., Caluff, M. G., et al., 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

Pérez AC, 2009. (Plantas epilíticas deteriorantes de la Fortaleza San Carlos de la Cabaña). Revista del Jardín Botánico Nacional, 30/31, 219-222.

PIER, 2018. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

PROTA, 2019. PROTA4U web database. In: PROTA4U web database Wageningen and Nairobi, Netherlands\Kenya: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.https://www.prota4u.org/database/

Puspitasari DS, Chikmawati T, Praptosuwiryo TN, 2015. Gametophyte morphology and development of six species of Pteris (Pteridaceae) from Java Island Indonesia. Journal of Tropical Life Science, 5(2), 98-104.

Ransier HE, 1929. The cemetery ferns of New Orleans. American Fern Journal, 19(4), 126-129.

Rathinasabapathi B, 2006. Ferns represent an untapped biodiversity for improving crops for environmental stress tolerance. New Phytologist, 172(3), 385-390.

Rathinasabapathi, B., Rangasamy, M., Froeba, J., Cherry, R. H., McAuslane, H. J., Capinera, J. L., Srivastava, M., Ma, L. Q., 2007. Arsenic hyperaccumulation in the Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata) deters grasshopper (Schistocerca americana) herbivory. New Phytologist, 175(2), 363-369. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2007.02099.x

Robinson RC, 2009. Invasive and problem ferns: a European perspective. International Urban Ecology Review, (4), 83-91.

Shaheen, H, Batool, A, Gillani, SF, ul Islam Dar, ME , Habib, T , Aziz, S, 2019. Diversity and distribution of invasive plant species in suburban vegetation of Kashmir Himalayas. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 28(4), 2823-2833.

Singh VJ, Prem K, 2020. Studies on the establishment of a population of Pteris vittata Linn. National Academy Science Letters, 43(1), 103-107.

Singh, V. J., Khare, P. B., 2017. Pteris vittata Linn. become noxious weed in Lucknow and nearby areas. Phytomorphology, 67(3/4), 85-89. http://www.ispm.co.in/6734/3.html

Srivastava J, Ranade SA, Khare PB, 2007. Distribution and threat status of the cytotypes of Pteris vittata L. (Pteridaceae) species complex in India. Current Science, 93(1), 81-85.

UF-IAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, 2019. Plant directory. Gainesville, Florida, USA: University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/plant-directory/

USDA-ARS, 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

World Flora Online, 2019. World Flora Online. In: World Flora Online : World Flora Online Consortium.www.worldfloraonline.org

Xie JinMei, Li Hong, Guo HongJuan, Wang RenXiang, 2010. Pteris vittata, a good material for observation of meiosis. Journal of Biology, 27(5), 96...99. http://www.swxzz.com

Yang DongMei, Wang FaGuo, Xing FuWu, 2010. Studies on sexual reproductive characteristics of Pteris vittata L. in soil culture. American Fern Journal, 100(4), 219-229. doi: 10.1640/0002-8444-100.4.219

Distribution References

Burg W J van der, Freitas J de, Debrot A O, Lotz L A P, 2012. Naturalised and invasive alien plant species in the Caribbean Netherlands: status distribution, threats, priorities and recommendations. Report of a joint IMARES/CARMABI/PRI project. In: Naturalised and invasive alien plant species in the Caribbean Netherlands: status distribution, threats, priorities and recommendations. Report of a joint IMARES/CARMABI/PRI project. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Research International. 82 pp. http://www.ciasnet.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/C185-11%20Invasive%20plants%20Dutch%20Caribbean.pdf

Chong KY, Yeo DCJ, Tan HTW, Lim KKP, Tan HH, Tan KS, Lian JW, Pagad S, 2020. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species- Singapore. Version 1.1., Invasive Species Specialist Group ISSG. https://www.gbif.org/dataset/7b6661a3-5bbd-4dbb-b3e4-0c26df341977

Euro+Med, 2019. Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. In: Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed

Flora do Brasil, 2019. Brazilian flora 2020. In: Brazilian flora 2020. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Guala G F, Burton F J, Proctor G R, Clifford S P, 2002. Additions to the flora of the Cayman Islands. Kew Bulletin. 57 (1), 235-237. DOI:10.2307/4110840

I3N-Brasil, 2019. I3N Brazil invasive alien species database. In: I3N Brazil invasive alien species database. Florianópolis - SC, Brazil: Horus Institute for Environmental Conservation and Development. http://bd.institutohorus.org.br/www/

India Biodiversity Portal, 2019. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Instituto de Botánica Darwinion, 2019. Flora of the Southern Cone. (Flora del Conosur.). In: Flora del Conosur. San Isidro, Argentina: Instituto de Botánica Darwinion. http://www.darwin.edu.ar/Proyectos/FloraArgentina/BuscarEspecies.asp

Irving FN, 1943. Pteris vittata Hardy in Washington, D. C. American Fern Journal. 33 (1), 28.

Knappen NC, 1929. Round about Florida for ferns. American Fern Journal. 19 (4), 113-119.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2019. Tropicos database. In: Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Morales NE, 2018. Pteridophytes and lycophytes assessment in the University of Mindanao, Matina Campus, Davao City Philippines. University of Mindanao International Multidisciplinary Research Journal. 3 (1), article no 6. http://journal.umindanao.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Pteridophytes-and-Lycophytes-Assessment-in-the-University-of-Mindanao.pdf

New York Botanical Garden, 2019. The C.V. Starr Virtual Herbarium. In: The C. Starr Virtual Herbarium. New York, USA: New York Botanical Garden. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/vh/

NZPCN, 2019. New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. In: New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. http://www.nzpcn.org.nz/

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

PIER, 2018. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Raulerson L, Rinehart A, 1989. Vegetation of American Memorial Park Saipan, Mariana Islands. Technical Report 70., Manoa, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii at Manoa National Park Service. ii + 42 pp.

Shaheen H, Batool A, Gillani SF, ul Islam Dar ME , Habib T , Aziz S, 2019. Diversity and distribution of invasive plant species in suburban vegetation of Kashmir Himalayas. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies. 28 (4), 2823-2833.

Singh V J, Khare P B, 2017. Pteris vittata Linn. become noxious weed in Lucknow and nearby areas. Phytomorphology. 67 (3/4), 85-89. http://www.ispm.co.in/6734/3.html

Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, 2019. Smithsonian Museum of Natural History Botany Collections. In: Smithsonian Museum of Natural History Botany Collections. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Museum of Natural History. http://collections.nmnh.si.edu/search/botany/

Stanford JW, Diggs Jr GM, 1998. Pteris vittata (Pteridaceae), a new fern for Texas. SIDA Contributions to Botany. 359-360.

UF-IAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, 2019. Plant directory., Gainesville, Florida, USA: University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/plant-directory/

USDA-ARS, 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Scienceshttps://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/plant-directory/pteris-tripartita/
Euro+Med PlantBasehttp://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed
Flora del Conosurhttp://www2.darwin.edu.ar/Proyectos/FloraArgentina/BuscarEspecies.asp
Flora of South Africahttps://www.sanbi.org/biodiversity/foundations/biosystematics-collections/e-flora/
Florida Exotic Pest Plant Councilhttps://www.fleppc.org/list/list.htm
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
India Biodiversity Portalhttp://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list
Inter-American Biodiversity Information Networkhttp://bd.institutohorus.org.br/www/?p=b387bjFqO2xveh1GFkYZE0YWEw1bBRETQhJRDFtZfzI1aihwIn03JXN1InskeTJfXEoAWwtRRw%3D%3D&view_style=full
National Museum of Natural Historyhttp://naturalhistory.si.edu/
New York Botanical Garden databasehttp://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/vh/
New Zealand Plant Conservation Networkhttp://www.nzpcn.org.nz/default.aspx

Contributors

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03/01/2020 Original text by:

Jeanine Vélez-Gavilán, University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez, Puerto Rico

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