Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pteris tripartita
(giant brake)

Vélez-Gavilán J, 2019. Pteris tripartita (giant brake). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.119836.20203483123

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Pteris tripartita (giant brake)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 12 August 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pteris tripartita
  • Preferred Common Name
  • giant brake
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Pteridophyta
  •       Class: Filicopsida
  •         Order: Polypodiales
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Pteris tripartita is a terrestrial fern native to the tropics of the Old Word, introduced to the New World as an ornamental, with records of its being sold in nurseries in Florida (USA) in the 19th century. It is naturalized at...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Pteris tripartita (giant brake); Invasive Habit. Oakland, FL, USA. February 2019.
TitleInvasive Habit
CaptionPteris tripartita (giant brake); Invasive Habit. Oakland, FL, USA. February 2019.
Copyright©Evan Asbrock/via inaturalist - CC BY-NC 4.0
Pteris tripartita (giant brake); Invasive Habit. Oakland, FL, USA. February 2019.
Invasive HabitPteris tripartita (giant brake); Invasive Habit. Oakland, FL, USA. February 2019.©Evan Asbrock/via inaturalist - CC BY-NC 4.0
Pteris tripartita (giant brake); Habit. Mareeba QLD 4880, Australia. May 2010.
TitleHabit
CaptionPteris tripartita (giant brake); Habit. Mareeba QLD 4880, Australia. May 2010.
Copyright©coenobita/via inaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Pteris tripartita (giant brake); Habit. Mareeba QLD 4880, Australia. May 2010.
HabitPteris tripartita (giant brake); Habit. Mareeba QLD 4880, Australia. May 2010.©coenobita/via inaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Pteris tripartita (giant brake); Habit.  Sebring, FL 33872, USA. June 2020.
TitleHabit
CaptionPteris tripartita (giant brake); Habit. Sebring, FL 33872, USA. June 2020.
Copyright©Jay Horn/via inaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Pteris tripartita (giant brake); Habit.  Sebring, FL 33872, USA. June 2020.
HabitPteris tripartita (giant brake); Habit. Sebring, FL 33872, USA. June 2020.©Jay Horn/via inaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Pteris tripartita (giant brake); Habit. Oakland, FL, USA. November 2019.
TitleHabit
CaptionPteris tripartita (giant brake); Habit. Oakland, FL, USA. November 2019.
Copyright©alangrandiflora/via inaturalist - CC BY-NC 4.0
Pteris tripartita (giant brake); Habit. Oakland, FL, USA. November 2019.
HabitPteris tripartita (giant brake); Habit. Oakland, FL, USA. November 2019.©alangrandiflora/via inaturalist - CC BY-NC 4.0
Pteris tripartita (giant brake); Underside of leaf. Yigo, Guam. December 2017.
TitleLeaf
CaptionPteris tripartita (giant brake); Underside of leaf. Yigo, Guam. December 2017.
Copyright©mkargul/via inaturalist - CC BY-NC 4.0
Pteris tripartita (giant brake); Underside of leaf. Yigo, Guam. December 2017.
LeafPteris tripartita (giant brake); Underside of leaf. Yigo, Guam. December 2017.©mkargul/via inaturalist - CC BY-NC 4.0
Pteris tripartita (giant brake); Sporangium on underside of fertile leaf. Edgewater Beach, Killarney, Florida. August 2014.
TitleLeaf
CaptionPteris tripartita (giant brake); Sporangium on underside of fertile leaf. Edgewater Beach, Killarney, Florida. August 2014.
Copyright©Mary Keim/via Flickr - CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
Pteris tripartita (giant brake); Sporangium on underside of fertile leaf. Edgewater Beach, Killarney, Florida. August 2014.
LeafPteris tripartita (giant brake); Sporangium on underside of fertile leaf. Edgewater Beach, Killarney, Florida. August 2014.©Mary Keim/via Flickr - CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
Pteris tripartita (giant brake); The curled shoot (crozier) of a young fern. Johor, Malaysia. January 2020.
TitleShoot
CaptionPteris tripartita (giant brake); The curled shoot (crozier) of a young fern. Johor, Malaysia. January 2020.
Copyright©kwanhan/via inaturalist - CC BY-NC 4.0
Pteris tripartita (giant brake); The curled shoot (crozier) of a young fern. Johor, Malaysia. January 2020.
ShootPteris tripartita (giant brake); The curled shoot (crozier) of a young fern. Johor, Malaysia. January 2020.©kwanhan/via inaturalist - CC BY-NC 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pteris tripartita Sw.

Preferred Common Name

  • giant brake

Other Scientific Names

  • Litobrachia marginata (Bory) C.Presl
  • Litobrachia tripartita (Sw.) C.Presl
  • Pteris marginata Bory

Local Common Names

  • China: san cha feng wei jue
  • Cook Islands: are rupe; giant brake-fern; trisect brake; trisect brake-fern
  • Cuba: helecho chino
  • French Polynesia: fare rupe
  • Micronesia: denge-tolo; heridori-warabi; peipei eni; pwc
  • Papua New Guinea: kobti agal
  • USA: Florida tree fern; giant bracken; giant brake fern; trisect brake fern

Summary of Invasiveness

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Pteris tripartita is a terrestrial fern native to the tropics of the Old Word, introduced to the New World as an ornamental, with records of its being sold in nurseries in Florida (USA) in the 19th century. It is naturalized at scattered localities from Florida to northern South America, including the Caribbean. It is reported as invasive in Cuba and the south of Florida, USA. Its invasiveness in Cuba is due to its high reproductive capacity and its spread into secondary vegetation and cultivated lands in the eastern part of the country. In southern Florida, it is considered as a moderately invasive species, recorded as escaping cultivation in 1928. It is invasive in floodplain wetlands, basin wetlands and mesic uplands, displacing native species. It is not reported as invasive in its native range. It is regarded as a critically endangered species in India.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Pteridophyta
  •             Class: Filicopsida
  •                 Order: Polypodiales
  •                     Family: Pteridaceae
  •                         Genus: Pteris
  •                             Species: Pteris tripartita

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Pteris is a fern genus in the Pteridaceae with about 250 species, mostly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. The genus is distinguished by the linear sori on the leaf margins, usually not reaching the apices of segments (Puspitasari et al., 2015). The epithet ‘tripartita’ refers to the three-part ramification of the leaves.

Description

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The following description is from Proctor (1989):

Rhizome short, erect, bearing at apex small, irregularly-shaped, thin, light brown, somewhat clathrate scales mostly 2-3 mm long. Fronds few, erect-spreading, up to 2.5 m long or more; stipes about as long as blades, stout (up to 1 cm diameter or more), yellowish-brown, deeply grooved adaxially, naked except for a few small scales near extreme base. Blades broadly deltate-ovate, tripartite, glabrate, up to 1.5 m long and broad; rachis yellowish brown or straw-coloured, glabrous except for minute puberulence sometimes present in the axils of the basal pinnae; basal pinnae opposite, long-stalked, pinnate-pinnatid and strongly inequilateral, the basiscopic pinnules 2- to 3-times longer than the acroscopic ones, each basal pinna nearly as large as the terminal (central) division of the blade; terminal division pinnate-pinnatid, the pinnae subopposite, linear to lance-linear, 5-15(-20) cm long, nearly sessile, acuminate-subcaudate at apex, not narrowed at base; segments oblong to linear-oblong, mostly 5-12 mm long and up to 4 mm wide, rounded at the minutely crenulate tips, separated by rounded sinuses and joined at base by a costal 1.5-3 mm wide on either side; veins regularly reticulate, ultimately giving rise to free veinlets reaching the margins; tissue rather thinly herbaceous. Indusium greenish, opaque, 0.3-0.4 mm wide, the margin entire.

The species can grow up to 2 metres tall (National Parks Board, 2019)

Plant Type

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Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Perennial

Distribution

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Pteris tripartita is a herbaceous fern native to tropical areas in Africa, Asia and Oceania (PROSEA, 2019; USDA-ARS, 2019). Although Kramer (1974) argues that it might be native to the New World because it occurs in remote areas of Suriname and a specimen was collected from French Guiana about 140 years ago, most of the literature is consistent with it only being native to the tropics of the Old World. In the New World it is naturalized at scattered localities from Florida to northern South America, including the Caribbean. It is reported from Africa, Asia, North America, Central America, the Caribbean, South America and Oceania (see Distribution Table for details: Proctor, 1989; Velayos et al., 2001; Lellinger, 2002; Encyclopedia of Life, 2019; Flora do Brasil, 2019; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2019; National Museum of Natural History, 2019; Lindsay and Middleton, 2019; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2019; USDA-ARS, 2019).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 11 Aug 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

CameroonPresentNative
ComorosPresentNative
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentNative
Côte d'IvoirePresentNative
Equatorial GuineaPresentNative
EthiopiaPresentIntroduced1984Kefa, 25 km SW of Bebeka, 1050 m, on forest floor in rain forest, near stream
GabonPresentNative
GhanaPresentNative
KenyaPresentNative
LiberiaPresentNative
MadagascarPresentNativeAntsiranana, Toamasina,Toliara
MauritiusPresentNative
MayottePresentNative
NigeriaPresentNative
RéunionPresentNative
São Tomé and PríncipePresentNative
SeychellesPresentNative
TanzaniaPresentNative
UgandaPresentNative

Asia

British Indian Ocean TerritoryPresentNative
ChinaPresentNative
-GuangxiPresentNative
-HainanPresentNative
-HunanPresentNative
IndiaPresent, Few occurrencesNativeCritically endangered
IndonesiaPresentNative
-JavaPresentNative
LaosPresentNative
MalaysiaPresentNative
PhilippinesPresentNative
SingaporePresentNativeEndangered
Sri LankaPresentNative
TaiwanAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)Recorded as introduced, but that was a misidentification of Pteris wallichiana
ThailandPresentNativeNakhon Ratchasima, Phangnga, Yala, Surat Thani, Trat
VietnamPresentNative

North America

Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba PresentPresent, based on regional distribution
-SabaPresentIntroduced
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedHeredia, Limón, Puntarenas
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced
HaitiPresentIntroduced
JamaicaPresentIntroduced
PanamaPresentIntroducedChiriquí, Colón, Darién, Panamá
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced1983InvasiveHatillo
Saint LuciaPresent, Few occurrencesIntroducedNaturalizedCanaries River at base of Mount Gimie. Naturalized, rare, in very wet ravine
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroduced1918
United StatesPresent, LocalizedIntroducedFlorida
-FloridaPresentIntroducedInvasiveFirst reported in 19th century

Oceania

American SamoaPresentNative
AustraliaPresentNative
-QueenslandPresentNative
-VictoriaPresentNative
Christmas IslandPresentNative
Cook IslandsPresent, Few occurrencesNative
Federated States of MicronesiaPresent
FijiPresentNative
French PolynesiaPresentNative
GuamPresentNative
KiribatiPresentNative
Marshall IslandsPresentNativeVery common on Ebon and Namerik
New CaledoniaPresentNative
New ZealandPresentNative
NiuePresentNative
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentNative
PalauPresentNative
Papua New GuineaPresentNativeCrater Mt
SamoaPresentNative
TongaPresentNative
TuvaluPresentNative
VanuatuPresentNative

South America

BoliviaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCochabamba, Chocó
BrazilPresentIntroduced
-AcrePresentIntroduced
-AlagoasPresentIntroduced
-AmazonasPresentIntroduced
-Espirito SantoPresentIntroduced
-MaranhaoPresentIntroduced
-ParaibaPresentIntroduced
-ParanaPresentIntroduced
-PernambucoPresentIntroduced
-Sao PauloPresentIntroduced
ColombiaPresentIntroduced1989Cochabamba
EcuadorPresentIntroducedEsmeraldas
French GuianaPresentIntroduced
GuyanaPresentIntroduced1920
PeruPresentIntroducedLoreto, San Martín, Ucayali
SurinamePresentIntroduced
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedAmzoátegui, Aragua, Carabobo, Delta Amacuro, Distrito Federal, Falcón, Guárico, Miranda, Lara Portuguesa, Yaracuy

History of Introduction and Spread

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Pteris tripartita is a herbaceous fern used as an ornamental in some parts of its range. It is reported as having been distributed by a nursery in Florida, USA in the late 19th century and as making its way into gardens and margins of swampy areas by the early 20th century (the 1920s in Florida) (Morton, 1957; Hawkes, 1964). It was collected in the 1920s in South America (New York Botanical Garden, 2019), and has been recorded in the Caribbean since the early 20th century (National Museum of Natural History, 2019).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
USA 19th century Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No Morton (1957)
Guyana 1920 Yes No New York Botanical Garden (2019)
Colombia 1989 Yes No Smith et al. (1999)
Ethiopia 1984 Yes No Friis et al. (1987)
Puerto Rico 1983 Yes No Proctor (1989)
Trinidad and Tobago 1918 Yes No National Museum of Natural History (2019)

Risk of Introduction

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Pteris tripartita is a fern native to tropical areas of the Old World, from Africa to Asia and into the Pacific region (USDA-ARS, 2019). It has a medium to high risk of introduction in tropical areas where it is not already present. It is an attractive large fern species with ornamental potential and likely to be planted for that reason, being already in cultivation throughout its range (PROSEA, 2019). It also has the potential to spread into suitable areas through spore dispersal (Morton, 1957).

Habitat

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Pteris tripartita is recorded as growing in clearings, disturbed areas, ravines, trail margins, slopes, karst forests, moist forests, palm forests, along streams in rain forests, in cypress, pond-apple and other swamps, in forested wet habitats and in constantly moist soils (Guillaumin, 1932; Proctor, 1989; Graham, 1990; Lellinger, 2002; Barcelona et al., 2006; Gardner, 2010; Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2019; Lindsay and Middleton, 2019). It occurs from sea level to mid-elevations, but can reach up to 2000 m altitude (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2019).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Pteris tripartita has a chromosome number of n=58 and 2n=116. Sporophyte production is mainly sexual (Walker, 1962). DNA barcode data is available for the species (Barcode of Life Data System, 2019).

Reproductive Biology

Pteris tripartita reproduces by spores and with sexual sporophyte production. Laboratory protocols have been developed for in vitro embryo development and apogamous sporophyte production (Ravi et al., 2015; Ravi, 2016).

Environmental Requirements

There is very little detailed information about the environmental requirements of Pteris tripartita. It grows in swampy areas or constantly moist soils with neutral pH (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2019). It is also reported from karst forests, limestone, gravelly slopes and ultramafic or serpentine soils (Takeuchi, 2003; Barcelona et al., 2006). Morton (1957) reports that it grows in ‘warm areas’, which is a factor limiting its spread in the USA. Its occurrence in moist soils, floodplains and swampy areas could be another limiting factor in its spread.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
25 17

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 20 35

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall7254500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Bimodal
Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • impeded
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Hemitarsonemus tepidariorum Herbivore Shaw (1961)

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Pteris tripartita is reported as being pest- and disease-resistant. The mite Hemitarsonemus tepidariorum [Hemitarsonema tepidariorum] is reported as damaging the leaves of P. tripartita in the fern house at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK (Shaw, 1961).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Pteris tripartita spores are wind-dispersed (Morton, 1957). Nearly all species of fern spores can remain viable in an air-dry condition for at least several months (Tryon, 1970).

Intentional Introduction

Pteris tripartita is reported as an ornamental in various areas of all its range (National Parks Board, 2019; PROSEA, 2019), and has been introduced for this purpose in its non-native range. It has been sold in nurseries since the 19th century in the USA (Morton, 1957; Huttleston, 1962). It is sold at a few Internet sites.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Botanical gardens and zoos Yes Yes Santa Cruz Cabrera et al. (2016)
Escape from confinement or garden escapeThrough wind spore dispersal Yes Morton (1957)
Garden waste disposalNot mentioned in literature, but a possibility from its cultivation Yes
HitchhikerNot mentioned in literature, but a possibility from its cultivation Yes
HorticultureUsed as an ornamental Yes Yes Flora and Fauna Web (2019); PROSEA (2019)
Internet salesSold at a few internet sites Yes Yes
Landscape improvementUsed as an ornamental Yes Yes Flora and Fauna Web (2019); PROSEA (2019)
Nursery tradeIntroduced to Florida through nursery trade Yes Yes Huttleston (1962)
Ornamental purposesUsed as an ornamental in tropical areas Yes Yes Morton (1957); Flora and Fauna Web (2019); PROSEA (2019)

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsNot mentioned in literature, but a possibility from its cultivation Yes
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesNot mentioned in literature, but a possibility from its cultivation Yes
Soil, sand and gravelNot mentioned in literature, but a possibility from its cultivation Yes
WindSpores are wind-dispersed Yes Morton (1957)

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Habitats

Although Pteris tripartita is reported as invasive in Cuba and in Florida (USA), little information is given about its impact on habitats, except that its invasiveness in Cuba is due to its high reproductive capacity and its spread into secondary vegetation and cultivated lands in the eastern part of the country (Caluff and Fuentes Fiallo, 2008; UF-IAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, 2019).

Impact on Biodiversity

No information about the impact of Pteris tripartita on biodiversity is available for Cuba (Caluff and Fuentes Fiallo, 2008). In Florida, it is it is considered as moderately invasive, and is reported as affecting the vegetation by displacing native species in floodplain wetlands, basin wetlands and mesic uplands (UF-IAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, 2019).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Long lived
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
Impact outcomes
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Economic Value

Pteris tripartita is sold as an ornamental plant.

Social Benefit

Pteris tripartita is used as an ornamental throughout its range (Morton, 1957; McCormack, 2007; PROSEA, 2019; USDA-ARS, 2019). It is part of a private fern collection used for education and research in Cuba (Caluff and Serrano, 2002). It is reported to have medicinal and ritual uses in Micronesia (Herrera et al., 2010). The leaves are used during childbirth in Papua New Guinea (PROSEA, 2019).

Environmental Services

Some Pteris species are used for bioremediation of soils contaminated with arsenic or other metals (Puspitasari et al., 2015).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo
  • Laboratory use
  • Ritual uses
  • Sociocultural value

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • garden plant
  • Potted plant

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Pteris podophylla and P. tripartita are similar in the trichotomy at the leaf base. P. podophylla differs by having truncate-falcate segments with a spinulose base and ‘U’-shaped sinuses. Also, the trichomes on the abaxial side of the leaves are sparse and concolorous in P. podophylla, whereas in P. tripartita they are appressed and articulate, with a reddish coloured cell wall (Flora Mesoamericana, 2019).

Pteris tripartita is also similar to P. wallichiana, but distinctly different in the venation by having an additional row of areoles outside the costal ones (Lindsay and Middleton, 2019). In Brazil, it could be confused with P. pungens, which differs by having spines in the petiole and fewer divisions in the segments (Zuquim et al., 2008).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Pteris tripartita is reported as being controlled in some areas where it occurs in southern Florida, USA, but no further information is given (UF-IAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, 2019).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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More information is needed about the effects of Pteris tripartita on habitats or other species where it is reported as invasive. More information on its environmental requirements is also needed.

References

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Baker, JG, 1875. On the Seychelles fern flora. Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, 25, 509-518.

Barcelona, J. F., Dolotina, N. E., Madroñero, G. S., Granert, W. G., Sopot, D. D., 2006. The ferns and fern allies of the karst forests of Bohol Island, Philippines. American Fern Journal, 96(1), 1-20. doi: 10.1640/0002-8444(2006)96[1:TFAFAO]2.0.CO;2

Barcode of Life Data System, 2019. Barcode of Life Data System. http://www.barcodinglife.org/

Caluff, MG, Fuentes Fiallo, VR, 2008. (Malezas pteridofícas de Cuba). Revista del Jardín Botánico Nacional, 29, 51-56.

Caluff, MG, Serrano, GS, 2002. (Catálogo del Jardín de los Helechos de Santiago de Cuba). Revista del Jardín Botánico Nacional, 23(2), 163-199.

Encyclopedia of Life, 2019. Encyclopedia of Life. In: Encyclopedia of Life . http://www.eol.org

Flora do Brasil, 2019. Brazilian flora 2020. In: Brazilian flora 2020 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden.http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br

Flora Mesoamericana, 2019. Flora Mesoamericana. (Flora Mesoamericana). In: Flora Mesoamericana St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org/Project/fm

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2019. Flora of North America North of Mexico. In: Flora of North America North of Mexico St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1

Friis, I, Gilbert, MG, Vollesen, K, 1987. Additions to the flora of Ethiopia, 2. Willdenowia, 2(16), 531-564.

Gardner, RO, 2010. Plant names of the Kalam (upper Kaironk Valley, Schrader Range, Papua New Guinea). Records of the Auckland Museum, 47, 5-50.

Graham, A., 1990. Late Tertiary microfossil flora from the Republic of Haiti. American Journal of Botany, 77(7), 911-926. doi: 10.2307/2444507

Graveson, R., 2019. Plants of Saint Lucia: A Pictorial Flora of Wild and Cultivated Vascular Plants. http://www.saintlucianplants.com/

Guillaumin, A., 1932. Contribution to the flora of the New Hebrides. Plants collected by S. F. Kajewski in 1928 and 1929. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum, 13, 81-126.

Harley, WJ, 1955. The ferns of Liberia. Contributions from the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University, (177), 58-101. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41764627

Hawkes, AD, 1964. Litobrochia in Florida. American Fern Journal, 54(1), 38-39.

Herrera, K., Lorence, D. H., Flynn, T., Balick, M. J., 2010. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia with Local Names and Uses. Allertonia, 10, 1-192. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23193787

Huttleston, DG, 1962. Fern sources in the United States. American Fern Journal, 52(3), 97-109.

Kramer, KU, 1974. Notes on the distribution of the pteridophytes of Suriname. American Fern Journal, 64(4), 107-117.

Lellinger, DB, 2002. Additions to the Fern Flora of Saba, Netherlands Antilles. American Fern Journal, 92(2), 93-96. https://www.jstor.org/stable/1547653

Lieber, MD, Dikepa, KH, 1974. Kapingamarangi Lexicon, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawai'i Press.lxv + 978 pp. https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctv9zckhc doi:10.2307/j.ctv9zckhc

Lindsay, S., Middleton, D.J, 2019. Ferns of Thailand, Laos and Cambodia. Edinburgh, UK: Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.https://rbg-web2.rbge.org.uk/thaiferns/

McCormack, G., 2007. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. In: Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2 , Rarotonga: Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust.http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2019. Tropicos database. In: Tropicos database St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org/

Morton, CV, 1957. Observations on Cultivated Ferns. I. American Fern Journal, 47(1), 7-14. https://www.jstor.org/stable/1545392 doi: 10.2307/1545392

National Museum of Natural History, 2019. National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.http://botany.si.edu/colls/collections_overview.htm

National Parks Board, 2019. Flora and fauna web. In: Flora and fauna web , Singapore: National Parks Board.http://florafaunaweb.nparks.gov.sg/Home.aspx

New York Botanical Garden, 2019. The C.V. Starr Virtual Herbarium. In: The C. Starr Virtual Herbarium New York, USA: New York Botanical Garden.http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/vh/

Oviedo Prieto, R., Herrera Oliver, P., Caluff, M. G., et al., 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

Proctor, GR, 1989. Ferns of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands [Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, volume 53], New York, New York, USA: New York Botanical Garden Press.389 pp. https://www.nhbs.com/the-ferns-of-puerto-rico-and-the-virgin-islands-book

PROSEA, 2019. Plant Resources of South-East Asia. Bogor, Indonesia: PROSEA Foundation.http://proseanet.org/prosea/e-prosea.php

Puspitasari, DS, Chikmawati, T, Praptosuwiryo, TN, 2015. Gametophyte morphology and development of six species of Pteris (Pteridaceae) from Java Island Indonesia. Journal of Tropical Life Science, 5(2), 98-104.

Ravi, B. X., 2016. In vitro polyembryony induction in a critically endangered fern, Pteris tripartita Sw. Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction, 5(4), 345-350. doi: 10.1016/j.apjr.2016.06.012

Ravi, B. X., Varuvel, G. V. A., Rajan Kilimas, Jeyachandran Robert, 2015. Apogamous sporophyte development through spore reproduction of a South Asia's critically endangered fern: Pteris tripartita Sw. Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction, 4(2), 135-139. http://www.apjr.net/Issues/201502/PDF/10.pdf

Santa Cruz Cabrera, EL, Bocourt Vigil, JL, González Hernández, E, Pérez Márquez, R, 2016. (Plantas exóticas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en el Jardín Botánico Orquideario Soroa, Cuba). Revista del Jardín Botánico Nacional, 37, 115-119.

Shaw, HKA, 1961. Additions to the wild fauna and flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: XXIV. Kew Bulletin, 15(2), 169-191.

Silva Junior, WR da, Fernandes, RS, Ferreira, AWC, 2018. First record of the exotic fern Pteris tripartita Sw. (Pteridaceae) for the Maranhão state, northeastern Brazil. Biodiversity International Journal, 2(2), 135-137. https://medcraveonline.com/BIJ/first-record-of-the-exotic-fern-pteris-tripartita-sw-pteridaceae-for-the-maranho-state-northeastern-brazil.html doi: 10.15406/bij.2018.02.00055

Smith, AR, Kessler, M, Gonzales, J, 1999. New records of pteridophytes from Bolivia. American Fern Journal, 4(89), 244-266. https://www.jstor.org/stable/1547234 doi: 10.2307/1547234

Sykes WR, 1981. The vegetation of Late, Tonga. Allertonia, 2(6), 323-353. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23185856

Takeuchi, W, 1999. New plants from Crater Mt. Papua New Guinea, and an annotated checklist of the species. SIDA, Contributions to Botany, 18(4), 941-986. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41967704

Takeuchi, W, 2003. Botanical summary of a lowland ultrabasic flora in Papua New Guinea. SIDA, 20(4), 1491-1559.

Tryon, R, 1970. Development and evolution of fern floras of oceanic islands. Biotropica, 2(2), 76-84.

UF-IAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, 2019. Plant directory. Gainesville, Florida, USA: University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/plant-directory/

USDA-ARS, 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Velayos, M, Aedo, C, Pérez Viso, R, 2001. Check-list of the pteridophytes of Equatorial Guinea. Belgian Journal of Botany, 134(2), 145-191. https://www.jstor.org/stable/20794489

Volkens, G, 1903. (Die flora der Marshallinseln. Nach aufzeichnungen des regierungsarztes Herrn Dr. Schnee und anderen quellen). Notizblatt des Königl. botanischen Gartens und Museums zu Berlin, 4(32), 83-91. https://www.jstor.org/stable/3994075 doi: 10.2307/399407

Walker TG, 1962. Cytology and evolution in the fern genus Pteris L. Evolution, 16(1), 27-43.

Whistler, WA, 1990. Ethnobotany of the Cook Islands. The plants, their Maori names, and their uses. Allertonia, 5(4), 347-424. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23187400

Zuquim, G, Costa, FRC, Prado, J, Tuomisto, H, 2008. Guia de samambaias e licófitas da REBIO Uatumã, Amazônia Central, Manaus, Brazil: 316 pp.

Distribution References

Baker JG, 1875. On the Seychelles fern flora. Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy. 509-518.

CABI, 2020. CABI Distribution Database: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, 2020a. CABI Distribution Database: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Caluff MG, Fuentes Fiallo VR, 2008. (Malezas pteridofícas de Cuba). Revista del Jardín Botánico Nacional. 51-56.

Encyclopedia of Life, 2019. Encyclopedia of Life. In: Encyclopedia of Life. http://www.eol.org

Flora do Brasil, 2019. Brazilian flora 2020. In: Brazilian flora 2020. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2019. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Friis I, Gilbert MG, Vollesen K, 1987. Additions to the flora of Ethiopia, 2. Willdenowia. 2 (16), 531-564.

Graveson R, 2019. Plants of Saint Lucia: A Pictorial Flora of Wild and Cultivated Vascular Plants., http://www.saintlucianplants.com/

Harley WJ, 1955. The ferns of Liberia. Contributions from the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University. 58-101. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41764627

Lellinger DB, 2002. Additions to the Fern Flora of Saba, Netherlands Antilles. American Fern Journal. 92 (2), 93-96. https://www.jstor.org/stable/1547653

Lieber MD, Dikepa KH, 1974. Kapingamarangi Lexicon. Hawaii, USA: University of Hawai'i Press. lxv + 978 pp. https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctv9zckhc DOI:10.2307/j.ctv9zckhc

Lindsay S, Middleton DJ, 2019. Ferns of Thailand, Laos and Cambodia., Edinburgh, UK: Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh. https://rbg-web2.rbge.org.uk/thaiferns/

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2019. Tropicos database. In: Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Morton CV, 1957. Observations on Cultivated Ferns. I. American Fern Journal. 47 (1), 7-14. https://www.jstor.org/stable/1545392 DOI:10.2307/1545392

National Museum of Natural History, 2019. National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany., Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/colls/collections_overview.htm

National Parks Board, 2019. Flora and fauna web. In: Flora and fauna web. Singapore: National Parks Board. http://florafaunaweb.nparks.gov.sg/Home.aspx

New York Botanical Garden, 2019. The C.V. Starr Virtual Herbarium. In: The C. Starr Virtual Herbarium. New York, USA: New York Botanical Garden. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/vh/

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

Proctor GR, 1989. Ferns of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands [Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, volume 53]. New York, New York, USA: New York Botanical Garden Press. 389 pp. https://www.nhbs.com/the-ferns-of-puerto-rico-and-the-virgin-islands-book

Ravi B X, 2016. In vitro polyembryony induction in a critically endangered fern, Pteris tripartita Sw. Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction. 5 (4), 345-350. DOI:10.1016/j.apjr.2016.06.012

Silva Junior WR da, Fernandes RS, Ferreira AWC, 2018. First record of the exotic fern Pteris tripartita Sw. (Pteridaceae) for the Maranhão state, northeastern Brazil. Biodiversity International Journal. 2 (2), 135-137. https://medcraveonline.com/BIJ/first-record-of-the-exotic-fern-pteris-tripartita-sw-pteridaceae-for-the-maranho-state-northeastern-brazil.html DOI:10.15406/bij.2018.02.00055

Smith AR, Kessler M, Gonzales J, 1999. New records of pteridophytes from Bolivia. American Fern Journal. 4 (89), 244-266. https://www.jstor.org/stable/1547234 DOI:10.2307/1547234

Sykes WR, 1981. The vegetation of Late, Tonga. Allertonia. 2 (6), 323-353. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23185856

Takeuchi W, 1999. New plants from Crater Mt. Papua New Guinea, and an annotated checklist of the species. SIDA, Contributions to Botany. 18 (4), 941-986. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41967704

UF-IAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, 2019. Plant directory., Gainesville, Florida, USA: University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/plant-directory/

USDA-ARS, 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Velayos M, Aedo C, Pérez Viso R, 2001. Check-list of the pteridophytes of Equatorial Guinea. Belgian Journal of Botany. 134 (2), 145-191. https://www.jstor.org/stable/20794489

Volkens G, 1903. (Die flora der Marshallinseln. Nach aufzeichnungen des regierungsarztes Herrn Dr. Schnee und anderen quellen). Notizblatt des Königl. botanischen Gartens und Museums zu Berlin. 4 (32), 83-91. https://www.jstor.org/stable/3994075 DOI:10.2307/399407

Whistler WA, 1990. Ethnobotany of the Cook Islands. The plants, their Maori names, and their uses. Allertonia. 5 (4), 347-424. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23187400

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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30/09/2019 Original text by:

Jeanine Vélez-Gavilán, University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico

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