Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Leptochloa fusca
(sprangletop)

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Datasheet

Leptochloa fusca (sprangletop)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 02 July 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Leptochloa fusca
  • Preferred Common Name
  • sprangletop
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Leptochloa fusca is a perennial weed with a global distribution. It is an aggressive species showing a competitive advantage in many situations due to its tolerance of saline and alkaline soils and its likely a...

  • Principal Source
  • Draft datasheet under review

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Leptochloa fusca (sprangletop); invasive habit, showing seedheads. Kealia Pond NWR, Maui, Hawaii, USAS. June 2013.
TitleInvasive habit
CaptionLeptochloa fusca (sprangletop); invasive habit, showing seedheads. Kealia Pond NWR, Maui, Hawaii, USAS. June 2013.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Leptochloa fusca (sprangletop); invasive habit, showing seedheads. Kealia Pond NWR, Maui, Hawaii, USAS. June 2013.
Invasive habitLeptochloa fusca (sprangletop); invasive habit, showing seedheads. Kealia Pond NWR, Maui, Hawaii, USAS. June 2013.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Leptochloa fusca (sprangletop); invasive habit.  Kealia Pond NWR, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2013.
TitleInvasive habit
CaptionLeptochloa fusca (sprangletop); invasive habit. Kealia Pond NWR, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2013.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Leptochloa fusca (sprangletop); invasive habit.  Kealia Pond NWR, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2013.
Invasive habitLeptochloa fusca (sprangletop); invasive habit. Kealia Pond NWR, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2013.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Leptochloa fusca (sprangletop); habit. Moree Plains, New South Wales, Australia. January 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionLeptochloa fusca (sprangletop); habit. Moree Plains, New South Wales, Australia. January 2009.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Leptochloa fusca (sprangletop); habit. Moree Plains, New South Wales, Australia. January 2009.
HabitLeptochloa fusca (sprangletop); habit. Moree Plains, New South Wales, Australia. January 2009.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Leptochloa fusca (sprangletop); leafy habit. Warren, New South Wales, Australia. November 2008.
TitleHabit
CaptionLeptochloa fusca (sprangletop); leafy habit. Warren, New South Wales, Australia. November 2008.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Leptochloa fusca (sprangletop); leafy habit. Warren, New South Wales, Australia. November 2008.
HabitLeptochloa fusca (sprangletop); leafy habit. Warren, New South Wales, Australia. November 2008.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Leptochloa fusca (sprangletop); flowerheads. These are a primary axis of racemes (10-50cm long), with many erect branches that spread at maturity. Warren, New South Wales, Australia. January 2009.
TitleFlowerheads
CaptionLeptochloa fusca (sprangletop); flowerheads. These are a primary axis of racemes (10-50cm long), with many erect branches that spread at maturity. Warren, New South Wales, Australia. January 2009.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Leptochloa fusca (sprangletop); flowerheads. These are a primary axis of racemes (10-50cm long), with many erect branches that spread at maturity. Warren, New South Wales, Australia. January 2009.
FlowerheadsLeptochloa fusca (sprangletop); flowerheads. These are a primary axis of racemes (10-50cm long), with many erect branches that spread at maturity. Warren, New South Wales, Australia. January 2009.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Leptochloa fusca (sprangletop); spikelets. Warren, New South Wales, Australia. January 2009.
TitleSpikelets
CaptionLeptochloa fusca (sprangletop); spikelets. Warren, New South Wales, Australia. January 2009.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Leptochloa fusca (sprangletop); spikelets. Warren, New South Wales, Australia. January 2009.
SpikeletsLeptochloa fusca (sprangletop); spikelets. Warren, New South Wales, Australia. January 2009.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via flickr - CC BY 2.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth

Preferred Common Name

  • sprangletop

Other Scientific Names

  • Atropis carinata Griseb.
  • Brizopyrum uninervium (J.Presl) E.Fourn.
  • Bromus polystachios Forssk.
  • Centotheca malabarica (L.) Merr.
  • Cynodon fascicularis (Lam.) Raspail
  • Diachroa procumbens (Muhl.) Nutt.
  • Digitaria malabarica (L.) Roem. & Schult.
  • Diplachne acuminata Nash
  • Diplachne amboensis Roiv.
  • Diplachne capensis (Nees) Nees
  • Diplachne carinata (Griseb.) Hack. ex Kurtz
  • Diplachne fascicularis (Lam.) P.Beauv.
  • Diplachne fusca (L.) P. Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult.
  • Diplachne imbricata (Thurb.) Scribn.
  • Diplachne indica (Retz.) Spreng.
  • Diplachne livida Nees
  • Diplachne malabarica (L.) Merr.
  • Diplachne maritima E.P.Bicknell
  • Diplachne muelleri Benth.
  • Diplachne pallida Hack.
  • Diplachne parviflora (R.Br.) Benth.
  • Diplachne polystachya (Forssk.) Backer
  • Diplachne procumbens Arechav.
  • Diplachne reptatrix (L.) Druce
  • Diplachne tarapacana Phil.
  • Diplachne tracyi Vasey
  • Diplachne uninervia (J.Presl) Parodi
  • Diplachne verticillata Nees & Meyen
  • Diplachne virens (Nees) Parodi
  • Diplachne wahlbergii Roiv.
  • Eragrostis procera (Roxb.) Steud.
  • Eragrostis uninervia (J.Presl) Steud.
  • Festuca brownii F.Muell.
  • Festuca clandestina Muhl.
  • Festuca digitata Brouss. ex Hornem.
  • Festuca fascicularis Lam.
  • Festuca fusca L.
  • Festuca indica Retz.
  • Festuca multiflora Walter
  • Festuca polystachya Michx.
  • Festuca reptatrix L.
  • Festuca texana Steud.
  • Festuca thouinii Steud.
  • Hemigymnia malabarica (L.) Henrard
  • Leptochloa acuminata (Nash) Mohlenbr.
  • Leptochloa contracta (Retz.) Blatt. & McCann
  • Leptochloa fascicularis (Lam.) A.Gray
  • Leptochloa ginae Maire
  • Leptochloa imbricata Thurb.
  • Leptochloa malabarica (L.) Veldkamp
  • Leptochloa muelleri (Benth.) Stace
  • Leptochloa neuroglossa Peter
  • Leptochloa polystachya (Michx.) Kunth
  • Leptochloa tracyi (Vasey) Beal
  • Leptochloa uninervia (J.Presl) Hitchc. & Chase
  • Leptochloa virletii E.Fourn.
  • Megastachya uninervia J.Presl
  • Ottochloa malabarica (L.) Dandy
  • Panicum malabaricum (L.) Merr.
  • Poa contracta Retz.
  • Poa fusca (L.) Desf.
  • Poa malabarica L.
  • Poa procera Roxb.
  • Poa uninervia (J.Presl) Kunth
  • Puccinellia carinata (Griseb.) Ponert
  • Rabdochloa imbricata (Thurb.) Kuntze
  • Syntherisma malabarica (L.) Sw. ex Roem. & Schult.
  • Tridens capensis Nees
  • Tridens duartei Catasús
  • Tridens veralensis Catasús
  • Tridens virens Nees
  • Triodia ambigua R.Br.
  • Triodia capensis (Nees) T.Durand & Schinz
  • Triodia formosana Honda
  • Triodia livida (Nees) T.Durand & Schinz
  • Triodia parviflora R.Br.
  • Uralepis alba Steud.
  • Uralepis anderssonii Aresch.
  • Uralepis capensis (Nees) Kunth
  • Uralepis composita Buckley
  • Uralepis drummondii Steud.
  • Uralepis fusca (L.) Steud.
  • Uralepis livida (Nees) Steud.
  • Uralepis verticillata (Nees & Meyen) Steud.
  • Uralepis virens (Nees) Kunth

International Common Names

  • English: bearded sprangletop; beetle grass; brown beetle grass; littoral sprangletop; Malabar sprangletop; Mexican sprangletop; sprangletop; swamp grass
  • Spanish: paja gris
  • Chinese: shuang fu cao

Local Common Names

  • Australia: diplanchne
  • India: chamapullu

Summary of Invasiveness

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Leptochloa fusca is a perennial weed with a global distribution. It is an aggressive species showing a competitive advantage in many situations due to its tolerance of saline and alkaline soils and its likely ability to fix nitrogen. It is commonly a serious weed of rice in many countries. It is recorded as invasive in Cuba, Hawaii and in the Chagos Archipelago (as L. fusca subsp. uninervia) and has been the subject of an ‘eradication action’ in Europe.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Leptochloa
  •                                 Species: Leptochloa fusca

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Leptochloa fusca is the latest of a very large number of names applied to this species. Originally known as Festuca fusca by Linnaeus, it has been included in Poa, Digitaria and numerous other genera, including Diplachne Peterson et al. (2012). Snow et al. (2018) make a strong case for use of the name Diplachne fusca and this is now used by USDA-ARS (2018), while most other authorities including The Plant List (2013) and USDA-NRCS (2018) continue to use Leptochloa fusca.  

The taxonomy of L. fusca is still uncertain and many botanical sources including The Plant List (2013), USDA-ARS (2018), WCSP (2018) and Missouri Botanical Garden (2018), recognize three subspecies: fascicularis, muelleri and uninervia, in addition to subsp. fusca, with differing distributions as described by Peterson et al. (2012) and Snow et al. (2018). These are all, at times, referred to as full species. The differing distributions are indicated to some degree in the distribution table, but for most purposes, the group is treated as a single species throughout this datasheet.

Description

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Perennial, loosely tufted to rhizomatous. Culms erect or geniculate and rooting from lower nodes, up to 100 cm or more tall. Leaf sheaths glabrous; leaf blades tough, usually involute, 5-30(-50) × 0.15-0.3(-0.6) cm, adaxial surface scabrid, abaxial surface subglabrous; ligule 3-12 mm, acute. Inflorescence 15-25 cm, scabrid; racemes 3-28, indistinctly unilateral, 4-20 cm, straight, ascending or spreading, spikelets usually distant. Spikelets glaucous-green, subterete, 6-14 mm, florets 5-12; glumes keeled; lower glume lanceolate, 2-3 mm, acute; upper glume narrowly oblong, 3-4 mm, acute or mucronate; lemmas narrowly oblong, dorsally sub-rounded, lowest 4-5 mm, lower lateral veins pilose, entire or 2-dentate, midvein often produced into a short 0.3-1.6 mm awn; palea ciliolate along upper keels. Callus laterally pilose. Anthers 0.5-0.75(-2.5) mm. Caryopsis elliptic-oblong, 1.5-2.5 mm, dorso-ventrally flattened (AusGrass2, 2015; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018).

The subspecies are separated as follows (Snow et al., 2018):

L. fusca subsp. muelleri: lemmas flat, relatively broad, to 2.0 mm wide; panicles narrow, mostly less than 5 cm wide; panicle branches generally steeply erect, often flexuous near tips; hairs on lateral nerves of lemma sericeous to velutinous, often densely so and typically becoming divaricate with age; lemma apices mostly broadly acute, awnless or sometimes mucronate; Australian interior.

L. fusca subsp. uninervia: lemma apices obtuse to truncate, usually notched and often mucronate; lemmas often dark green or lead colored; spikelets relatively short, 5–10 mm, anthers usually less than 0.7 mm; rachilla rarely visible during anthesis; mostly New World tropics. 

L. fusca subsp. fusca: lemma apices various, obtuse to acute or acuminate, notched or not; lemmas of various colors; spikelets 6–14 mm; anthers usually 0.5–2.7 mm; mostly Old World, southern South America, introduced into North America.

L. fusca subsp. fascicularis: lemmas slightly keeled, relatively narrow, mostly less than 1.5 mm wide; panicles somewhat broad, particularly at base, to 22 cm wide; panicle branches somewhat erect to reflexed, the branches not flexuous near tips; hairs on lateral nerves of sericeous, rarely densely so, typically remaining more or less appressed; lemma apices acute to acuminate, awnless or with awns to 3.5 mm long; mostly New World.

Plant Type

Top of page Annual
Biennial
Grass / sedge
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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The distribution indicated in the distribution table is mostly for Leptochloa fusca in the broad sense. Each of the main subspecies, however, has a more restricted distribution which is indicated where the information is readily available (AusGrass2, 2015; WCSP, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018). 

A brief summary of native ranges for subspecies is as follows: L. fusca subsp. fusca is a polymorphic palaeotropical taxon native to Africa, Asia and Australasia; L. fusca subsp. muelleri is apparently restricted to Australia, known from much of the interior portions of eastern Australia, particularly the Northern Territory; L. fusca subsp. uninervia is native to and widespread in the Americas, from southern USA southwards; and L. fusca subsp. fascicularis is native almost throughout the temperate and tropical regions of the New World (Peterson et al., 2012; USDA-ARS, 2018).

L. fusca has been introduced to Canada, Hawaii, the Chagos archipelago, Maldives, Midway Atoll, Australia and parts of Europe and Asia. In Spain, L. fusca subsp. uninervia and L. fusca subsp. fascicularis were found to be widely distributed in Valencia, increasing from a frequency of 5.3% in 2008 to 20.1% in 2010. In the West Indies, L. fusca subsp. uninervia is listed as introduced and invasive in Cuba while L. fusca subsp. fusca is listed as introduced and naturalized in St Lucia (Oviedo and Gonzalez-Oliva, 2015; Graveson, 2016).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 02 Jul 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)Diplachne fusca subsp. fusca
BotswanaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)Diplachne fusca subsp. fusca
BurundiPresentNativeGBIF (2014)
CameroonPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)Diplachne fusca subsp. fusca
EgyptPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)Diplachne fusca subsp. fusca
EswatiniPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)Diplachne fusca subsp. fusca
EthiopiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)Diplachne fusca subsp. fusca
KenyaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)Diplachne fusca subsp. fusca
LesothoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)Diplachne fusca subsp. fusca
LibyaPresentIntroducedWCSP (2018)subsp. uninervia
MadagascarPresentNativeGBIF (2014)
MalawiPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)Diplachne fusca subsp. fusca
MoroccoPresentNativeGBIF (2014)
MozambiquePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)Diplachne fusca subsp. fusca
NamibiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)Diplachne fusca subsp. fusca
NigeriaPresentNativeGBIF (2014)
SenegalPresentNativeGBIF (2014)
SomaliaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)Diplachne fusca subsp. fusca
South AfricaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)Diplachne fusca subsp. fusca
SudanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)Diplachne fusca subsp. fusca
TanzaniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)Diplachne fusca subsp. fusca
-Zanzibar IslandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)Ssp. fusca
UgandaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)Diplachne fusca subsp. fusca
ZambiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018); GBIF (2014)Diplachne fusca subsp. fusca
ZimbabwePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)Diplachne fusca subsp. fusca

Asia

British Indian Ocean TerritoryPresentIntroducedPIER (2018)
-Chagos ArchipelagoPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2014)Ssp. uninervia
CambodiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018); PIER (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)
ChinaPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)Ssp. fusca
-AnhuiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)
-FujianPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)
-GuangdongPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)
-HainanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)
-HebeiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)
-HenanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)
-JiangsuPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)
-LiaoningPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)
-ShandongPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)
-ShanghaiPresentIntroducedInvasiveTian ZhiHui et al. (2017)Listed as Diplachne fusca
-YunnanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)
-ZhejiangPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)
IndiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)Diplachne fusca subsp. fusca
-KeralaPresentIndia Biodiversity Portal (2018)
-Uttar PradeshPresentNativeSingh et al. (2009)Newly recorded
IndonesiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018); PIER (2014)Diplachne fusca subsp. fusca
-JavaPresentNativeWCSP (2018)subsp. fascicularis
IraqPresentNativeGBIF (2014)
IsraelPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2018); GBIF (2014)subsp. uninervia
JapanPresentPIER (2014); USDA-ARS (2014); GRIIS (2018); USDA-ARS (2018)
KuwaitPresentNativeGBIF (2014)
LaosPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)Diplachne fusca subsp. fusca
MalaysiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018); PIER (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)Diplachne fusca subsp. fusca
MaldivesPresentIntroducedInvasiveGRIIS (2018)Diplachne fusca
MyanmarPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)Diplachne fusca subsp. fusca
PakistanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018); GBIF (2014)Diplachne fusca subsp. fusca
PalestinePresentIntroducedWCSP (2018)subsp. uninervia
PhilippinesPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018); PIER (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)Diplachne fusca subsp. fusca
QatarPresentNativeGBIF (2014)
Saudi ArabiaPresentGBIF (2014); WCSP (2018)subsp. uninervia
South KoreaPresentIntroducedKang ByeungHoa and Shim SangIn (2002)Diplachne fusca subsp. fusca
Sri LankaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018); GBIF (2014)
TaiwanPresentPIER (2014); USDA-ARS (2014); GRIIS (2018); USDA-ARS (2018)Diplachne fusca subsp. fusca
ThailandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018); PIER (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)Diplachne fusca subsp. fusca
TurkeyPresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)
VietnamPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018); PIER (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)Diplachne fusca subsp. fusca

Europe

BelgiumPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2018)Diplachne fusca and subsp. uninervia
CyprusPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2018)Diplachne fusca
CzechiaPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2018)subsp. fascicularis
FrancePresentIntroducedDAISIE (2018)subsp. fascicularis
GermanyPresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)
GreecePresentIntroducedDAISIE (2018)Diplachne fusca
ItalyPresentIntroducedInvasiveDAISIE (2018); Romani and Tabacchi (2000)
PolandPresentIntroducedGBIF (2014)Ssp. fascicularis
PortugalPresentIntroducedGBIF (2014)Ssp. fascicularis
SpainPresentIntroducedInvasiveOsca (2013); DAISIE (2018); GRIIS (2018)subsp. fascicularis and subsp. uninervia
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveVerloove (2013)subsp. uninervia
United KingdomPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2018); GBIF (2014)Listed as Diplachne fusca in England and Great Britain

North America

AnguillaPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)subsp. fascicularis
Antigua and BarbudaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)Ssp. fascicularis
BahamasPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); USDA-ARS (2014)subsp. fascicularis and subsp. uninervia
BelizePresentNativeWCSP (2018); USDA-ARS (2014)subsp. fascicularis and subsp. uninervia
Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba
-BonairePresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)subsp. fascicularis
CanadaPresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)
-OntarioPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)Both L. fusca and L. fusca subsp. fascicularis are listed as introduced
-QuebecPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)Both L. fusca and L. fusca subsp. fascicularis are listed as introduced
Cayman IslandsPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)subsp. fascicularis
Costa RicaPresentNativeWCSP (2018); PIER (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)subsp. fascicularis and subsp. uninervia
CubaPresentAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); Oviedo Prieto et al. (2012); USDA-ARS (2014); Oviedo Prieto and González-Oliva (2015)
CuraçaoPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)subsp. fascicularis
Dominican RepublicPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); GBIF (2014)subsp. fascicularis
GuadeloupePresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); USDA-ARS (2014)subsp. fascicularis
HaitiPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)subsp. fascicularis
HondurasPresentNativeWCSP (2018); PIER (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)subsp. fascicularis and subsp. uninervia
JamaicaPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); USDA-ARS (2014)subsp. fascicularis and subsp. uninervia
MartiniquePresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); USDA-ARS (2014)subsp. fascicularis
MexicoPresentNativeWCSP (2018); PIER (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)subsp. fascicularis and subsp. uninervia
Netherlands AntillesPresentNativeWCSP (2018); GBIF (2014)subsp. fascicularis
NicaraguaPresentNativeWCSP (2018); PIER (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)subsp. uninervia
Puerto RicoPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); USDA-ARS (2014)subsp. fascicularis and subsp. uninervia
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedGraveson (2016)subsp. fusca. naturalized
Turks and Caicos IslandsPresentNativeWCSP (2018)subsp. fascicularis
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)subsp. fascicularis
United StatesPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018)
-AlabamaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018); USDA-ARS (2014)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis and L. fusca subsp. uninervia are listed as native
-AlaskaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis and L. fusca subsp. uninervia are listed as native
-ArizonaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018); USDA-ARS (2014)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis and L. fusca subsp. uninervia are listed as native
-ArkansasPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis and L. fusca subsp. uninervia are listed as native
-CaliforniaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018); USDA-ARS (2014)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis and L. fusca subsp. uninervia are listed as native
-ColoradoPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018); USDA-ARS (2014)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis and L. fusca subsp. uninervia are listed as native
-ConnecticutPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis are listed as native
-DelawarePresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis are listed as native
-District of ColumbiaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis are listed as native
-FloridaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018); USDA-ARS (2014)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis and L. fusca subsp. uninervia are listed as native
-GeorgiaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018); USDA-ARS (2014)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis and L. fusca subsp. uninervia are listed as native
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)L. fusca subsp. uninervia
-IdahoPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis are listed as native
-IllinoisPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018); USDA-ARS (2014)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis and L. fusca subsp. uninervia are listed as native
-IndianaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis are listed as native
-IowaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018); USDA-ARS (2014)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis are listed as native
-KansasPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018); USDA-ARS (2014)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis and L. fusca subsp. uninervia are listed as native
-KentuckyPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis are listed as native
-LouisianaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018); USDA-ARS (2014)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis and L. fusca subsp. uninervia are listed as native
-MainePresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis and L. fusca subsp. uninervia are listed as native
-MarylandPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018); USDA-ARS (2014)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis and L. fusca subsp. uninervia are listed as native
-MassachusettsPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018); USDA-ARS (2014)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis and L. fusca subsp. uninervia are listed as native
-MichiganPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018); University of Michigan Herbarium (2014)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis are listed as native
-MinnesotaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018); USDA-ARS (2014)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis are listed as native
-MississippiPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018); USDA-ARS (2014)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis and L. fusca subsp. uninervia are listed as native
-MissouriPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018); USDA-ARS (2014)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis and L. fusca subsp. uninervia are listed as native
-MontanaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis and L. fusca subsp. uninervia are listed as native
-NebraskaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018); USDA-ARS (2014)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis are listed as native
-NevadaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018); USDA-ARS (2014)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis and L. fusca subsp. uninervia are listed as native
-New HampshirePresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018); USDA-ARS (2014)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis are listed as native
-New JerseyPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis and L. fusca subsp. uninervia are listed as native
-New MexicoPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018); USDA-ARS (2014)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis and L. fusca subsp. uninervia are listed as native
-New YorkPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018); USDA-ARS (2014)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis are listed as native
-North CarolinaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018); USDA-ARS (2014)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis and L. fusca subsp. uninervia are listed as native
-North DakotaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018); USDA-ARS (2014)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis are listed as native
-OhioPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018); USDA-ARS (2014)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis and L. fusca subsp. uninervia are listed as native
-OklahomaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018); USDA-ARS (2014)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis and L. fusca subsp. uninervia are listed as native
-OregonPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018); USDA-ARS (2014)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis and L. fusca subsp. uninervia are listed as native
-PennsylvaniaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018); USDA-ARS (2014)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis and L. fusca subsp. uninervia are listed as native
-Rhode IslandPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018); USDA-ARS (2014)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis are listed as native
-South CarolinaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis and L. fusca subsp. uninervia are listed as native
-South DakotaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018); USDA-ARS (2014)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis are listed as native
-TennesseePresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018); USDA-ARS (2014)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis and L. fusca subsp. uninervia are listed as native
-TexasPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018); USDA-ARS (2014)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis and L. fusca subsp. uninervia are listed as native
-UtahPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018); USDA-ARS (2014)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis and L. fusca subsp. uninervia are listed as native
-VermontPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis are listed as native
-VirginiaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018); USDA-ARS (2014)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis and L. fusca subsp. uninervia are listed as native
-WashingtonPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018); USDA-ARS (2014)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis are listed as native
-West VirginiaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis are listed as native
-WisconsinPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018); USDA-ARS (2014)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis and L. fusca subsp. uninervia are listed as native
-WyomingPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2018)L. fusca , L. fusca subsp. fascicularis are listed as native

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPIER (2014); USDA-ARS (2014); AusGrass2 (2015); WCSP (2018)
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedInvasiveQueensland Government (2018); PIER (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)subsp. uninervia
-Northern TerritoryPresentNativePIER (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)Ssp. fusca (uninervis)
-QueenslandPresentPIER (2014); USDA-ARS (2014); Queensland Government (2018)
-South AustraliaPresentUSDA-ARS (2014); Queensland Government (2018)
-TasmaniaPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Ssp. uninervis
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasiveQueensland Government (2018); USDA-ARS (2014)subsp. uninervia
New ZealandPresentIntroducedWCSP (2018)subsp. uninervia
Papua New GuineaPresentNativePIER (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)SSp. fusca
U.S. Minor Outlying IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)subsp. uninervia

South America

ArgentinaPresentUSDA-ARS (2014); WCSP (2018);
BoliviaPresentNativeWCSP (2018); USDA-ARS (2014)subsp. fascicularis and subsp. uninervia
BrazilPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)Ssp. uninervia, fascicularis
-BahiaPresentNativeValls (2015)Diplachne fusca
-PernambucoPresentNativeValls (2015)Diplachne fusca
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNativeValls (2015)Diplachne fusca
-Rio Grande do NortePresentNativeValls (2015)Diplachne fusca
-Rio Grande do SulPresentNativeValls (2015)Diplachne fusca
-Sao PauloPresentNativeValls (2015)Diplachne fusca
ChilePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018); PIER (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)subsp. uninervia
ColombiaPresentNativeWCSP (2018); PIER (2014)subsp. fascicularis and subsp. uninervia
EcuadorPresentNativeWCSP (2018); PIER (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)subsp. uninervia
ParaguayPresentNativeWCSP (2018); USDA-ARS (2014)subsp. fascicularis and subsp. uninervia
PeruPresentNativeWCSP (2018); PIER (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)subsp. uninervia
UruguayPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018); USDA-ARS (2014)subsp. fascicularis and subsp. uninervia
VenezuelaPresentNativeWCSP (2018); GBIF (2014)subsp. fascicularis and subsp. uninervia

History of Introduction and Spread

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Leptochloa fusca subsp. uninervia and subsp. fascicularis are apparently recent introductions to Spain, where they were first recorded in 1990 (GBIF, 2014). In Australia, L. fusca subsp. uninervis was first recognized in 1999 (Snow and Simon, 1999). In Italy, L. fusca subsp. fascicularis was first reported in 2000 and was apparently introduced from Spain (Romani and Tabacchi, 2000). In the Canary islands, L. fusca subsp. uninervia was first recorded in a plant nursery in Gran Canaria in 2011 and it is spreading rapidly (Verloove, 2013). In St. Lucia, L. fusca subsp. fusca was apparently introduced as a seed contaminant on heavy equipment imported to be used at Praslin (Graveson, 2016). 

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Australia 1999 No No Snow and Simon (1999) Ssp. uninervia
Iran 2000 No No Hamzeh'ee (2000)
Italy Spain 2000 Yes No Romani and Tabacchi (2000)
Spain 1990 Yes No GBIF (2014)

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of new introduction of L. fusca is very high mainly due to its widespread distribution and its behaviour as an agricultural and environmental weed. As a major weed of rice with a sizeable seed, L. fusca may be an occasional contaminant of unmilled rice and hence spread with imports of rice.

Habitat

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Leptochloa fusca is a plant of shallow water, marshes and sometimes brackish ground (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018). It is a salt-tolerant species and is known to excrete salt through glands on the leaves. It can also be found growing in and beside shallow standing water and in boggy, marshy, alluvial and black peaty soils and in wet sand, 0–1280 m above sea level. It is also described as a major weed of irrigation channels. In Spain, L. fusca subsp. uninervia is normally found around the edge of fields, while L. fusca subsp. fascicularis is found in the interior of flooded rice fields (Osca, 2013).

L. fusca has a relatively low tolerance to saline conditions at the seedling stage but tolerance increases during subsequent growth (Mahmood et al., 1995) and non-seedlings are tolerant of salinity, sodicity and alkalinity. Ola et al. (2012) observed significantly reduced growth at 100 mM NaCl but many other functions were normal and the plant was not severely damaged by 300 mM NaCl. In Egypt, fresh and dry weights increased with concentration of seawater between 12.5 and 25.0% (Ashour et al., 1997). Tolerance to NaCl appears to be associated with leaf extrusion and root efflux of both Na+ and Cl-.

Ashok et al. (1996) reported that L. fusca showed remarkable tolerance to prolonged water stagnation of 30 days, due to enhanced root aerenchyma development and root growth, which enabled physiological processes and nutrient uptake to continue.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Brackish
Inland saline areas Principal habitat
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Secondary/tolerated habitat
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Secondary/tolerated habitat
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Secondary/tolerated habitat
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Secondary/tolerated habitat
Riverbanks Principal habitat
Wetlands Principal habitat
Littoral
Coastal areas Principal habitat
Mud flats Secondary/tolerated habitat
Freshwater
Irrigation channels Principal habitat

Hosts/Species Affected

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Leptochloa fusca is a major weed of rice (Oryza sativa) in a number of countries including USA, Cuba, Spain, India and China (Tian et al., 2017; USDA-ARS, 2018). It is also problematic in lucerne/alfalfa (Medicago sativa), tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum), turf (Poaceae), onion (Allium cepa) and peppers (Capsicum annuum) (Martínez et al., 2003).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Allium cepa (onion)LiliaceaeMain
Capsicum (peppers)SolanaceaeMain
Lycopersicon esculentumSolanaceaeOther
Medicago sativa (lucerne)FabaceaeWild host
Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeMain
Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeMain

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for Leptochloa fusca is 2n=20.  It is described as a polymorphic species highly variable in habit, height and robustness (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018).

Reproductive Biology

Fresh seeds of L. fusca are dormant and it has been suggested that as a semi-aquatic species, it requires flooding for both dormancy loss and germination (Baskin et al.; 1999). Osca et al. (2011) found that seeds subjected to saturated or flooded soils had faster germination and development, resulting in heavier and bigger plants; however, Leptochloa fusca subsp. fascicularis and Leptochloa fusca subsp. uninervia do not germinate and emerge if the water level is maintained continuously above 10 cm (Osca et al., 2011), or when exposed to flooding (Mahmood, 1997). Similar germination rates have been reported for experiments performed in light and dark conditions. Optimum germination temperatures are in the range 25-35°C (Mahmood, 1997). Salinity at 0.2% increased germination slightly, although higher salinity levels decreased germination. Wet conditions and low temperatures were effective for inducing germination of seeds which had been stored under dry, room temperatures for four months.

Physiology and Phenology

L. fusca is a C4 plant (Yusuf and Malik, 1984). In Spain, L. fusca subsp. fascicularis matures by June, thus allowing seeds to drop long before rice harvest (Osca, 2013). In China, L. fusca has been reported flowering and fruiting from June to September (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018). In Australia, flowers often occur after rains (AusGrass2, 2015). In Nicaragua, flowers and fruits have been observed in June (Flora of Nicaragua, 2018). In India, L. fusca has been reported flowering and fruiting from September to December (India Biodiversity Portal, 2018). 

Longevity

L. fusca is a perennial plant with a life span of two or more years (Ecocrop, 2014). The subspecies fascicularis and uninervia are described as an annual or biennial species (USDA-NRCS, 2018). 

Nutrition

In India, L. fusca subsp. fusca responded significantly to nitrogen (Rao et al., 2001) and to phosphorus (Abdullah et al., 2000). This species is able to grow well on infertile soils mostly due to its association with nitrogen fixing bacteria.

Associations

In South Africa, Leptochloa species often grow with Eragrostis bicolor (Janecke et al., 2003) and Acacia xanthophloea (Götze et al., 2003). L. fusca also grows associated with nitrogen-fixing Azoarcus bacteria (Reinhold-Hurek et al., 1993b; Reinhold-Hurek and Hurek, 1998a; James, 2000). Field and greenhouse studies have shown that L. fusca may fix up to 26% of its nitrogen content (Malik et al., 1987). 

Environmental Requirements

L. fusca is a plant of tropical, sub-tropical and warm temperate climates that thrives in moist and sunny conditions. It grows best in areas with mean annual temperature ranging from 15°C to 30°C (but can tolerate 9°C – 40°C) and mean annual rainfall ranging from 250 mm to 1000 mm (100 mm – 2900 mm). It is adapted to grow in a wide range of soil types including sandy, loamy, clay and infertile soils with pH in the range 5 – 8 (tolerating 3.1 – 9.9). The plant is tolerant to drought and waterlogged conditions (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Tolerated > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Tolerated Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
B - Dry (arid and semi-arid) Tolerated < 860mm precipitation annually
BSk - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation, mid altitude, average temp. < 18°C
BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
55 45

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 15 30
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 9
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 40

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall1002900mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral
  • very acid
  • very alkaline

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • shallow

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Leptochloafusca spreads predominantly by seed. Seeds are easily dispersed by water as the plants often grow in ditches and drains, on the edges of irrigation channels and along the margins of permanent rivers (Osca, 2013; Queensland Government, 2018). Seeds can be dispersed as contaminant in crop and pasture seeds, soil and machinery (Taberner et al. 2011). 

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionWeed of agricultural lands Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018
DisturbanceOften naturalized in open grounds and disturbed places Yes Yes PIER, 2018
Escape from confinement or garden escapeSeeds escape from cultivation Yes PIER, 2018
Forage Yes Yes
Interconnected waterwaysSeeds dispersed by water Yes Osca, 2013
Internet sales Yes Yes
Seed trade Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive

Economic Impact

Top of page

Leptochloa fusca is an important weed of rice fields (Osca, 2013). In India, this species was the most dominant weed species, occurring in approximately 85% of the sites surveyed (Vidya et al., 2004). It is also listed as a major weed of rice in Cuba (Colon and Antigua, 1989), Australia (McIntyre et al., 1989), South Korea (Kang and Shim, 2002), Senegal (Haefele et al., 2000), Spain (Osca, 2013) and USA (Carey et al., 1994). It is also one of the most common weeds in onion and tomato-green pepper plantations in Venezuela (Martínez et al., 2003).

Environmental Impact

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Leptochloa fusca is an environmental weed that often can be found invading brackish water, salt marshes, irrigation ditches, riverbanks and along disturbed areas along roadsides and pastures (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; PIER, 2018; USDA-NRCS, 2018). In Australia, Leptochloa fusca subsp. uninervia is regarded as an environmental weed threatening brackish, saline and freshwater wetlands (Queensland Government, 2018). Once established in these habitats it forms dense stands that outcompete native grasses, sedges and other wetland plants, replacing some species and affecting populations of waterbirds and other wildlife (Queensland Government, 2018). In Hawaii, it is also listed as an invasive species abundant around the margins of brackish water ponds, wet, disturbed places such as along irrigation ditches and in shallow, standing water (Wagner et al., 1999; PIER, 2018).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Long lived
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Modification of fire regime
  • Modification of hydrology
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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Leptochloa fusca is often planted for forage, green fodder and dry matter yields (Verma and Raghuwanshi, 2004). In Pakistan, it is cultivated on saline alkaline soil as a source of biomass. It has been also used for improvement of degraded and salt-affected soils (Akhter et al., 2004; Ahmad, 2010). Tawfik et al. (2013) suggested the potential of L. fusca as a biofuel in Egypt. 

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Forage

Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Land reclamation
  • Soil improvement

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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In Flora of China Editorial Committee (2018), Leptochloa chinensis and Leptochloa panicea are distinguished from Leptochloa fusca by being an annual plant, with smaller, compressed spikelets, up to 4 mm long and with awnless lemmas.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures

Gealy et al. (2013) recorded that the allelopathic rice cultivars PI 312777 and Taichung Native 1 (TN 1) provide significant suppression of  Leptochloa fusca subsp. fascicularis.

Physical/Mechanical Control

In Colombia, land levelling is recommended for control of  L. fusca subsp. fascicularis (Antigua, 1993).       

Movement Control

Machinery should be washed before moving between sites to reduce the risk of spreading Leptochloa fusca.

Chemical Control

Osca (2013) noted that L. fusca is susceptible to molinate and cyhalofop-butyl, and partially susceptible to propanil.

Other herbicides reported effective in rice, mainly against L. fusca subsp. fascicularis, include thiobencarb and fenoxaprop + bentazone (Smith, 1988), granular chlomazone (Schulteis and Heier, 2003), dithiopyr, metolachlor, metolachlor + atrazine, pendimethalin and oxadiazon (McCarty et al., 1995). In addition, sequential applications of quinclorac and fenoxaprop, or propanil and sethoxydim (Stauber et al., 1991). In Cuba, pre-emergence thiobencarb or oxadiazon, and post-emergence propanil + thiobencarb may be used (Antigua, 1993). Isoxaben and atrazine treatments have been found to provide poor or inconsistent control (McCarty et al., 1995).

Glufosinate is effective in glufosinate-resistant (‘Liberty’) rice (Wheeler et al., 1998).

Grichar (2011) observes nicosulfuron and fenoxaprop providing effective control of L. fusca subsp. fascicularis in turf (Poaceae). In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fields in Peru, metribuzin and and pendimethaline were effective (Cerna Bazan and Rojas Vargas, 1979); and in lucerne/alfalfa (Medicago sativa), prodiamine (Fenderson et al., 1987).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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More research is needed on the to clarify the possibility of different germination behaviours and ecological requirements of the various subspecies.

References

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Abdullah M, Yasin M, Qureshi RH, 2000. Interactive effects of phosphorus and soil salinity on the growth and ionic composition of kallar grass. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 16(1):53-58

Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Ahmad F, 2010. Leptochloa Fusca cultivation for utilization of salt-affected soil and water resources in Cholistan desert. Rev. Soc. Nat, 22, 141-149.

Akhter, J., Murray, R., Mahmood, K., Malik, K. A., Ahmed, S., 2004. Improvement of degraded physical properties of a saline-sodic soil by reclamation with kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca). Plant and Soil, 258(1/2), 207-216. doi: 10.1023/B:PLSO.0000016551.08880.6b

Antigua G, 1993. Integrated weed management of rice in Cuba. Proceedings of a monitoring tour and workshop on integrated pest management of rice in the Caribbean, held in Guyana and Trinidad & Tobago, October 7-11, 1991 [edited by Armenta Soto, J.L.] Cali, Colombia; Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), 129-135

Ashok Kumar, Datta KS, Rajiv Angrish, 1996. Effect of water stagnation on growth, physiological processes and chemical composition of Leptochloa fusca (L.) P. Beauv. Plant Physiology & Biochemistry (New Delhi), 23(1):42-45

Ashour NI, Serag MS, El-Haleem AKA, Mandour S, Mekki BB, Arafat SM, 2002, publ. 2003. Use of the kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca L.) Kunth. in saline agriculture in arid lands of Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Agronomy, 24:63-78

Ashour NI, Serag MS, El-Haleem AKA, Mekki BB, 1997. Forage production from three grass species under saline irrigation in Egypt. Journal of Arid Environments, 37(2):299-307

AusGrass2, 2014. Diplachne fusca. http://ausgrass2.myspecies.info/node/1264

AusGrass2, 2015. Grasses of Australia. Online Resources. In: Grasses of Australia. Online Resources . http://ausgrass2.myspecies.info/

Baskin CC, Baskin JM, Chester EW, 1999. Seed germination ecology of the annual grass Leptochloa panicea ssp. mucronata and a comparison with L. panicoides and L. fusca. Acta Oecologica, 20(5):571-577

Bezuidenhout H, Bredenkamp GJ, Theron GK, 1994. Phytosociological classes of the western Transvaal grassland, South Africa. Koedoe, 37(1):1-18

Brunel S, Brundu G, Fried G, 2013. Eradication and control of invasive alien plants in the Mediterranean Basin: towards better coordination to enhance existing initiatives. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 43(2):290-308. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2338

Carey VF III, Smith RJ Jr, Talbert RE, 1994. Interference durations of bearded sprangletop (Leptochloa fascicularis) in rice (Oryza sativa). Weed Science, 42(2):180-183

Cerna Bazan, L., Rojas Vargas, A., 1979. Comparison of pre- and post-emergence herbicides in tomato crop. (Comparativo de herbicidas de pre y pos emergencia en el cultivo del tomate). Turrialba, 29(3), 163-168.

Colon C, Antigua G, 1989. Main weeds of flooded rice in Cuba. Ciencia y Tecnica en la Agricultura, Arroz, 12(2):137-142

DAISIE, 2018. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. In: Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe . http://www.europe-aliens.org/

Ecocrop, 2014. Leptochloa fusca. FAO. http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropView?id=7239

Fenderson JM, Boyles MC, Bowe SJ, 1987. Update: summary of annual weed control in established alfalfa with prodiamine herbicide. In: Proceedings of the Western Society of Weed Science, Vol. 40. 97-98

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Nicaragua, 2018. Flora of Nicaragua. (Flora de Nicaragua). In: Flora de Nicaragua St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://tropicos.org/Project/FN

Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018. Flora of North America North of Mexico. In: Flora of North America North of Mexico St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1

Flora Zambesiaca, 2014. Flora Zambesiaca, Kew Databases. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanical Gardens Kew. http://apps.kew.org/efloras/fz/families.htm

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Gealy D, Moldenhauer K, Duke S, 2013. Root distribution and potential interactions between allelopathic rice, sprangletop (Leptochloa spp.), and barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) based on 13C isotope discrimination analysis. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 39(2):186-203. http://rd.springer.com/journal/10886

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Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

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DAISIE, 2018. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. In: Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. http://www.europe-aliens.org/

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

GBIF, 2014. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. http://www.gbif.org/species

Graveson R, 2016. Plants of Saint Lucia: a pictorial flora of wild and cultivated vascular plants. In: Plants of Saint Lucia: a pictorial flora of wild and cultivated vascular plants. http://www.saintlucianplants.com

GRIIS, 2018. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species., http://www.griis.org/

India Biodiversity Portal, 2018. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Kang ByeungHoa, Shim SangIn, 2002. Overall status of naturalized plants in Korea. Korean Journal of Weed Science. 22 (3), 207-226.

Osca J M, 2013. Expansion of Leptochloa fusca ssp. uninervia and Leptochloa fusca ssp. fascicularis in rice fields in Valencia, eastern Spain. Weed Research (Oxford). 53 (6), 479-488. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/wre.12046/full DOI:10.1111/wre.12046

Oviedo Prieto R, González-Oliva L, 2015. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2015. (Lista nacional de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2015). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 9 (Special Issue No. 2), 1-88. http://repositorio.geotech.cu/jspui/bitstream/1234/1476/4/Lista%20nacional%20de%20plantas%20invasoras%20de%20Cuba-2015.pdf

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

PIER, 2018. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Queensland Government, 2018. Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition. In: Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition. Australia: Queensland Government. http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/media/Html/search.html

Romani M, Tabacchi M, 2000. Leptochloa fascicularis, a new weed in rice. (Leptochloa fascicularis nuova infestante del riso.). Informatore Agrario. 56 (36), 65-66.

Singh A K, Priyanka Singh, Yogini Devi, Ansari A A, 2009. Grass weeds of cultivated fields in South-Eastern Uttar Pradesh. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany. 33 (1), 81-101. http://www.indianperiodical.in/IP/default.aspx

Tian ZhiHui, Wang YiMing, Wu XueYuan, Gu ChunJun, Shen GuoHui, 2017. Diplachne fusca, a newly recorded dominant species in paddy fields in Shanghai. Acta Agriculturae Shanghai. 33 (4), 55-57. http://www.nyxb.sh.cn

University of Michigan Herbarium, 2014. Diplachne fusca., University of Michigan. http://michiganflora.net/species.aspx?id=2143

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-ARS, 2018. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2018. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Valls JFM, 2015. Leptochloa fusca. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB112160

Verloove F, 2013. New xenophytes from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain), with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially) invasive species. In: Collectanea Botanica, 32 59-82.

WCSP, 2018. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. In: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Richmond, London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/home.do

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Principal Source

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Draft datasheet under review

Contributors

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07/08/18 Updated by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

29/03/17 Original text by: 

Chris Parker, Consultant, UK

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