Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

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Leonurus sibiricus
(Siberian motherwort)

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Datasheet

Leonurus sibiricus (Siberian motherwort)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 03 January 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Documented Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Leonurus sibiricus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Siberian motherwort
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Leonurus sibiricus is an annual to biennial herb native to Russia, Mongolia and China. It is confined to grasslands and Pinus forests in its original native distribution. Records of L. sibiricus...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Leonurus sibiricus (Siberian motherwort); flowering habit. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2012.
TitleHabit
CaptionLeonurus sibiricus (Siberian motherwort); flowering habit. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2012.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2012 - CC BY 4.0
Leonurus sibiricus (Siberian motherwort); flowering habit. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2012.
HabitLeonurus sibiricus (Siberian motherwort); flowering habit. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2012.©Forest & Kim Starr-2012 - CC BY 4.0
Leonurus sibiricus (Siberian motherwort); flowering habit. Ulupalakua greenhouse, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionLeonurus sibiricus (Siberian motherwort); flowering habit. Ulupalakua greenhouse, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Leonurus sibiricus (Siberian motherwort); flowering habit. Ulupalakua greenhouse, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
HabitLeonurus sibiricus (Siberian motherwort); flowering habit. Ulupalakua greenhouse, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Leonurus sibiricus (Siberian motherwort); cloe view of flowers. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2012.
TitleFlowers
CaptionLeonurus sibiricus (Siberian motherwort); cloe view of flowers. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2012.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2012 - CC BY 4.0
Leonurus sibiricus (Siberian motherwort); cloe view of flowers. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2012.
FlowersLeonurus sibiricus (Siberian motherwort); cloe view of flowers. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2012.©Forest & Kim Starr-2012 - CC BY 4.0
Leonurus sibiricus (Siberian motherwort); flower buds and leaves. Hanamu Rd., Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
TitleFlower buds and leaves
CaptionLeonurus sibiricus (Siberian motherwort); flower buds and leaves. Hanamu Rd., Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Leonurus sibiricus (Siberian motherwort); flower buds and leaves. Hanamu Rd., Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
Flower buds and leavesLeonurus sibiricus (Siberian motherwort); flower buds and leaves. Hanamu Rd., Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Leonurus sibiricus (Siberian motherwort); flower buds, stem and leaves. Hanamu Rd., Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
TitleFlower buds, stem and leaves
CaptionLeonurus sibiricus (Siberian motherwort); flower buds, stem and leaves. Hanamu Rd., Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Leonurus sibiricus (Siberian motherwort); flower buds, stem and leaves. Hanamu Rd., Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.
Flower buds, stem and leavesLeonurus sibiricus (Siberian motherwort); flower buds, stem and leaves. Hanamu Rd., Makawao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Leonurus sibiricus (Siberian motherwort); stem. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2013.
TitleStem
CaptionLeonurus sibiricus (Siberian motherwort); stem. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2013.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2013 - CC BY 4.0
Leonurus sibiricus (Siberian motherwort); stem. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2013.
StemLeonurus sibiricus (Siberian motherwort); stem. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2013.©Forest & Kim Starr-2013 - CC BY 4.0
Leonurus sibiricus (Siberian motherwort); young leaves. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2013.
TitleYoung leaves
CaptionLeonurus sibiricus (Siberian motherwort); young leaves. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2013.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2013 - CC BY 4.0
Leonurus sibiricus (Siberian motherwort); young leaves. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2013.
Young leavesLeonurus sibiricus (Siberian motherwort); young leaves. Ulupalakua Ranch, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2013.©Forest & Kim Starr-2013 - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Leonurus sibiricus L.

Preferred Common Name

  • Siberian motherwort

Other Scientific Names

  • Lamium sibiricum (L.) Cordem.
  • Leonurus manshuricus Y.Yabe
  • Leonurus multifidus (Moench) Desf.
  • Leonurus occidentalis Colla
  • Panzeria angustifolia Raf.
  • Panzeria multifida Moench
  • Panzeria sibirica Steud.
  • Phlomis sibirica (L.) Medik.

International Common Names

  • Chinese: xi ye yi mu cao

Summary of Invasiveness

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Leonurus sibiricus is an annual to biennial herb native to Russia, Mongolia and China. It is confined to grasslands and Pinus forests in its original native distribution. Records of L. sibiricus are often wrongly attributed and belong to the species L. japonicus, which is naturalized worldwide and is considered invasive in some areas, including Cuba and some islands in Oceania.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Lamiales
  •                         Family: Lamiaceae
  •                             Genus: Leonurus
  •                                 Species: Leonurus sibiricus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The genus Leonurus in the family Lamiaceae consists of approximately 20 species, some of which have medicinal uses (Boalino et al., 2004). The species epithet, L. sibiricus, has been wrongly applied to a common tropical weedy species, L. japonicus (Harley and Paton, 2001). The correction has not been consistently applied in the literature or on internet sites, which leads to confusion about the distribution of the species and references that are wrongly attributed to L. sibiricus.

Description

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The following description is from Flora of China Editorial Committee (2017):

Herbs annual or biennial. Stems erect, 20-80 cm, appressed strigose. Lower stem leaves early deciduous. Petiole of mid stem leaves ca 2 cm; leaf blade ovate, ca 5 x 4 cm, sparsely strigose, abaxially glandular, base broadly cuneate, 3-palmatisect; lobes narrowly oblong-rhombic, 3-lobulate, lobules linear, 1-3 mm wide; veins yellowish white abaxially. Verticillasters many flowered, 3-3.5 cm in diameter; upper floral leaves subrhombic, 3-palmatisect; lobes narrow, with 3 linear lobules 1-2 mm wide; bracteoles spiny, reflexed, shorter than calyx tube, 4-6 mm, strigose. Flowers sessile. Calyx tubular-campanulate, 8-9 mm, densely pilose at middle otherwise appressed puberulent; anterior teeth slightly spreading, subulate-triangular, 3-4 mm, apex spinescent; posterior teeth triangular, 2-3 mm, apex spinescent. Corolla white or reddish to purple-red, ca 1.8 cm; tube ca 9 mm, glabrous, scaly annulate inside; limb densely villous, glabrous inside; upper lip oblong, straight, concave, ca 10 x 5 mm, margin entire; lower lip ca 7 x 5 mm, 3/4 as long as upper lip; middle lobe obcordate, base constricted, margin membranous, apex emarginate; lateral lobes ovate. Filaments sparsely scaly. Nutlets brown, oblong, triquetrous, ca 2.5 mm, base cuneate, apex truncate.

Plant Type

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Biennial
Broadleaved
Herbaceous

Distribution

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L. sibiricus is native to Russia, Mongolia and China (USDA-ARS, 2017). Reports of L. sibiricus in tropical Asia, Africa, Oceania, Europe and the Neotropics belong to L. japonicus, which is a widespread Asian species (Harley and Paton, 2001). According to Verloove and Lambinon (2008), L. sibiricus does not occur outside its native distribution. Searches in some herbaria databases show the need to revise the identification of the records of L. sibiricus (New York Botanical Garden, 2017; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017; Virtual Herbaria Austria, 2017). Verloove and Lambinon (2008) also indicate that the European reports of L. sibiricus need to be revised, as they most likely belong to L. japonicus. Although reported as present in Korea, Park and Do (2007) state that the correct species is L. japonicus. Seo et al. (2014) report the species as cultivated at a small scale in Korea, but they state that the species is “a widely distributed subtropical weed in southeast Asia”, suggesting it is a reference to L. japonicus and not L. sibiricus. The species is referenced in the “Book of Poetry” as occurring in China since the West Chou dynasty from 1134 B.C. (Keng, 1974).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017
-HebeiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017
-Nei MengguPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017
-ShaanxiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017
-ShanxiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017
IndiaAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive Boissya et al., 1981
IndonesiaAbsent, invalid recordIntroducedNational Museum of Natural History, 2017
Korea, Republic ofAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive Park and Do, 2007; Seo et al., 2014
MalaysiaAbsent, formerly presentIntroduced Not invasive Ridley, 1908Introduced by the Chinese for medicinal use but did not establish outside of cultivation
MongoliaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2017
PhilippinesAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive National Museum of Natural History, 2017
ThailandAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive Craib, 1911

North America

BermudaAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive National Museum of Natural History, 2017
CanadaAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017
-ManitobaAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2017
-QuebecAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017
MexicoAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017Chiapas, Oaxaca, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, Yucatán
USAAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017
-ArkansasAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2017
-CaliforniaAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive Dean et al., 2008Cultivated
-DelawareAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017
-FloridaAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017
-HawaiiAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2017
-IllinoisAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2017
-IowaAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017
-KentuckyAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017
-LouisianaAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017
-MinnesotaAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2017
-MississippiAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2017
-MissouriAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2017
-NebraskaAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017
-OhioAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2017
-OklahomaAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2017
-PennsylvaniaAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017
-TexasAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017
-VirginiaAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2017
-West VirginiaAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2017

Central America and Caribbean

AnguillaAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive National Museum of Natural History, 2017
BahamasAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive National Museum of Natural History, 2017Nassau
BarbadosAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive National Museum of Natural History, 2017
BelizeAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive D’Arcy, 1967Tortola
Costa RicaAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017
CubaAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Invasive Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012
DominicaAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive National Museum of Natural History, 2017
Dominican RepublicAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017
El SalvadorAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017
GuadeloupeAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive National Museum of Natural History, 2017
GuatemalaAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017Alta Verapaz, Chiquimula, Escuintla, Guatemala, Jalapa, Sacatepéquez, Santa Rosa
HaitiAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive National Museum of Natural History, 2017
HondurasAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017El Paraíso
JamaicaAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive National Museum of Natural History, 2017
MartiniqueAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive National Museum of Natural History, 2017
Netherlands AntillesAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive National Museum of Natural History, 2017Saba
Puerto RicoAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive National Museum of Natural History, 2017
United States Virgin IslandsAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive National Museum of Natural History, 2017St. John, St. Croix

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017Buenos Aires, Córdoba, Entre Ríos, Formosa, Jujuy Misiones, Salta
BoliviaAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017Chuquisaca, Santa Cruz, Tarija
BrazilAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017
-Rio de JaneiroAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive National Museum of Natural History, 2017
-Santa CatarinaAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017
ColombiaAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017Valle del Cauca
ParaguayAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017
PeruAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017Junín

Europe

BelgiumAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive Verloove and Lambinon, 2008
Russian FederationPresentNativeHämet-Ahti, 1970; USDA-ARS, 2017
-Eastern SiberiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2017
UKAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive PFAF, 2017

Oceania

AustraliaAbsent, invalid recordIntroduced Not invasive Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2010
French PolynesiaAbsent, invalid record Not invasive National Museum of Natural History, 2017

History of Introduction and Spread

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It is unlikely that L. sibiricus has been introduced outside its native range.

Risk of Introduction

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There is not enough information available to assess the risk of introduction of this species, but it is thought to be low. Although seeds and plant material named “L. sibiricus” appear to be available for sale on the internet for use as a legal drug, the exact details of the species’ identity are not given. It should be a priority to establish the identity of the species available for sale.

Ridley (1908) reported that the species was brought into Malaysia by the Chinese for medicinal use, but it did not establish beyond cultivation. Seeds of L. sibiricus were available for exchange at the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew by 1908, but there is uncertainty about which species of Leonurus the seeds were from.

Habitat

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L. sibiricus is one of the dominant species in the understory of Mongolian pine forests in China (Zeng et al., 2009). It also occurs in grasslands and at elevations from sea level to 1500 m (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017). Hämet-Ahti (1970) also reports that it grows on gravel beds at the foot of terracotta coloured rocks, in dumps, roadsides and yards.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for L. sibiricus is n = 10 (Löve, 1973).

Physiology and Phenology

L. sibiricus flowers from July to September and fruits in September (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017).

Environmental Requirements

L. sibiricus is found on stony or sandy soils (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Preferred Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
24-60 0 1500

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 0 22

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall228748mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil texture

  • light

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Medicinal useUsed medicinally where native Yes Ridley, 1908; Schmidt et al., 2013
People foragingVegetable and famine food source Yes Baranov, 1967
ResearchRecent research on potential for medicinal uses Yes Yes Schmidt et al., 2013; Pitschmann et al., 2016

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Plants or parts of plantsAvailable in local drugstores and markets in China Yes Keng, 1974; Schmidt et al., 2013

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Tolerant of shade
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

Uses

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Economic Value

L. sibiricus can be found in Chinese drugstores and domestic markets (Keng, 1974; Schmidt et al., 2013). Although seeds of “Siberian motherwort” or “marihuanilla” are sold over the internet for medicinal use and as a legal high drug, it is very likely that the species being used commercially is L. japonicas rather than L. sibiricus.

Social Benefit

L. sibiricus is used to treat poisoning, diarrhoea, fever, diabetes, menstrual irregularities, amenorrhea, malaria, hypertension, and it is used as an anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antibacterial; recent research into its medicinal uses has been carried out by Schmidt et al. (2013) and Pitschmann, et al. (2016). The leaves are gathered during the spring in northeast China to be eaten as a vegetable and as food source during famine (Baranov, 1967). 

References to the uses of L. sibiricus in various countries outside its native range most probably refer to L. japonicus. For example, there are various references to research in Brazil involving L. sibiricus (e.g. Christo et al., 2006; Búfalo et al., 2014), but according to Flora do Brasil (2017), the species does not occur in that country.

Environmental Services

L. sibiricus extracts are used to control aphids in China (Yang and Tang, 1988).

Uses List

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General

  • Research model

Human food and beverage

  • Emergency (famine) food
  • Vegetable

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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L. sibiricus is similar in morphology to L. japonicus. The latter has leaf lobes more than 3 mm wide and a corolla 9-13 mm long, whereas L. sibiricus has linear (less than 3 mm wide) leaf lobes and a corolla ca 18 mm long. (Verloove and Lambinon, 2008). L sibiricus also has a deflexed lower lip in the calyx while L. japonicus has a smaller calyx with erect teeth (Harley and Paton, 2001).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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There is almost no information about the biology of L. sibiricus or its environmental requirements. There is misleading information available about L. sibiricus that should be attributed to L. japonicus. Information is needed about the identity of the species being sold over the internet as “L. sibiricus”.

References

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Anonymous, 1908. List of seeds of hardy herbaceous plants and of trees and shrubs. Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information. Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 1908:1-21

Baranov AI, 1967. Wild vegetables of the Chinese in Manchuria. Economic Botany, 21, 140-55. doi: 10.1007/BF02897862

Boalino DM, McLean S, Reynolds WF, Tinto WF, 2004. Labdane Diterpenes of Leonurus sibiricus. Journal of Natural Products, 67:714-717

Boissya CL, Majumder R, Majumder AK, 1981. Some medicinal plants from Darrang District of Assam, India. Anthropos, 76(1/2):220-222

Búfalo, J., Almeida, L. F. R. de, Vieira, M. A. R., Marques, M. O. M., Boaro, C. S. F., 2014. Composition of essential oil peppermint cultivated with methanolic extract of Leonurus sibiricus L. leaves. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 26(4), 247-253. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10412905.2014.910710 doi: 10.1080/10412905.2014.910710

Christo AG, Guedes-Bruni RR, Fonseca-Kruel VD da, 2006. Uso de recursos vegetais em comunidades rurais limítrofes à Reserva Biológica de Poço das Antas, Silva Jardim, Rio de Janeiro: estudo de caso na Gleba Aldeia Velha. Rodiguésia, 57(3):519-542

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2010. Australian Plant Census. https://id.biodiversity.org.au/instance/apni/907180

Craib WG, 1911. Contributions to the Flora of Siam. II. List of Siamese Plants, with Descriptions of New Species. Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information. Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 1911(10):385-448

D’Arcy WG, 1967. Annotated checklist of the dicotyledons of Tortola, Virgin Islands. Rhodora, 69:385-450

Dean E, Hrusa F, Leppig G, Sanders A, Ertter B, 2008. Catalogue of nonnative vascular plants occurring spontaneously in California beyond those addressed in the Jepson Manual-Part II. Madroño, 55(2):93-112

Flora do Brasil, 2017. Brazilian Flora 2020 in construction. http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ConsultaPublicaUC.do#CondicaoTaxonCP

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Harley, R., Paton, A., 2001. Leonurus japonicus Houtt. (Labiatae): the correct name for a common tropical weed. Kew Bulletin, 56(1), 243-244. doi: 10.2307/4119443

Hämet-Ahti L, 1970. A. K. Cajander's vascular plant collection from the Lena River, Siberia, with his ecological and floristic notes. Annales Botanici Fennici, 7(3):255-324

Keng H, 1974. Economic plants of ancient north China as mentioned in: Shih Ching” (Book of Poetry). Economic Botany, 28(4):391-410

Löve A, 1973. IOPB chromosome number reports XLII. Taxon, 22(5/6):647-654

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden http://www.tropicos.org/

National Museum of Natural History, 2017. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/colls/collections_overview.htm

New York Botanical Garden, 2017. The C.V. Starr Virtual Herbarium. New York, USA: The New York Botanical Garden. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/vh/

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al., 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6 (Special Issue 1):22-96

Park JL, Do WI, 2007. Pharmacognostical studies on the Ig Mo Cho. Saeng’yag haghoeji. http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=KR2007003468

PFAF, 2017. Plants For A Future Database. http://www.pfaf.org/USER/Default.aspx

Pitschmann, A., Zehl, M., Heiss, E., Purevsuren, S., Urban, E., Dirsch, V. M., Glasl, S., 2016. Quantitation of phenylpropanoids and iridoids in insulin-sensitising extracts of Leonurus sibiricus L. (Lamiaceae). Phytochemical Analysis, 27(1), 23-31. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1099-1565 doi: 10.1002/pca.2583

Ridley NH, 1908. The Labiates of the Malay Peninsula. Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 50:105-107

Schmidt S, Jakab M, Jav S, Sreif D, Pitschmann A, Zehl M, Purevsuren S, Glasl S, Ritter M, 2013. Extracts from Leonurus sibiricus L. increase insulin secretion and proliferation of rat INS-1E insulinoma cells. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 150:85-94

Seo JK, Shin OJ, Kwak HR, Kim MK, Choi HS, 2014. First report of Broad Bean Wilt Virus 2 in Leonurus sibiricus in Korea. Plant Disease, 98(12):1748

USDA-ARS, 2017. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

USDA-NRCS, 2017. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Verloove F, Lambinon J, 2008. Neophytes in Belgium: Corrections and Adjustments. Systematics and Geography of Plants, 78(1):63-79

Virtual Herbaria Austria, 2017. Virtual Herbaria Austria. Vienna, Austria: University of Vienna. http://herbarium.univie.ac.at/database/search.php

Yang, R. Z., Tang, C. S., 1988. Plants used for pest control in China: a literature review. Economic Botany, 42(3), 376-406. doi: 10.1007/BF02860162

Zeng, D. H., Hu, Y. L., Chang, S. X., Fan, Z. P., 2009. Land cover change effects on soil chemical and biological properties after planting Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) in sandy lands in Keerqin, northeastern China. Plant and Soil, 317(1/2), 121-133. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100326 doi: 10.1007/s11104-008-9793-z

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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31/03/17 Original text by:

Jeanine Vélez-Gavilán, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico

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