Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Kalanchoe integra
(Never die)

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Datasheet

Kalanchoe integra (Never die)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Kalanchoe integra
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Never die
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • K. integra is a fleshy perennial plant which is reported as invasive and as a transformer species for Cuba by Oviedo-Prieto et al. (2012). No further information about...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Kalanchoe integra (Never die); flowering habit. New Caledonia. May 2010.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionKalanchoe integra (Never die); flowering habit. New Caledonia. May 2010.
Copyright©B. Henry/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Kalanchoe integra (Never die); flowering habit. New Caledonia. May 2010.
Flowering habitKalanchoe integra (Never die); flowering habit. New Caledonia. May 2010.©B. Henry/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Kalanchoe integra (Never die); flowers and leaves. New Caledonia. May 2010.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionKalanchoe integra (Never die); flowers and leaves. New Caledonia. May 2010.
Copyright©B. Henry/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Kalanchoe integra (Never die); flowers and leaves. New Caledonia. May 2010.
Flowering habitKalanchoe integra (Never die); flowers and leaves. New Caledonia. May 2010.©B. Henry/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Kalanchoe integra (Medik.) Kuntze

Preferred Common Name

  • Never die

Other Scientific Names

  • Cotyledon integra Medik.
  • Cotyledon spathulata (DC.) Poir.
  • Kalanchoe coccinea Welw, ex Oliv.
  • Kalanchoe deficiens (Forssk.) Asch. & Schweinf.
  • Kalanchoe spathulata DC.
  • Kalanchoe yunnanensis Gagnep.

International Common Names

  • English: flame kalanchoe; life-plant; never-die

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: fohla da costa
  • China: chi ye jia lan cai
  • India: bish kobra; kumuda gedde; parnabija; slundhuru; zakhme hayat; zakhmihayat
  • Philippines: tabbatabba
  • Puerto Rico: doradilla; madre de la bruja

Summary of Invasiveness

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K. integra is a fleshy perennial plant which is reported as invasive and as a transformer species for Cuba by Oviedo-Prieto et al. (2012). No further information about its invasiveness and its effect on other species or habitats is provided.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Rosales
  •                         Family: Crassulaceae
  •                             Genus: Kalanchoe
  •                                 Species: Kalanchoe integra

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The Crassulaceae family has about 1500 species; part of the name “crassu” relates to the thickness of the leaves (Allorge-Boiteau, 1996). The Kalanchoe genus is found in tropical to temperate areas. The genus name is reported to derive from the Chinese common name of one of the species (Baldwin, 1938). The epithet integra means entire (Anon, 2016).

Kalanchoe integra is sometimes included in K. laciniata; which is reported as needing more studies (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2016). The name Cotyledon integra is an unresolved name for the species (The Plant List, 2013). There are some published reports on the botanical variety K. integra var. crenata, but The Plant List (2013) treats this as a synonym of the separate species Kalanchoe crenata. This can cause some uncertainty when citing distribution, as some reports of K. integra may be of K. crenata. USDA-ARS (2016) now lists K. integra as a synonym of Kalanchoe deficiens, but The Plant List (2013) has K. integra as the accepted name. The common name Never Die is also applied to K. crenata, which adds to the difficulty in finding reliable information about K. integra.

Description

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The following description is from the Flora of Pakistan, 2016:

Perennial, glabrous, succulent herb. Stem 30­120 cm high, branched, erect, stout. Leaves simple, opposite, succulent, spathulate­oblong or spathulate, crenate, crenate­serrate, obtuse, 8­17 x 2.5­8 cm, petiole 2­5 cm long. Inflorescence axillary corymbose or paniculate. Flowers erect, large, bisexual, 4­merous, pedicel 3­8 mm long. Calyx lobes united at base, triangular, glabrous, acute, 7­10 x 2­4 mm. Corolla glabrous, yellow, lobes ovate, acute, 5­21 x 4­7 mm. Filaments inserted at the middle of corolla. Carpels 4, styles smaller than ovary, ovules numerous per locule. Nectar scales linear, 3­4 x 0.2­0.3 mm. Follicles, 6­10 x 2­4 mm. Seeds oblong, with longitudinal striae, 0.5­1 x 0.1­0.2 mm.

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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K. integra is native to the tropical Himalaya region, India, China, Bhutan and Java (Sharma et al., 2011; Flora of Pakistan, 2016). It is introduced in the Americas and the Caribbean, and possibly in Oceania and Africa, but caution must be taken with exotic distribution records which in some cases may refer to K. crenata (Oviedo-Prieto et al., 2012; Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2016; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016). Information on the species in JSTOR Global Plants (2016) cautions that for African records it is not possible with certainty to separate information on K. integra and K. crenata. A mention of it being present and sometimes invasive in Hawaii and other Pacific territories (Asiedu-Gyekye et al., 2014) appears most likely to be referring to K. integra var. crenata.

It is regarded as endangered in Punjab and Chandigarh, India (Sharma, 2012). In Japan, it is considered also as endangered, being in cultivation but rare in the wild, as reported by Kouchi (2014) in the Ryukyu Shimpo-Okinawa newspaper.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BurundiPresentIntroduced1971JSTOR Global Plants (2016)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentIntroducedBurkhill (1985)
MalawiPresentIntroducedHargreaves (1977)
RwandaPresentIntroduced1978Muséum National D’Histoire Naturelle (2016)
Sierra LeonePresentIntroducedBurkhill (1985)

Asia

BhutanPresentNativeNew York Botanical Garden (2016)
CambodiaPresentNativeNew York Botanical Garden (2016)
ChinaPresentNativeNew York Botanical Garden (2016)
-FujianPresentNativeNew York Botanical Garden (2016)
-GuangdongPresentNativeNew York Botanical Garden (2016)
-TibetPresentNativeNew York Botanical Garden (2016)
-YunnanPresentNativeNew York Botanical Garden (2016)
IndiaPresentNativeNew York Botanical Garden (2016)
-ChandigarhPresentNativeSharma (2012)Endangered
-Himachal PradeshPresentNativeSharma et al. (2011)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentNativeNew York Botanical Garden (2016)
-PunjabPresentNativeSharma (2012)Endangered
-SikkimPresentNativeFlora of Pakistan (2016)
IndonesiaPresentNativeEncyclopedia of Life (2016)
-JavaPresentNativeEncyclopedia of Life (2016)
JapanPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationKouchi (2014)Critically endangered in Japan
-Ryukyu IslandsPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationKouchi (2014)Critically endangered in Japan
LaosPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
MalaysiaPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
NepalPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
PakistanPresentNativeFlora of Pakistan (2016)
PhilippinesPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016); Bodner and Gereau (1988)
TaiwanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
ThailandPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
VietnamPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
YemenPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)

North America

BelizePresentIntroducedNew York Botanical Garden (2016)Cayo district
BermudaPresentIntroduced1913New York Botanical Garden (2016)Agar’s Island
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasiveOviedo Prieto et al. (2012); Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced1929New York Botanical Garden (2016); Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)Cultivated and on roadsides
Puerto RicoPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced1925New York Botanical Garden (2016)Planted at the Trujillo Plant Propagation Station. Santurce
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNew York Botanical Garden (2016)Naturalized in gardens, St. Thomas
United StatesPresent, LocalizedIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2016)Florida
-FloridaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2016)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedPalmer and Senaratne (2016)As an ornamental and minor weed
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedPalmer and Senaratne (2016)As an ornamental and minor weed

South America

BrazilPresentIntroducedVoeks (1996); New York Botanical Garden (2016)
-BahiaPresentIntroducedVoeks (1996)
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroduced1915New York Botanical Garden (2016)

History of Introduction and Spread

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There are no details about the introduction of the species outside its native range or its spread. It is recorded in the West Indies by the early 1900’s, presumably introduced as an ornamental as it is listed as cultivated, planted or as an ornamental (Axelrod, 2011; New York Botanical Garden, 2016).

Risk of Introduction

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There is very little information about K. integra reproductive biology, its effect on other native species and why it is being considered as an invasive in the areas reported as such. Although it is used as an ornamental, few sites list it as available for sale. It is on the list of species available for sale at the Growing Friend’s Nursery of the Royal Botanic Garden in Sydney, Australia (2016). Without further information K. integra should be considered as being of medium risk of introduction.

Habitat

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The species is found in scrub forests, hummocks, waste places, roadsides (Sharma et al., 2011; Encyclopedia of Life, 2016; Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2016). It is also cultivated as an ornamental species (Axelrod, 2011; New York Botanical Garden, 2016).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The reported chromosome number for K. integra is 2n=34 (Baldwin, 1938).

Reproductive Biology

Although the Kalanchoe species produce seeds, most of the reproduction is vegetative, either by producing plants at the margins of leaves or by stem cuttings (Allorge-Boiteau, 1996; Davenport, 2016). Some species are reported to have seed germination between 14-28 hours and normally in temperatures between 15-20°C (Allorge-Boiteau, 1996). March to October is the best period for propagation of Kalanchoe species in India (Flowers of India, 2016).

Physiology and phenology

Most of the information available is from Kalanchoe species used as ornamentals (Davenport, 2016). Kalanchoe species require short day lengths for flower development. Plants exposed to over 25°C night temperature will have flower development inhibition.

Cytokinins affect the sexual development of the flowers of K. integra, favouring the female flowers (Richards, 1997). K. integra flowers during the winter in North America (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2016).

Environmental Requirements

Kalanchoe species grow best in full sun and well-drained soils: damage will occur from overwatering. The ideal temperatures are 7-18°C at night and 10-21°C during the day. Some species will grow best in temperature ranges from 17-40°C. They will not tolerate frosts (Davenport, 2016).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
36 46

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 0

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Osphilia tenuipes attacks various Kalanchoe species, including K. integra (Palmer and Senaratne, 2016).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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The species has been introduced as an ornamental outside its natural range (Axelrod, 2011; New York Botanical Garden, 2016).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
DisturbanceFound on roadsides Yes Sharma et al., 2011
Escape from confinement or garden escapeSometimes grown as ornamental Yes
HorticultureIntroduced to various countries as an ornamental Yes Yes New York Botanical Garden, 2016
Medicinal use Yes Yes Sharma et al., 2011
Ornamental purposesIntroduced to various countries as an ornamental Yes Yes New York Botanical Garden, 2016

Environmental Impact

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K. integra is reported as causing acute poisoning in some animals (Varma et al., 1979; Sharma et al., 2011). Toxic symptoms include anorexia, ruminal atony, diarrhoea, heart rate rhythm abnormalities, dyspnea, gasping, coma, central depression, myocardial degeneration, hemorrhages and death (Varma et al., 1979; Milad et al., 2014).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Long lived
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts animal health
Impact mechanisms
  • Poisoning
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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K. integra can be cultivated as an ornamental, and also has medicinal value (JSTOR Global Plants (2016). Some activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been reported for K. integra (Gupta et al, 2010). The species is also reported as having hepatoprotective, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant and central nervous system depressing activities (Sharma et al., 2011).

Traditional medicinal uses reported for K. integra include treatment of headaches, hypertension, ear-aches, intestinal worms, malaria, cholera, wounds, sores, asthma, palpitations, coughs, fever, as a sedative, and a tonic (Burkhill, 1985; Voeks, 1996; Ankli et al., 1999; Sharma et al, 2011; Flowers of India, 2016). Burkill (1985) also report the species as used in religion, superstition and magical rituals in West Africa, although JSTOR Global Plants (2016) cautions that it is not possible to reliably separate information for K. integra and K. crenata.

K. integra is one of the hosts for the threatened red pierrot butterfly, Talicada nyseus in India (Bais, 2015).

Uses List

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General

  • Botanical garden/zoo
  • Ritual uses

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • garden plant

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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The species is reported as sometimes being included in K. laciniata (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2016). K. integra leaves are entire, irregularly crenate, and the cymes are glandular-pubescent, while K. laciniata leaves are entire to lobed and the cymes are not glandular.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

The stenophagous weevil, Osphilia tenuipes has been identified as a potential biological control for exotic Kalanchoe species in Australia; not affecting the native Crassulaceae species (Palmer and Senaratne, 2016). K. integra was one of a number of species tested in a study of biocontrol agents for weedy Bryophyllum spp., with no indication that control of K. integra was being contemplated.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Little information is available for the species. More research is needed on its potential invasiveness, biology and environmental requirements.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Allorge-Boiteau L, 1996. Madagascar the centre of speciation and origin of the genus Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae). (Madagascar centre de speciation et d’origine du genre Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae)). In: Biogéographie de Madagascar, [ed. by Lourenco WR]. Paris, France: Colloque International. 137-145.

Ankli, A., Sticher, O., Heinrich, M., 1999. Medical ethnobotany of the Yucatec Maya: healers' consensus as a quantitative criterion. Economic Botany, 53(2), 144-160. doi: 10.1007/BF02866493

Anon, 2016. Dictionary of Botanical Epithets, insectifer – ionanthus. http://www.winternet.com/~chuckg/dictionary/dictionary.105.html

Asiedu-Gyekye, I. J., Awortwe, C., Tagoe, N. A. B., Antwi, D. A., Adjei, S., Edusei, D. I., Benoit, N. B. K., Amoateng, P., Nkansah, E., 2014. Preliminary investigation of the anti-asthmatic potential of Kalanchoe integra leaf extract using a model of allergic airway inflammation. European Journal of Medicinal Plants, 4(5), 542-562. http://www.sciencedomain.org/abstract.php?iid=412&id=13&aid=3442

Axelrod FS, 2011. A systematic vademecum of the vascular plants of Puerto Rico, Texas, USA: Botanical Research Institute of Texas.420 pp.

Bais, R. K. S., 2015. A failure of the Red Pierrot Talicada nyseus Guérin-Méneville, 1843 (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) butterfly to colonize Delhi area. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 7(2), 6920-6926. http://www.threatenedtaxa.in/index.php/JoTT/article/view/1854/3155

Baldwin, J. T., Jr., 1938. Kalanchoe: the genus and its chromosomes. American Journal of Botany, 25, 572-579. doi: 10.2307/2436516

Bodner, C. C., Gereau, R. E., 1988. A contribution to Bontoc ethnobotany. Economic Botany, 42(3), 307-369. doi: 10.1007/BF02860159

Burkhill HM, 1985. The useful plants of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2: Families E-I, Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens.639 pp.

Davenport M, 2016. Kalanchoe. Extension-Clemson University. http://www.clemson.edu/extension/hgic/plants/indoor/flowering/hgic1563.html

Encyclopedia of Life, 2016. Encyclopedia of Life. http://www.eol.org

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of North America North of Mexico. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1

Flora of Pakistan, 2016. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Tropicos website. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

Flowers of India, 2016. Flowers of India. http://www.flowersofindia.net/

Gupta, V. K., Shukla, C., Bisht, G. R. S., Saikia, D., Kumar, S., Thakur, R. L., 2011. Detection of anti-tuberculosis activity in some folklore plants by radiometric BACTEC assay. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 52(1), 33-40. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/lam doi: 10.1111/j.1472-765X.2010.02963.x

Hargreaves BJ, 1977. Succulents of Chitipa-the muddy place. The Society of Malawi Journal, 31(1), 28-34.

JSTOR Global Plants, 2016. JSTOR Global Plants Database. Ann Arbor, MI and New York, NY, USA: JSTOR. http://plants.jstor.org

Kouchi M, 2014. Okinawan flower lovers taking care of endangered “mustard-like” flower. Ryukyu Shimpo. http://english.ryukyushimpo.jp/2014/04/02/13523/

Milad, R., El-Ahmady, S., Singab, A. N., 2014. Genus Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae): a review of its ethnomedicinal, botanical, chemical and pharmacological properties. European Journal of Medicinal Plants, 4(1), 86-104. http://www.sciencedomain.org/abstract.php?iid=281&id=13&aid=2372

Missouri Botanical Garden, Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Muséum National D’Histoire Naturelle, 2016. National Museum of Natural History. https://www.mnhn.fr/en

New York Botanical Garden, 2016. The C.V. Starr Virtual Herbarium. New York, USA: The New York Botanical Garden. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/vh/

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al., et al. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96

Palmer WA, Senaratne KADW, 2016. Assessment of a stenophagous weevil, Osphilia tenuipes (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), as a potential biological control agent for weedy Bryophyllum ssp. (Crassulaceae) in Australia. Biological Control, 100, 101-107.

Richards AJ, 1997. Plant breeding systems, Garland Science.529 pp.

Sharma M, 2012. Endemic and threatened vascular plants of Punjab and Chandigarh. In: Phytogeography, Endemism and RET Plants. Multidisciplinary Approaches in Angiosperm Systematics, Volume 2, 469-475.

Sharma NK, Priyanka, Jha KK, 2011. Evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Kalanchoe spathulata leaves extracts. Journal of Advanced Scientific Research, 2(4), 71-73.

Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, 2016. Smithsonian Museum of Natural History Botany Collections. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Museum of Natural History. http://collections.nmnh.si.edu/search/botany/

The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.theplantlist.org

USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, USA. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

USDA-NRCS, 2016. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Voeks, R. A., 1996. Tropical forest healers and habitat preference. Economic Botany, 50(4), 381-400. doi: 10.1007/BF02866520

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Bodner C C, Gereau R E, 1988. A contribution to Bontoc ethnobotany. Economic Botany. 42 (3), 307-369. DOI:10.1007/BF02860159

Burkhill HM, 1985. he useful plants of West Tropical Africa, Vol. 2: Families E-I., Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens. 639 pp.

Encyclopedia of Life, 2016. Encyclopedia of Life. In: Encyclopedia of Life. http://www.eol.org

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Pakistan, 2016. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website. In: Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

Hargreaves BJ, 1977. Succulents of Chitipa-the muddy place. In: The Society of Malawi Journal, 31 (1) 28-34.

JSTOR Global Plants, 2016. JSTOR Global Plants Database., http://plants.jstor.org

Kouchi M, 2014. Okinawan flower lovers taking care of endangered “mustard-like” flower. In: Ryukyu Shimpo, Okinawa, http://english.ryukyushimpo.jp/2014/04/02/13523/

Muséum National D’Histoire Naturelle, 2016. National Museum of Natural History., https://www.mnhn.fr/en

New York Botanical Garden, 2016. The C. Starr Virtual Herbarium. In: The C. Starr Virtual Herbarium. New York, USA: New York Botanical Garden. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/vh/

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

Palmer WA, Senaratne KADW, 2016. Assessment of a stenophagous weevil, Osphilia tenuipes (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), as a potential biological control agent for weedy Bryophyllum ssp. (Crassulaceae) in Australia. In: Biological Control, 100 101-107.

Sharma M, 2012. Endemic and threatened vascular plants of Punjab and Chandigarh. In: Phytogeography, Endemism and RET Plants. Multidisciplinary Approaches in Angiosperm Systematics, Volume 2, 469-475.

Sharma NK, Priyanka, Jha KK, 2011. Evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Kalanchoe spathulata leaves extracts. In: Journal of Advanced Scientific Research, 2 (4) 71-73.

Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, 2016. Smithsonian Museum of Natural History Botany Collections. In: Smithsonian Museum of Natural History Botany Collections. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Museum of Natural History. http://collections.nmnh.si.edu/search/botany/

USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2016. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Voeks R A, 1996. Tropical forest healers and habitat preference. Economic Botany. 50 (4), 381-400. DOI:10.1007/BF02866520

Links to Websites

Top of page
WebsiteURLComment
Flowers of Indiahttps://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Never-Die.html
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
JSTOR Global Plantshttps://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.upwta.1_1145

Contributors

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25/11/2016 Original text by:

Jeanine Vélez-Gavilán, University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez

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