Hyptis alata (clustered bushmint)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- Biology and Ecology
- Soil Tolerances
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Causes
- Pathway Vectors
- Impact Summary
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Prevention and Control
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Hyptis alata
Preferred Common Name
- clustered bushmint
Other Scientific Names
- Clinopodium rugosum L.
- Hyptis alata subsp. alata
- Hyptis alata var. alata
- Hyptis alata var. stenophylla Shinners
- Hyptis floridana Gand.
- Hyptis latidens Urb.
- Hyptis leiocephala Gand.
- Hyptis radiata Willd.
- Hyptis tracyi Gand.
- Mesosphaerum radiatum Kuntze
- Pycnanthemum alatum Raf.
International Common Names
- English: cluster bushmint; musky bushmint; musky mint
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
Hyptis alata is a perennial herb native to the Americas that grows as a weed in pastures and disturbed sites, forming dense thickets that render affected areas unproductive. Several Hyptis species behave as weeds and have become naturalized principally in savannas, disturbed sites and agricultural systems in warmer and wet regions of the world. A total of 19 Hyptis species are already included in the Global Compendium of Weeds, listed as agricultural weeds, environmental weeds and invasive species.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Lamiales
- Family: Lamiaceae
- Genus: Hyptis
- Species: Hyptis alata
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
The family Lamiaceae includes 236 genera and 7173 species of herbs, shrubs, lianas and, rarely, trees distributed worldwide. Members of this family can be recognized by their opposite, usually serrate leaves, mono-symmetric flowers, usually borne in clearly cymose clusters, and their often aromatic leaves and stems (Stevens, 2016). The genus Hyptis comprises 280 species, distributed primarily across America with a few species occurring in the Old World (Aluri and Reddi, 1996).
Oviedo et al. (2012) listed Hyptis radiata Willd (a synonym of H. alata (Raf.) Shinners) as invasive in Cuba (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Govaerts, 2016). However, according to Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012), Hyptis alata (Raf.) Shinners is native to Cuba and the alien species occurring on this island is Hyptis radiata Kunth, a synonym of Hyptis brevipes Poit.
DescriptionTop of page
The following description is adapted from Harley (1983):
Hyptis alata is an unbranched perennial herb 0.5-5 m high; stems quadrangular, hollow and pithy within, with thickened angles, internodes occasionally somewhat inflated, glabrous to rather sparsely hairy with appressed, ascending hairs, the faces of the internodes bearing scattered sessile glands. Leaves broadly to narrowly rhombic, or narrowly triangular-lanceolate or linear-lanceolate 4.5-8.5 x 1-3.5 cm; lamina smooth or slightly rugose, subglabrous or with scattered, short hairs and sessile glands above, paler beneath, glabrous to hirsute and densely covered with sunken, sessile glands; margin irregularly serrate, to almost entire, especially in lower half. Inflorescence a simple, elongate raceme of pedunculated capitula subtended by leaf-like bracts decreasing markedly above; peduncles 1-5.5 cm long, with appressed, ascending to spreading, villous hairs; capitula at anthesis 1-1.5 cm in diameter. Flowers with calyx 3.7-5 mm long, funnel-shaped and with sub- equal teeth 2-2-5 mm long. Corolla white often with purple dots, 5-8 mm long. Nutlets 1.3-1.5 mm long, oblong-ovoid, slightly triangular in transverse section, with the outer face somewhat rounded, smooth and brown.
Plant TypeTop of page Herbaceous
DistributionTop of page
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 01 May 2020
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Cuba||Present||Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)||Described as introduced and invasive by Oviedo Prieto (2012). Acevedo and Strong (2012) describe Hyptis alata as native and Hyptis radiata Kunth [Hyptis brevipes] as introduced and invasive.?|
|United States||Present||Native||Govaerts (2016)|
|-North Carolina||Present||Native||USDA-NRCS (2016)|
|-South Carolina||Present||Native||Govaerts (2016)|
|Argentina||Present||Native||Govaerts (2016)||Listed as Hyptis alata subsp. rugosula|
|Brazil||Present||Native||Harley et al. (2016)|
|-Parana||Present||Native||Harley et al. (2016)|
|-Rio Grande do Sul||Present||Native||Harley et al. (2016)|
|-Santa Catarina||Present||Native||Harley (1983)||Listed as Hyptis alata subsp. rugosula|
|Paraguay||Present||Native||Govaerts (2016)||Listed as Hyptis alata subsp. rugosula|
HabitatTop of page
Hyptis alata is common weed of wetlands, prairies, pond margins, swamps and marshes. It is also common along roadsides and in overgrazed pastures (Harley, 1983; Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001; USDA-NRCS, 2016).
Biology and EcologyTop of page
The chromosome number reported for H. alata is 2n = 32 (Harley, 1983).
Hyptis alata grows in moist tropical and subtropical regions of North and South America. It prefers fertile, coarse-textured soils and can tolerate water-logged conditions (Harley, 1983).
Soil TolerancesTop of page
- seasonally waterlogged
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
Hyptisalata spreads by seed. Seeds often remain in the bristly fruit and are easily dispersed by wind, water or attached to animal furs, human clothing, machinery and vehicles. It is a common contaminant of hay (Harley, 1983; Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001).
Pathway CausesTop of page
Pathway VectorsTop of page
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Environment (generally)||Positive and negative|
ImpactTop of page
Hyptis alata is a weed of pastures and disturbed sites. This species forms dense thickets that render infested areas unproductive (Harley, 1983; Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001). It also has the potential to invade woodlands, open forests and watercourses and forms dense thickets on flood plain margins (Harley, 1983; Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001; Oviedo et al., 2012).
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Abundant in its native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Pioneering in disturbed areas
- Long lived
- Fast growing
- Modification of successional patterns
- Monoculture formation
- Negatively impacts agriculture
- Reduced native biodiversity
- Rapid growth
- Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
- Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
- Difficult to identify/detect in the field
Uses ListTop of page
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
Small infestations of Hyptis can be controlled by manual removal of plants before seeding. However, chemical control gives better results for controlling larger infestations. Applications of broad-spectrum herbicides (i.e., glyphosate) are recommended for the chemical control of the related species H. suaveolens (Dudhe et al., 2014).
ReferencesTop of page
Aluri, R. J. S., Reddi, C. S., 1996. The explosive floral-mechanism and pollination in the genus Hyptis (Lamiaceae). Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy. Part B, Biological Sciences, 62(2), 117-124.
Dudhe SS, Khirade PD, Dudhe NS, 2014. International Journal of Life Sciences, Special Issue A2. 88-90.
Govaerts, R, 2016. World Checklist of Lamiaceae. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
Harley, R, França, F, Santos, EP, Santos, JS, Pastore, JF, 2016. Lamiaceae. In: Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro.http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB8184
Harley, RM, 1983. Hyptis alata, Amphitropically Disjunct in the Americas. Notes on New World Labiatae V. In: Kew Bulletin,47-52.
Oviedo Prieto, R., Herrera Oliver, P., Caluff, M. G., et al., 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.
Parsons WT, Cuthbertson EG, 2001. Noxious weeds of Australia, Australia: CSIRO publishing.
Stanley TD, Ross EM, 1986. Hyptis Jacq. In: Flora of south-east Queensland Volume 2, Queensland, Australia: Queensland Department of Primary Industries.
Stevens, P. F., 2016. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 13. In: Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 13 . St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/
USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx
CABI, 2020. CABI Distribution Database: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Govaerts R, 2016. World Checklist of Lamiaceae., Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
Harley R, França F, Santos EP, Santos JS, Pastore JF, 2016. Lamiaceae. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB8184
Harley RM, 1983. Hyptis alata, Amphitropically Disjunct in the Americas. Notes on New World Labiatae V. In: Kew Bulletin. 47-52.
ContributorsTop of page
18/08/16 Original text by:
Dr. Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH
Distribution MapsTop of page
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