Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Bothriochloa bladhii
(Caucasian bluestem)

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Datasheet

Bothriochloa bladhii (Caucasian bluestem)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 February 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Bothriochloa bladhii
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Caucasian bluestem
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Bothriochloa bladhii is a perennial C4 grass widely naturalized in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It has been intentionally introduced as a pasture grass because of its capability to establish on poor dry soils. This speci...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Bothriochloa bladhii; Plant. Kempsey, NSW, Australia. February 2012.
TitlePlant
CaptionBothriochloa bladhii; Plant. Kempsey, NSW, Australia. February 2012.
Copyright©Harry Rose/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Bothriochloa bladhii; Plant. Kempsey, NSW, Australia. February 2012.
PlantBothriochloa bladhii; Plant. Kempsey, NSW, Australia. February 2012.©Harry Rose/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Bothriochloa bladhii; Nodes are shortly-hairy, internodes are obscurely glandular and leaves are hairless to hairy and often
aromatic. Kempsey, NSW, Australia. February 2012.
TitleNode
CaptionBothriochloa bladhii; Nodes are shortly-hairy, internodes are obscurely glandular and leaves are hairless to hairy and often aromatic. Kempsey, NSW, Australia. February 2012.
Copyright©Harry Rose/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Bothriochloa bladhii; Nodes are shortly-hairy, internodes are obscurely glandular and leaves are hairless to hairy and often
aromatic. Kempsey, NSW, Australia. February 2012.
NodeBothriochloa bladhii; Nodes are shortly-hairy, internodes are obscurely glandular and leaves are hairless to hairy and often aromatic. Kempsey, NSW, Australia. February 2012.©Harry Rose/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Bothriochloa bladhii; Ligules are 1-2 mm long membranes. Kempsey, NSW, Australia. February 2012.
TitleLigule
CaptionBothriochloa bladhii; Ligules are 1-2 mm long membranes. Kempsey, NSW, Australia. February 2012.
Copyright©Harry Rose/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Bothriochloa bladhii; Ligules are 1-2 mm long membranes. Kempsey, NSW, Australia. February 2012.
LiguleBothriochloa bladhii; Ligules are 1-2 mm long membranes. Kempsey, NSW, Australia. February 2012.©Harry Rose/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Bothriochloa bladhii; Flowerhead branch axils are hairy. Kempsey, NSW, Australia. February 2012.
TitleAxil
CaptionBothriochloa bladhii; Flowerhead branch axils are hairy. Kempsey, NSW, Australia. February 2012.
Copyright©Harry Rose/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Bothriochloa bladhii; Flowerhead branch axils are hairy. Kempsey, NSW, Australia. February 2012.
AxilBothriochloa bladhii; Flowerhead branch axils are hairy. Kempsey, NSW, Australia. February 2012.©Harry Rose/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Bothriochloa bladhii; Flowerheads are a primary axis of racemes with a main axis 4-20 cm long, 5-45 reddish-brown racemes and hairy branch axils. Kempsey, NSW, Australia. July 2012.
TitleFlowerhead
CaptionBothriochloa bladhii; Flowerheads are a primary axis of racemes with a main axis 4-20 cm long, 5-45 reddish-brown racemes and hairy branch axils. Kempsey, NSW, Australia. July 2012.
Copyright©Harry Rose/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Bothriochloa bladhii; Flowerheads are a primary axis of racemes with a main axis 4-20 cm long, 5-45 reddish-brown racemes and hairy branch axils. Kempsey, NSW, Australia. July 2012.
FlowerheadBothriochloa bladhii; Flowerheads are a primary axis of racemes with a main axis 4-20 cm long, 5-45 reddish-brown racemes and hairy branch axils. Kempsey, NSW, Australia. July 2012.©Harry Rose/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Bothriochloa bladhii; Flowerheads are a primary axis of racemes with a main axis 4-20 cm long, 5-45 reddish-brown racemes and hairy branch axils. Kempsey, NSW, Australia. February 2012.
TitleFlowerhead
CaptionBothriochloa bladhii; Flowerheads are a primary axis of racemes with a main axis 4-20 cm long, 5-45 reddish-brown racemes and hairy branch axils. Kempsey, NSW, Australia. February 2012.
Copyright©Harry Rose/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Bothriochloa bladhii; Flowerheads are a primary axis of racemes with a main axis 4-20 cm long, 5-45 reddish-brown racemes and hairy branch axils. Kempsey, NSW, Australia. February 2012.
FlowerheadBothriochloa bladhii; Flowerheads are a primary axis of racemes with a main axis 4-20 cm long, 5-45 reddish-brown racemes and hairy branch axils. Kempsey, NSW, Australia. February 2012.©Harry Rose/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Bothriochloa bladhii; Spikelets are paired (1 unstalked and awned, the other stalked andawnless). The unstalked spikelets are about 3.5-4 mm long and rarely pitted in the native subspecies bladhii (this one was chosen because it was one of the rare ones with pits). Spikelets are 3.5-4 mm long and always pitted in the introduced subspecies glabra. Kempsey, NSW, Australia. July 2012.
TitleSpikelet
CaptionBothriochloa bladhii; Spikelets are paired (1 unstalked and awned, the other stalked andawnless). The unstalked spikelets are about 3.5-4 mm long and rarely pitted in the native subspecies bladhii (this one was chosen because it was one of the rare ones with pits). Spikelets are 3.5-4 mm long and always pitted in the introduced subspecies glabra. Kempsey, NSW, Australia. July 2012.
Copyright©Harry Rose/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Bothriochloa bladhii; Spikelets are paired (1 unstalked and awned, the other stalked andawnless). The unstalked spikelets are about 3.5-4 mm long and rarely pitted in the native subspecies bladhii (this one was chosen because it was one of the rare ones with pits). Spikelets are 3.5-4 mm long and always pitted in the introduced subspecies glabra. Kempsey, NSW, Australia. July 2012.
SpikeletBothriochloa bladhii; Spikelets are paired (1 unstalked and awned, the other stalked andawnless). The unstalked spikelets are about 3.5-4 mm long and rarely pitted in the native subspecies bladhii (this one was chosen because it was one of the rare ones with pits). Spikelets are 3.5-4 mm long and always pitted in the introduced subspecies glabra. Kempsey, NSW, Australia. July 2012.©Harry Rose/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Bothriochloa bladhii; Spikelets are paired (1 unstalked and awned, the other stalked andawnless). The unstalked spikelets are about 3.5-4 mm long and rarely pitted in the native subspecies bladhii. Spikelets are 3.5-4 mm long and always pitted in the introduced subspecies glabra. Kempsey, NSW, Australia. July 2012.
TitleSpikelets
CaptionBothriochloa bladhii; Spikelets are paired (1 unstalked and awned, the other stalked andawnless). The unstalked spikelets are about 3.5-4 mm long and rarely pitted in the native subspecies bladhii. Spikelets are 3.5-4 mm long and always pitted in the introduced subspecies glabra. Kempsey, NSW, Australia. July 2012.
Copyright©Harry Rose/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Bothriochloa bladhii; Spikelets are paired (1 unstalked and awned, the other stalked andawnless). The unstalked spikelets are about 3.5-4 mm long and rarely pitted in the native subspecies bladhii. Spikelets are 3.5-4 mm long and always pitted in the introduced subspecies glabra. Kempsey, NSW, Australia. July 2012.
SpikeletsBothriochloa bladhii; Spikelets are paired (1 unstalked and awned, the other stalked andawnless). The unstalked spikelets are about 3.5-4 mm long and rarely pitted in the native subspecies bladhii. Spikelets are 3.5-4 mm long and always pitted in the introduced subspecies glabra. Kempsey, NSW, Australia. July 2012.©Harry Rose/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Bothriochloa bladhii; Habit.
TitleHabit
CaptionBothriochloa bladhii; Habit.
Copyright©Mark Marathon/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Bothriochloa bladhii; Habit.
HabitBothriochloa bladhii; Habit.©Mark Marathon/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Bothriochloa bladhii (Retz.) S.T.Blake

Preferred Common Name

  • Caucasian bluestem

Other Scientific Names

  • Amphilophis glabra (Roxb.) Stapf
  • Amphilophis haenkei (J.Presl) Haines
  • Amphilophis intermedia (R.Br.) Stapf
  • Amphilophis odorata (Lisboa) A.Camus
  • Anatherum glabrum (Roxb.) Schult.
  • Anatherum montanum (Roxb.) Schult.
  • Andropogon bladhii Retz.
  • Andropogon caucasicus Trin.
  • Andropogon glaber Roxb.
  • Andropogon haenkei J.Presl
  • Andropogon intermedius R.Br.
  • Andropogon inundatus F.Muell.
  • Andropogon leptanthus Steud.
  • Andropogon modestus Backer
  • Andropogon montanus Roxb.
  • Andropogon odoratus Dna.Lisboa
  • Andropogon punctatus Roxb.
  • Andropogon vachellii Nees ex Hook. & Arn.
  • Bothriochloa anamitica Kuntze
  • Bothriochloa caucasica (Trin.) C.E.Hubb.
  • Bothriochloa glabra (Roxb.) A.Camus
  • Bothriochloa haenkei (C.Presl) Ohwi
  • Bothriochloa intermedia (R.Br.) A.Camus
  • Bothriochloa inundata (F.Muell.) J.M.Black
  • Bothriochloa modesta (Backer) Backer & Henrard
  • Bothriochloa odorata (Lisboa) A.Camus
  • Bothriochloa punctata (Roxb.) L.Liou
  • Dichanthium bladhii (Retz.) Clayton
  • Dichanthium caucasicum (Trin.) S.K.Jain & Deshp.
  • Dichanthium glabrum (Roxb.) S.K.Jain & Deshp.
  • Dichanthium odoratum (Lisboa) S.K.Jain & Deshp.
  • Rhaphis stricta Nees
  • Sorghum caucasicum (Trin.) Griseb.
  • Sorghum intermedium (R.Br.) Kuntze
  • Sorghum montanum (Roxb.) Kuntze

International Common Names

  • English: Australian bluestem; Australian beadgrass; forest bluegrass; plains bluestem; purple plume grass
  • Spanish: apestosa; hierba apestosa; yerba; yerba agria; yerba huracan
  • Chinese: chou gen zi cao

Local Common Names

  • Australia: blue grass; forest blue grass
  • Cuba: hierba apestosa
  • Lesser Antilles: sour grass

Summary of Invasiveness

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Bothriochloa bladhii is a perennial C4 grass widely naturalized in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It has been intentionally introduced as a pasture grass because of its capability to establish on poor dry soils. This species competes aggressively with native plants and other grasses. It is a facultative apomictic species with fast growth and high productivity that allow it to form dense stands. Now, B. bladhii is listed as invasive in Cuba, Singapore, New Zealand, Hawaii, Cook Islands, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Fiji, French Polynesia, Palau, Niue and Tonga.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Bothriochloa
  •                                 Species: Bothriochloa bladhii

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The Poaceae is one of the largest families in the Angiosperms including 707 genera and 11,337 species widely distributed in all regions of the world (Stevens, 2012). Bothriochloa is a genus of about 35 species that grow in tropical to warm temperate regions (Allred, 2003). Most of the taxonomic difficulty in this genus arises from the promiscuous habits of B. bladhii whose introgression has vastly increased its own variability, blurring the boundaries with adjacent species and leading to the emergence of new races (De Wet and Harlan, 1966). B. bladhii is often treated in a broad sense to include all forms with an elongate inflorescence axis (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015; Flora of Pakistan, 2015).

Description

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The following description is from Flora of China Editorial Committee (2015):

“Perennial, tufted. Culms erect or decumbent at base, fairly robust, up to 130 cm tall, many-noded, nodes glabrous. Leaf sheaths glabrous; leaf blades linear, 10-40 × 0.2-1 cm, hairy with tubercle-based hairs on both surfaces or abaxial surface glabrous, apex finely acuminate; ligule 0.5-1.5 mm. Inflorescence 9-20 cm, composed of many racemes borne in loose whorls along an elongate central axis, axis usually longer than lowest raceme, sometimes paniculate with branched peduncles; racemes 2-5 cm, often purplish, not obviously hairy; rachis internodes and pedicels thinly ciliate, shortly bearded at apex. Sessile spikelet 3-4 mm; lower glume narrowly oblong-lanceolate, herbaceous or cartilaginous and glossy, 5-7-veined, back slightly concave, glabrous or pubescent below middle, sometimes with a pit, margins keeled and scabrid near apex; awn of upper lemma 1-2.5 cm. Pedicelled spikelet barren or rarely staminate, narrower than sessile spikelet, sometimes pitted.”

The following are cultivars of B. bladhii that have been selected and commercialized (Cook et al., 2005):

Cultivar ‘Swann’: release in Australia in 1994. Introduced as Andropogon ischaemum [Bothriochloa ischaemum] (subsequently revised to current status). Selected for persistence in low fertility, hard setting and upland soils in the sub-humid subtropics where few other C4 grasses survive.

Cultivar ‘Dahl’: released in the United States in 1994. Erect, lower-growing, leafy, multi-culmed type, foliage usually about 50 cm high, becoming prostrate under heavy grazing. Extensively tested in Texas. Higher yielding but less winter hardiness than other Old World bluestems.

Plant Type

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Grass / sedge
Perennial
Seed / spore propagated

Distribution

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Bothriochloa bladhii is native to the tropical and subtropical Old World including Africa, tropical and temperate Asia and Australia (Clayton et al., 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015), but it can now be found naturalized outside its native range in Asia and in North, Central and South America, the Caribbean and on many islands in the Pacific Ocean (Broome et al., 2007; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Clayton et al., 2015; PIER, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 11 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentNative
BeninPresentNative
BotswanaPresentNative
Burkina FasoPresentNative
BurundiPresentNative
Cabo VerdePresentNative
CameroonPresentNative
ChadPresentNative
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentNative
Côte d'IvoirePresentNative
EswatiniPresentNative
EthiopiaPresentNative
GhanaPresentNative
KenyaPresentNative
MadagascarPresentNative
MalawiPresentNative
MaliPresentNative
Mauritius
-RodriguesPresentNative
MozambiquePresentNative
NamibiaPresentNative
NigeriaPresentNative
SenegalPresentNative
South AfricaPresentNative
SudanPresentNative
TanzaniaPresentNative
UgandaPresentNative
ZambiaPresentNative
ZimbabwePresentNative

Asia

AfghanistanPresentNative
ArmeniaPresentNative
AzerbaijanPresentNative
BangladeshPresentNative
BhutanPresentNative
British Indian Ocean Territory
-Chagos ArchipelagoPresentIntroduced
ChinaPresentNative
-AnhuiPresentNative
-FujianPresentNative
-GuangdongPresentNative
-GuizhouPresentNative
-HubeiPresentNative
-HunanPresentNative
-ShanxiPresentNative
-SichuanPresentNative
-XinjiangPresentNative
-YunnanPresentNative
Cocos IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
IndiaPresentNative
-Arunachal PradeshPresentNative
-Himachal PradeshPresentNative
-Jammu and KashmirPresentNative
-KeralaPresentNative
-UttarakhandPresentNative
IndonesiaPresent
-JavaPresent
-Lesser Sunda IslandsPresent
-Maluku IslandsPresent
-SulawesiPresent
-SumatraPresent
IranPresentNative
JapanPresentNative
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentNative
KazakhstanPresentNative
KyrgyzstanPresentNative
LaosPresentNative
MalaysiaPresent
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
MyanmarPresentNative
NepalPresentNative
OmanPresentNative
PakistanPresentNative
PhilippinesPresent
SingaporePresentIntroducedInvasive
Sri LankaPresentNative
TaiwanPresentNative
TajikistanPresentNative
ThailandPresentNative
TurkeyPresentNative
UzbekistanPresentNative
VietnamPresentNative
YemenPresentNative

Europe

RussiaPresentNative
-Southern RussiaPresentNative

North America

BarbadosPresentIntroduced
BelizePresentIntroduced
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced
HaitiPresentIntroduced
HondurasPresentIntroduced
JamaicaPresentIntroduced
MexicoPresentIntroduced
NicaraguaPresentIntroduced
PanamaPresentIntroducedColon, San Blas, Canal area
Saint LuciaPresentIntroduced
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroducedGrenadines
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroduced
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedSt Croix
United StatesPresentIntroduced
-ColoradoPresentIntroduced
-FloridaPresentIntroduced
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasive
-KansasPresentIntroducedInvasive
-LouisianaPresentIntroduced
-MissouriPresentIntroduced
-NebraskaPresentIntroduced
-New MexicoPresentIntroduced
-OhioPresentIntroduced
-OklahomaPresentIntroduced
-TennesseePresentIntroduced
-TexasPresentIntroducedInvasive

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroduced
AustraliaPresentNative
-New South WalesPresentNative
-Northern TerritoryPresentNative
-QueenslandPresentNative
-South AustraliaPresentNative
-Western AustraliaPresentNative
Christmas IslandPresentIntroducedInvasive
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
FijiPresentIntroducedInvasive
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
GuamPresentIntroduced
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedInvasive
New ZealandPresentIntroducedInvasiveKermadec Islands
-Kermadec IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
NiuePresentIntroducedInvasive
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroduced
PalauPresentIntroducedInvasive
SamoaPresentIntroduced
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroduced
TongaPresentIntroduced
Wallis and FutunaPresentIntroduced

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedLa Pampa
BoliviaPresentIntroduced
ColombiaPresentIntroduced
GuyanaPresentIntroduced
SurinamePresentIntroduced
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedNaturalized - Delta Amacuro

History of Introduction and Spread

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Bothriochloa bladhii appears in herbarium collections made in 1931 on US Virgin Islands (St Croix; US National Herbarium). However, it was probably introduced to the United States and the Caribbean early in the 1900s (Allred, 2003; USDA-NRCS, 2015).

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of B. bladhii is very high. This grass has been intentionally introduced in tropical and subtropical regions to be used as fodder, forage and a hay crop (Cook et al., 2005). It has repeatedly escaped from cultivation and rapidly naturalized in natural areas (Allred, 2003; Cook et al., 2005; Scattini, 2008; PIER, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015).

Habitat

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Bothriochloa bladhii grows along roadsides and in rangeland pastures, cane-fields, open hillsides, waste grounds and open disturbed areas in both moist and dry zones (Allred, 2003; PIER, 2015; PROTA, 2015).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for B. bladhii varies from 2n=40, 60, 80 (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015). Polyploidy has been an important mechanism of speciation in the genus (Allred, 2003). B. bladhii hybridizes easily and frequently with other species in the genus Bothriochloa and also with the species Capillipedium parviflorum and Dichanthium annulatum, blurring the boundaries between these genera and leading to a host of intermediates. Additionally, new apomictic varieties have arisen causing much taxonomic difficulty. The name B. bladhii var. glabra has been applied to hybrids of B. bladhii and C. parviflorum (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015).

Reproductive Biology and Phenology

Bothriochloa bladhii is both xenogamic and facultative apomictic species. It is primarily wind-pollinated. In China, it has been recorded flowering and fruiting from July to October (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015). In Queensland, Australia, it seeds from mid-summer (December) to late autumn (FAO, 2015).

Physiology and Longevity

Bothriochloa bladhii is a perennial C4 grass (Cook et al., 2005).

Environmental Requirements

Bothriochloa bladhii occurs in areas with rainfall to >2000 mm, often with a distinct dry season, from sea level to elevations over 2500 m. Cultivars have been successful mostly in areas with rainfall above 750 mm, although it can tolerate less than 500 mm/year and temperatures as low as -8°C. It prefers to grow on soils with textures from sandy loam to clays and hard-setting clay loams, with pH ranging from 5.5 to 8.4. This species has a great tolerance to drought, fire and heavy grazing. It can also tolerate temporary waterlogging and flooding, but does not tolerate permanently wet conditions. It is well adapted to low nitrogen levels, acid and infertile soils but also grows well on more fertile loams and clays (Cook et al., 2005; Scattini, 2008; FAO, 2015).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -8
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 14 30

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall600>2000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Bimodal
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Balclutha rubrostriata Herbivore
Puccinia duthiei Pathogen

Notes on Natural Enemies

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In Australia, B. bladhii is adversely affected by a leafhopper, Balclutha rubrostriata (Cicadellidae) that infests the inflorescences. It is also susceptible to leaf rust caused by Puccinia duthiae that is often severe late in the growing season and is favoured by wet weather (Cook et al., 2005).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Bothriochloa bladhii spreads by seed and expands by short rhizomes (Scattini, 2008). It is very effective colonizing areas away from parental stands under favourable conditions (Cook et al., 2005).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Animal productionUsed for animal fodder and forage Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
DisturbanceNaturalized in open disturbed sites Yes Yes MacKee, 1994
Escape from confinement or garden escapeEscaped from pastures Yes Yes PIER, 2015
ForageWidely used as permanent pasture on lower fertility soils. Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesEscaped from cultivation Yes Yes MacKee, 1994
Soil, sand and gravelSeeds Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005
WindSeeds Yes Yes Cook et al., 2005

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

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Bothriochloa bladhii establishes readily and may compete with and replace ecologically similar native grasses. Because it has the capability to grow on both fertile and poor soils, it can colonize numerous habitats and then outcompete native plants for resources such as nutrients and water (Cook et al., 2005; Scattini, 2008; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; PIER, 2015; PROTA, 2015). There are also indications that it is becoming a weed of turfs and lawns (Cook et al., 2005). As many other invasive C4 grasses, this species has the potential to alter hydrology and nutrient cycles as well as fire regimes in invaded areas (D’Antonio and Vitousek, 1992).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Gregarious
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of hydrology
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Soil accretion
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Herbivory/grazing/browsing
  • Hybridization
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

Uses

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Bothriochloa bladhii is planted around the world as a permanent pasture on lower fertility soils (Cook et al., 2005). It is used as forage, fodder and hay for livestock and as a grazing plant by both livestock and wild ruminants (USDA-NRCS, 2015). It is sometimes planted to control soil erosion and to restore disturbed lands (Cook et al., 2005; Scattini, 2008; PROTA, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015; USDA-NRCS, 2015).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Forage

Environmental

  • Erosion control or dune stabilization

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Chemical Control

Bothriochloa bladhii is susceptible to glyphosate. However, it is tolerant of atrazine when applied at low rates (Scattini, 2008).

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Allred, K.W., 2003. Bothriochloa Kuntze. In: Flora of North America vol. 25, [ed. by Barkworth et al.]. http://herbarium.usu.edu/webmanual

Broome, R., Sabir, K., Carrington, S., 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. In: Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database , Barbados: University of the West Indies.http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Chong, K. Y., Tan, H. T. W., Corlett, R. T., 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species, Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore.273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Clayton, WD, Govaerts, R, Harman, KT, Williamson, H, Vorontsova, M, 2015. World Checklist of Poaceae. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Cook, B. G., Pengelly, B. C., Brown, S. D., Donnelly, J. L., Eagles, D. A., Franco, M. A., Hanson, J., Mullen, B. F., Partridge, I. J., Peters, M., Schultze-Kraft, R., 2005. Tropical Forages: an interactive selection tool. In: Tropical Forages: an interactive selection tool . Brisbane, Australia: CSIRO, DPI&F, CIAT, ILRI.http://www.tropicalforages.info/

D’Antonio, C.M., Vitousek, P.M., 1992. Biological invasions by exotic grasses, the grass/fire cycle, and global change. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 1, 63-87.

De Wet, J. M. J., Harlan, J. R., 1966. Morphology of the compilospecies Bothriochloa intermedia. American Journal of Botany, 53(1), 94-8. doi: 10.2307/2439929

Edgar, E., Connor, H. E., 2000. Flora of New Zealand - Vol. V: Gramineae, Lincoln, New Zealand: Manaaki Whenua Press.lxxxii + 650 pp.

FAO, 2015. FAO Grassland Species Profiles. Online resources for Bothriochloa blandii. https://web.archive.org/web/20150829084956/http://www.fao.org/ag/AGP/AGPC/doc/Gbase/data/pf000182.htm

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri; Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Pakistan, 2015. Flora of Pakistan. In: eFloras online resources, http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=5&taxon_id=200024955

Fosberg, F. R., Sachet, M. H., Oliver, R., 1987. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae. Micronesia, 20, 1-2, 19-129.

Funk, V., Hollowell, T., Berry, P., Kelloff, C., Alexander, S. N., 2007. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution 55, 584 pp.

Herrera, K., Lorence, D. H., Flynn, T., Balick, M. J., 2010. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia with Local Names and Uses. Allertonia, 10, 1-192. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23193787

MacKee, H. S., 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle.164 pp.

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96

Oviedo Prieto, R., Herrera Oliver, P., Caluff, M. G., et al., 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

PIER, 2015. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

PROTA, 2015. PROTA4U web database. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.http://www.prota4u.info

Scattini, W., 2008. Forest bluegrass (Bothriochloa bladhii ssp. Glabra). Pastures of Australia. Online resources .https://keys.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/pastures/Html/Forest_bluegrass.htm

Space, J. C., Flynn, T., 2002. Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on invasive plant species of environmental concern. In: Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on invasive plant species of environmental concern . Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service.146 pp. http://www.hear.org/pier/pdf/cook_islands_report.pdf

Space, J. C., Lorence, D. H., LaRosa, A. M., 2009. Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on invasive plant species. In: Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on invasive plant species . Hilo, Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry.227 pp. http://www.hear.org/pier/pdf/Palau_report_2008.pdf

Space, J. C., Waterhouse, B. M., Newfield, M., Bull, C., 2004. Report to the Government of Niue and the United Nations Development Programme: Invasive plant species on Niue following Cyclone Heta. [UNDP NIU/98/G31 - Niue Enabling Activity. In: Report to the Government of Niue and the United Nations Development Programme: Invasive plant species on Niue following Cyclone Heta. [UNDP NIU/98/G31 - Niue Enabling Activity.] . 76 pp. http://www.hear.org/pier/reports/niue_report_2004.htm

Stevens, P.F., 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Swarbrick, J. T., 1997. Environmental weeds and exotic plants on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Report to Parks Australia. In: Environmental weeds and exotic plants on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Report to Parks Australia . Toowoomba, Australia: J.T. Swarbrick Weed Science Consultancy.131 pp.

USDA-ARS, 2015. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2015. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team.https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Wagner, W. L., Herbst, D. R., Sohmer, S. H., 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawai'i, Vols. 1 & 2, (Revised edition) . Honolulu, USA: University of Hawai'i Press/Bishop Museum Press.1918 + [1] pp.

Zuloaga, F. O., Morrone, O., Belgrano, M. J., 2008. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur: (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay, St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press.3348 pp.

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. In: Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Chong K Y, Tan H T W, Corlett R T, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Clayton WD, Govaerts R, Harman KT, Williamson H, Vorontsova M, 2015. World Checklist of Poaceae., Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Edgar E, Connor H E, 2000. Flora of New Zealand - Vol. V: Gramineae. Lincoln, New Zealand: Manaaki Whenua Press. lxxxii + 650 pp.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015. Flora of China., St. Louis, Missouri; Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer J-Y, 2013. Nadeaud botanical database of the Herbarium of French Polynesia. (Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP))., https://nadeaud.ilm.pf/

Fosberg F R, Sachet M H, Oliver R, 1987. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae. Micronesia. 1-2, 19-129.

Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Alexander S N, 2007. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. 55, 584 pp.

Herrera K, Lorence D H, Flynn T, Balick M J, 2010. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia with Local Names and Uses. Allertonia. 1-192. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23193787

MacKee H S, 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. unpaginated.

Orchard A E, 1993. Flora of Australia. Vol. 50, Oceanic islands 2. Canberra, ACT, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service. unpaginated.

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

PIER, 2015. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Space J C, Flynn T, 2002. Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on invasive plant species of environmental concern. In: Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on invasive plant species of environmental concern. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service. 146 pp. http://www.hear.org/pier/pdf/cook_islands_report.pdf

Space J C, Lorence D H, LaRosa A M, 2009. Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on invasive plant species. In: Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on invasive plant species. Hilo, Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. 227 pp. http://www.hear.org/pier/pdf/Palau_report_2008.pdf

Space J C, Waterhouse B M, Newfield M, Bull C, 2004. Report to the Government of Niue and the United Nations Development Programme: Invasive plant species on Niue following Cyclone Heta. [UNDP NIU/98/G31 - Niue Enabling Activity. In: Report to the Government of Niue and the United Nations Development Programme: Invasive plant species on Niue following Cyclone Heta. [UNDP NIU/98/G31 - Niue Enabling Activity.]. 76 pp. http://www.hear.org/pier/reports/niue_report_2004.htm

Swarbrick J T, 1997. Environmental weeds and exotic plants on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Report to Parks Australia. In: Environmental weeds and exotic plants on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Report to Parks Australia. Toowoomba, Australia: J.T. Swarbrick Weed Science Consultancy. 131 pp.

USDA-ARS, 2015. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2015. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Vander VN, Vander VB, 2006. Plants of Kili Island, Marshall Islands. Unpublished checklist., 12 pp.

Wagner W L, Herbst D R, Sohmer S H, 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawai'i, Vols. 1 & 2. Honolulu, USA: University of Hawai'i Press/Bishop Museum Press. 1918 + [1] pp.

Zuloaga F O, Morrone O, Belgrano M J, 2008. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur: (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press. 3348 pp.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
FAO: Grassland Species Profileshttp://www.fao.org/ag/agp/agpc/doc/Gbase/Default.htm
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Grasses in North Americahttp://herbarium.usu.edu/webmanual/
Tropical Forageshttp://www.tropicalforages.info/index.htm

Contributors

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01/12/15 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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