Invasive Species Compendium

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Bontia daphnoides
(white alling)

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Datasheet

Bontia daphnoides (white alling)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Bontia daphnoides
  • Preferred Common Name
  • white alling
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Bontia daphnoides is a shrub species native to the Caribbean and South America, which has been introduced to Cuba and the USA. B. daphnoides is considered invasive in Cuba, but Oviedo

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Bontia daphnoides (white alling); habit. Habit. DT Fleming Beach, Kapalua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionBontia daphnoides (white alling); habit. Habit. DT Fleming Beach, Kapalua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Bontia daphnoides (white alling); habit. Habit. DT Fleming Beach, Kapalua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
HabitBontia daphnoides (white alling); habit. Habit. DT Fleming Beach, Kapalua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Bontia daphnoides (white alling); habit. Habit. DT Fleming Beach, Kapalua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionBontia daphnoides (white alling); habit. Habit. DT Fleming Beach, Kapalua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Bontia daphnoides (white alling); habit. Habit. DT Fleming Beach, Kapalua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
HabitBontia daphnoides (white alling); habit. Habit. DT Fleming Beach, Kapalua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Bontia daphnoides (white alling); bark. DT Fleming Beach, Kapalua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
TitleBark
CaptionBontia daphnoides (white alling); bark. DT Fleming Beach, Kapalua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Bontia daphnoides (white alling); bark. DT Fleming Beach, Kapalua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
BarkBontia daphnoides (white alling); bark. DT Fleming Beach, Kapalua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Bontia daphnoides (white alling); flower. DT Fleming Beach, Kapalua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
TitleFlower
CaptionBontia daphnoides (white alling); flower. DT Fleming Beach, Kapalua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Bontia daphnoides (white alling); flower. DT Fleming Beach, Kapalua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
FlowerBontia daphnoides (white alling); flower. DT Fleming Beach, Kapalua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Bontia daphnoides (white alling); foliage and fruits. DT Fleming Beach, Kapalua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
TitleFoliage and fruits
CaptionBontia daphnoides (white alling); foliage and fruits. DT Fleming Beach, Kapalua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Bontia daphnoides (white alling); foliage and fruits. DT Fleming Beach, Kapalua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
Foliage and fruitsBontia daphnoides (white alling); foliage and fruits. DT Fleming Beach, Kapalua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Bontia daphnoides (white alling); fruits. DT Fleming Beach, Kapalua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
TitleFruits
CaptionBontia daphnoides (white alling); fruits. DT Fleming Beach, Kapalua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Bontia daphnoides (white alling); fruits. DT Fleming Beach, Kapalua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
FruitsBontia daphnoides (white alling); fruits. DT Fleming Beach, Kapalua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Bontia daphnoides (white alling); fruits. DT Fleming Beach, Kapalua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
TitleFruits
CaptionBontia daphnoides (white alling); fruits. DT Fleming Beach, Kapalua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0
Bontia daphnoides (white alling); fruits. DT Fleming Beach, Kapalua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.
FruitsBontia daphnoides (white alling); fruits. DT Fleming Beach, Kapalua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July 2009.©Forest & Kim Starr-2009 - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Bontia daphnoides L.

Preferred Common Name

  • white alling

Other Scientific Names

  • Bontia minor P.Gaertn.

International Common Names

  • English: Barbados olive; sea olive; wild olive
  • Spanish: aceituna Americana; mangle bobo; oliba
  • French: olivier batard

Local Common Names

  • Cuba: cativo mangle; olivo bastardo
  • Curaçao: olijfi
  • Dominican Republic: aceituno; olivo
  • Haiti: mang’blanc; manglier marron; olivier bard; olivier bâtard
  • Jamaica: kidney bush
  • Puerto Rico: mangle; manzanilla
  • Trinidad and Tobago: kidney bush; olive bush; zoliv
  • United States Virgin Islands: buttonwood
  • Venezuela: olivo criollo

Summary of Invasiveness

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Bontia daphnoides is a shrub species native to the Caribbean and South America, which has been introduced to Cuba and the USA. B. daphnoides is considered invasive in Cuba, but Oviedo Prieto et al. (2006) provide conflicting information about the species occurrence in the country. They report it as only rarely seen in mangroves in the west part of the country, but later in the same document they list it as invasive in that same area. More information is needed to determine the invasiveness of this species in Cuba. The species is not considered invasive in the two states where it has been introduced in the USA (Florida and Hawaii).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Scrophulariales
  •                         Family: Scrophulariaceae
  •                             Genus: Bontia
  •                                 Species: Bontia daphnoides

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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B. daphnoides has been placed in the Myoporaceae, a family in which most genera are from Asia and Oceania, with Bontia being the only genus in the New World (Zona, 1998). Studies by Olmstead et al. (2001) provided evidence to place Myoporaceae as a subfamily of Schrophulariaceae.

Jaquinia ruscifolia is an unresolved name of B. daphnoides (The Plant List, 2013).

Description

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The following description is from Francis (2004):

Shrub or small tree usually 3-4 m in height, occasionally reaching 9 m and 15 cm in stem diameter. Although seedlings have a tap and lateral root system diameter, older plants rely on shallow lateral roots that are stiff and brittle with a brown, corky bark. Trunks are usually covered with a thick, light brown, furrowed bark. The heartwood is light grey-brown, hard, heavy, and somewhat brittle; the sapwood is tan in colour. Multiple stems commonly diverge from the base of the principal stem. The crowns are vertical and narrow with a thin complement of foliage. Leaves are oblong to linear-lanceolate, 3-11 cm long, 1-2 cm broad, and broad, pointed at both ends. The usually solitary, axillary tubular flowers are yellow blotched with purple and 2 cm long. Drupes are ovoid, tapering to a point with a permanently attached style. Their corky-textured flesh is yellowish-green to yellow at maturity, has a slightly bitter taste and contains a single hard-shelled stone.

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Tree
Woody

Distribution

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B. daphnoides is a shrub to small tree species native to the Caribbean and the north of South America. It has been introduced to Florida and Hawaii, USA (Francis, 2004; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012) and is considered invasive in Cuba (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012). The species is also present at Swan Island, part of Islas de La Bahía, in Honduras, but Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012) do not report if it is native or introduced in this country. Swan Island is in the Caribbean Sea, near Cayman Islands, so it is possible that the species has arrived naturally to the former island. Murcia et al. (2016) report the species as a new record for the flora of Colombia, collected in 2013 at a mangrove forest in the San Andrés Island. Francis (2004) reports the species as naturalized in Florida, and as an ornamental in Spain and Hawaii, but there are no current reports of the species being present or naturalized in Spain.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

North America

USAPresentIntroducedBased on regional distribution
-FloridaPresentIntroduced1963Herreid II, 1963; Wunderlin et al., 2017
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedHEAR, 2017; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017; NMNH, 2017Present in Kuaui, Maui and Oahu

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
BahamasPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
BarbadosPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
British Virgin IslandsPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Tortola
Cayman IslandsPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive Leiva, 1980; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012Both native and introduced in the country
CuraçaoPresentNativeHenriquez, 1962-1963
DominicaPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Dominican RepublicPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
GuadeloupePresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2017
HaitiPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
HondurasPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2017Swan Island (Islas de la Bahía). Status in the country not certain
JamaicaPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
MartiniquePresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
MontserratPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Puerto RicoPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Saint LuciaPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Trinidad and TobagoPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2017
Turks and Caicos IslandsPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2017
United States Virgin IslandsPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012St. John, St. Thomas

South America

ColombiaPresentNative Not invasive Murcia et al., 2016
French GuianaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2017
GuyanaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2017
SurinamePresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2017
VenezuelaPresentNativeLasser et al., 1974; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017Both native and introduced in the country

Europe

SpainAbsent, unreliable recordIntroduced Not invasive Francis, 2004Ornamental

History of Introduction and Spread

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B. daphnoides was first reported in Florida, USA, in 1963, in cultivation at a Plant Introduction Station of the US Department of Agriculture (Herreid II, 1963). The species is currently reported as having naturalized at Miami-Dade, Florida (Wunderlin et al., 2017). It is reported to have been introduced as an ornamental in Hawaii and, by 1990, it was present in the National Tropical Botanical Garden (Kauai) (NMNH, 2017). It has been either introduced or it has spread naturally to other islands, as it is present not only in Kauai, but also in Oahu and Maui (HEAR, 2017; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017; NMNH, 2017).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
USA 1963 Ornamental purposes (pathway cause) Yes No Herreid II (1963)

Risk of Introduction

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B. daphnoides has not been widely introduced outside its native range. While it is not a popular ornamental plant and is rare to uncommon in most of its natural range, it has the potential to naturalize in suitable habitats (HEAR, 2017; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017). Its ability to be dispersed by water and to spread by cultivation debris enhances the risk of it spreading naturally to other islands in the Pacific region, other than Hawaii. More information is needed to assess its risk of introduction and potential invasiveness, considering that it is being used as a cultivated species and is also recommended for conservation and revegetation efforts (Henriquez, 1962-1963; Murcia et al., 2016).

Habitat

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B. daphnoides is reported from sandy beaches, coastal thickets, inner edges of mangroves, salt marshes and spiny shrublands (Loveless, 1960; D’Arcy, 1967; Randall, 1970; Álvarez de Zayas, 1984; Francis, 2004). It occurs naturally from sea level to about 120 m in elevation, but it has been cultivated up to 1500 m (Francis, 2004; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017).

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for B. daphnoides is n = 18 (Henrickson, 2004).

Reproductive Biology

Reproduction of B. daphnoides is mainly by seed, but the species is known to re-sprout from trunks after hurricanes (Francis, 2004).

Physiology and Phenology

B. daphnoides flowers and fruits throughout the year. Fruits average 0.311 ± 0.015 g/fruit and seeds average 11,000 seeds/kg. Germination is reported 12 to 68 days after sowing and growth rate is moderate (Francis, 2004). It is reported to live 10 to 30 years (Francis, 2004).

Population Size and Structure

B. daphnoides is rare to common in its natural habitat, not forming pure stands (Francis, 2004).

Associations

Fungi from the genus Nodulisporium are reported to form endophytic associations with B. daphnoides (Polishook et al., 2001).

Environmental Requirements

B. daphnoides grows naturally in areas occasionally flooded and subjected to salt spray. Soils vary from sand to clay, with a high organic content and a pH of 7.0 to 8.5. It is reported from areas with 750 to 1800 mm of annual precipitation. It is moderately intolerant to shade. Competition with other species is an apparent environmental limiting factor, excluding the species from upland areas (Francis, 2004).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
22 4 0 1500

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 15 35

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall7501800mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Summer
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • saline

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Cardisoma guanhumi Herbivore Fruits/pods/Leaves not specific
Rhizobium radiobacter Pathogen Stems not specific
Rhizobium rhizogenes Pathogen Stems not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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The leaves and fruits of B. daphnoides are eaten by the land crab Cardisoma guanhumi (Herreid II, 1963). The species is also reported as being affected by Agrobacterium rhizogenes [Rhizobium rhizogenes], which causes the hairy-root disease, and by A. tumefaciens [Rhizobium radiobacter], which causes the crown gall disease (Cleene and Ley, 1976; 1981).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

B. daphnoides fruits are dispersed by water (Zona, 1998).

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

Birds and mammals eat the fruits of B. daphnoides, possibly acting as dispersers (Francis, 2004).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Botanical gardens and zoosCultivated at various botanical gardens Yes Yes Leiva, 1980; NMNH, 2017
Digestion and excretionBirds and mammals are cited as possible dispersers Yes Francis, 2004
Escape from confinement or garden escapeIt has escaped from cultivation and become naturalized Yes Little et al., 1974
Flooding and other natural disastersPossible fruit dispersal by coastal flooding Yes Yes Zona, 1998
Garden waste disposalPossible; reported as cultivated in house gardens Yes NMNH, 2017
Habitat restoration and improvementSpecies recommended for coastal habitat restoration Yes Yes Murcia et al., 2016
Hedges and windbreaksUsed in the Caribbean as windbreak Yes Yes Chinnock et al., 1987
Medicinal useUsed in traditional medicine Yes Wong, 1976; Liogier, 1990; Lans, 2006
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2017
ResearchOne of the species used to test for in vitro microbial contamination Yes Pence, 2005

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Soil, sand and gravelSeeds might be dispersed in soil used in cultivation Yes
WaterFruits are dispersed by water Yes Yes Zona, 1998

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Long lived
  • Has high reproductive potential
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Economic Value
B. daphnoides is used as an ornamental species (USDA-ARS, 2017).

Social Benefit
Mitchell et al. (2008) report B. daphnoides as a species with multiple bioactivities. The sesquiterpene furan (-)-Epingaione, with insecticidal properties, has been isolated from the species (Chinnock et al., 1987). Extracts have shown insecticidal activities against Boophilus microplus [Rhipicephalus microplus], Cyclas formicarius [Cylas formicarius] and Tribolium confusum (Francis, 2004). Oil extracts are used as an emollient, to treat colic and as a taenicide (Encyclopedia of Life, 2017). Extracts of the species are also reportedly used to treat herpes, inflammation, insect bites, scarring, ulcers, diabetes, jaundice, hypertension, nephritis, coughs, colds, wounds and to “cool” the system (Wong, 1976; Liogier, 1990; Lans, 2006). Leaf infusions are used to treat fish poisoning (Woodworth, 1943). The wood of the plant is used for fuel and stakes (Francis, 2004). The species has been used in research of in vitro culture contamination (Pence, 2005).

Environmental Services
B. daphnoides is widely used in the Caribbean as a windbreak and as a boundary/barrier species (Chinnock et al., 1987). It is used to protect against soil erosion and to provide shelter and food for wildlife (Francis, 2004). It is regarded by Murcia et al. (2016) as an important species for the conservation of mangroves. In Curaçao it has been recommended for reforestation, as it is not eaten by goats due to its unpleasant taste (Henriquez, 1962-1963).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Boundary, barrier or support
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Revegetation
  • Wildlife habitat
  • Windbreak

Fuels

  • Fuelwood

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo
  • Research model

Materials

  • Chemicals
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • garden plant

Wood Products

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Roundwood

  • Stakes

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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B. daphnoides is difficult to distinguish vegetatively from Myoporum spp. if flowers or fruits are not present. The native distribution is mainly used to differentiate both genera in the wild, as Myoporum is native to Australia and Bontia is native to the New World (Chinnock et al., 1987). 

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Information about the invasiveness of the species in its introduced range is needed, including its effect on invaded habitats. Information on how to control the species is also lacking.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1-1192.

Álvarez de Zayas A, 1984. [English title not available]. (El cultivo de xerófitas al aire libre en el Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba). Revista del Jardín Botánico Nacional, 5(1), 3-28.

Chinnock RJ, Ghosalberti EL, Jefferies PR, 1987. (-)-Epingaione from Bontia daphnoides. Phytochemistry, 26(4), 1202-1203.

Cleene, M. de, Ley, J. de, 1976. The host range of crown gall. Botanical Review, 42(No. 4), 389-466. doi: 10.1007/BF02860827

Cleene, M. de, Ley, J. de, 1981. The host range of infectious hairy-root. Botanical Review, 47(2), 147-194. doi: 10.1007/BF02868853

D’Arcy WG, 1967. Annotated checklist of the dicotyledons of Tortola, Virgin Islands. Rhodora, 69(780), 385-450.

Encyclopedia of Life, 2017. http://eol.org/

Francis, J. K., 2004. General Technical Report - International Institute of Tropical Forestry, USDA Forest Service, Río Piedras, Puerto Rico: International Institute of Tropical Forestry, USDA Forest Service (IITF) (No.IITF-GTR-26), vi + 830 pp.

HEAR, 2017. Alien species in Hawaii. Hawaii Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/

Henrickson J, 2004. A new species of Leucophyllum (Scrophulariaceae) and comments on relationships of the genus. SIDA, Contributions to Botany, 21(1), 1-9.

Henriquez PC, 1962-1963. Problems relating to hydrology, water conservation, erosion control, reforestation and agriculture in Curaçao. New West Indian Guide, 42ste Jaarg, 1-54.

Herreid II CF, 1963. Observations on the feeding behaviour of Cardisoma guanhumi (Latreille) in Southern Florida. Crustaceana, 5(3), 176-180.

Lans, C. A., 2006. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 2(45), (13 October 2006). http://www.ethnobiomed.com/content/pdf/1746-4269-2-45.pdf

Lasser T, Braun A, Steyermark J, 1974. [English title not available]. (Catálogo de las plantas que crecen en el Jardín Botánico del Ministerio de Agricultura y Cría, Caracas). Acta Botánica Venezuélica, 9(1/4), 9-61.

Leiva A, 1980. [English title not available]. (Plantas cubanas en el Jardín Botánico Nacional). Revista del Jardín Botánico Nacional, 1(2/3), 91-114.

Liogier HA, 1990. [English title not available]. (Plantas medicinales de Puerto Rico y del Caribe), San Juan, Puerto Rico, USA: Iberoamericana de Ediciones, Inc. 566 pp.

Little, E. L., Jr., Woodbury, R. O., Wadsworth, F. H., 1974. Trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Second volume. In: Agriculture Handbook, (No. 449) , USA: US Department of Agriculture. xiv + 1024 pp.

Loveless, A. R., 1960. The vegetation of Antigua, West Indies, based largely on field work done by H.E. Box and the late C.F. Charter during the years 1932 to 1938. Journal of Ecology, 48(3), 495-527. doi: 10.2307/2257330

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Mitchell SA, Jagnarine R, Simmonds R, Francis T, Picking D, Ahmad MH, 2008. A journey through the medicinal plant industry of the Caribbean highlighting Mona’s contribution. Caribbean Quarterly, 54(3), 27-51.

Murcia GA, González F, García MI, Lasso J, 2016. Angiosperm flag species for mangrove conservation in San Andrés Island (Colombia) are highly vulnerable and locally rare. (Especies bandera de angiospermas para la conservación del manglar en la Isla de San Andrés (Colombia) son muy vulnerables y localmente raras). Caldasia, 38(1), 1-6.

NMNH, 2017. National Museum of Natural History Database, US Herbarium. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/colls/collections_overview.htm

Olmstead, R. G., Pamphilis, C. W. de, Wolfe, A. D., Young, N. D., Elisons, W. J., Reeves, P. A., 2001. Disintegration of the Scropulariaceae. American Journal of Botany, 88, 348-361.

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al., 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba – 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1), 22-96.

Oviedo Prieto R, Menéndez Carrera L, Guzmán Menéndez JM, 2006. Flora asociada a manglares y sus ecotonos. In: Ecosistema de manglar en el Archipiélago Cubano: estudios y experiencias enfocados a su gestión, [ed. by Menéndez Carrera L, Guzmán Menéndez JM]. La Habana, Cuba: Editorial Academia. 44-57.

Pence, V. C., 2005. In vitro collecting (IVC). I. The effect of collecting method and antimicrobial agents on contamination in temperate and tropical collections. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Plant, 41(3), 324-332. http://www.ingenta.com/journals/browse/cabi/ivp doi: 10.1079/IVP2004629

Polishook, J. D., Ondeyka, J. G., Dombrowski, A. W., Peláez, F., Platas, G., Teran, A. M., 2001. Biogeography and relatedness of Nodulisporium strains producing nodulisporic acid. Mycologia, 93(6), 1125-1137. doi: 10.2307/3761673

Randall RE, 1970. Vegetation and environment on the Barbados coast. Journal of Ecology, 58(1), 155-172.

The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.theplantlist.org

USDA-ARS, 2017. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

Wong W, 1976. Some folk medicinal plants from Trinidad. Economic Botany, 30(2), 103-142.

Woodworth RH, 1943. Economic plants of St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands. Botanical Museum Leaflets, Harvard University, 11(2), 29-54.

Wunderlin RP, Hansen BF, Frank AR, Essig FB, 2017. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. Tampa, Florida, USA: Institute for Systematic Botany, University of South Florida. http://florida.plantatlas.usf.edu/

Zona S, 1998. The Myoporaceae in the southeastern United States. Harvard Papers in Botany, 3(2), 171-179.

Links to Websites

Top of page
WebsiteURLComment
Atlas of Florida Plantshttp://florida.plantatlas.usf.edu/
Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plantshttp://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
National Museum of Natural Historyhttp://botany.si.edu/colls/collections_overview.htm

Contributors

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05/12/17 Original text by:

Jeanine Vélez-Gavilán, Department of Biology, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, USA

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