Invasive Species Compendium

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Aristolochia ringens
(Dutchman’s pipe)

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Datasheet

Aristolochia ringens (Dutchman’s pipe)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Aristolochia ringens
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Dutchman’s pipe
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A. ringens is a perennial twining plant listed in the global Compendium of Weeds as “cultivation escape, environmental weed, garden thug, naturalized, sleeper weed, weed” (...

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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Aristolochia ringens Vahl

Preferred Common Name

  • Dutchman’s pipe

Other Scientific Names

  • Aristolochia globiflora Mutis
  • Aristolochia grandiflora sensu Vahl
  • Aristolochia turbacensis Kunth
  • Howardia ringens (Vahl) Klotzsch

International Common Names

  • English: gaping Dutchman's pipe

Local Common Names

  • Colombia: gallitos; guaco
  • Cuba: flor de pato; gallito; patico
  • Dominican Republic: gallito; patico
  • Puerto Rico: gallito; panitos; pelicanos

Summary of Invasiveness

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A. ringens is a perennial twining plant listed in the global Compendium of Weeds as “cultivation escape, environmental weed, garden thug, naturalized, sleeper weed, weed” (Randall, 2012). It received a PIER risk score of 4 with a recommendation for further evaluation, where a score above 6 indicates its invasiveness (PIER, 2015). As an evergreen, perennial climbing vine, A. ringens grows quickly, producing numerous winged seeds adapted for wind dispersal (Acevedo-Rodriguez, 2005). Aristolochia species can also propagate vegetatively (Bailey and Bailey, 1976; Starr et al., 2003). The species is widely cultivated as an ornamental on account of its showy flowers. It is known to escape from cultivation (Liogier and Martorell, 2000; Meerman, 2003; Acevedo-Rodriguez, 2005; Randall, 2012), is weedy in parts of Central Africa (Randall, 2012), and has been reported to be invasive in Cuba (Oviedo-Prieto et al., 2012). 

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Aristolochiales
  •                         Family: Aristolochiaceae
  •                             Genus: Aristolochia
  •                                 Species: Aristolochia ringens

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The type genus of the family Aristolochiaceae, Aristolochia is a tropical genus of about 350 species, mostly herbaceous or woody vines, less frequently herbs or shrubs, with greatest diversity of species in Central and South America (Mesler and Lu, 1993; Kiew, 1999; Acevedo-Rodriguez, 2005; Wagner et al., 2015). The name Aristolochia is derived from the Greek words ‘aristos’ meaning ‘best’, and ‘locheia’ meaning ‘birth’, in reference to the Greeks’ use of the plants in childbirth, and from this reference came the common name for the genus, ‘birthwort’ (Melser and Lu, 1993). 

The species name ringens comes from the Latin word for ‘snarling’, from the lips of the flower which give the impression of a gaping mouth. The common name Dutchman’s pipe refers to the showy flowers, which are shaped like a traditional Dutch pipe.

Description

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The following description is taken from Acevedo-Rodriguez, 2005:

Slightly woody vine, twining, attaining 5 m in length. Stems cylindrical, slender, glabrous, with the pith hollow. Leaves alternate; blades 5-16 x 6-18 cm, broadly ovate, reniform or orbicular, chartaceous, with prominently reticulate venation, the apex obtuse or rounded, the base deeply cordate, the margins entire; upper surface dark green, dull; lower surface glaucous, glabrous, with numerous scattered dots; petioles 3-11 cm long, sulcate or compressed, broadened at the base; pseudostipules foliaceous, ovate-rounded, 2.5-5 cm long. Flowers solitary, pendulous; peduncle 7.5-17 cm long; utricle obovoid, 5-7 x 2.5-4 cm, the tube straight, 3-4 cm long, almost forming a right angle with the utricle; limb bilabiate, yellowish with a cardinal red reticulum, the upper lip spathulate, 6-9 cm long, the lower lip lanceolate, 10-15 cm long. Capsule 6-11 cm long, oblong or oblanceolate, with 6 ribs, the apex mucronate, the base acute; seeds numerous, rhomboid, winged, 7-15 mm long. 

Plant Type

Top of page Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated
Vine / climber

Distribution

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A. ringens is considered native to South America and known to occur in tropical regions of the Americas and Africa (USDA-ARS, 2015). However, it was not listed in the Forzza et al. (2010) Brazilian flora, despite its being reportedly native to the country (Acevedo-Rodriguez, 2005; Randall, 2012). According to Gonzalez (1990), the species is known only in cultivation in Brazil; although it has been reported to be native to Brazil, this is very likely due to misidentification of morphologically similar species occurring there.

Although many other Aristolochia species occur in the Old World tropics, A. ringens was not listed in many of the floras of the region, suggesting that this species of Aristolochia may be naturalized in parts of Asia (USDA-ARS, 2015) but is not common.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2015)Naturalised
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2015)Naturalised
NigeriaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedHUTCHINSON and DALZIEL (1931); USDA-ARS (2015)Naturalised in several parts of Nigeria; cultivated in Gold Coast.

Asia

SingaporePresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
ThailandPresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2015)Naturalised

North America

BelizePresentIntroducedMeerman (2003); Randall (2012)Cultivation escape in Corozal and Toledo districts
Costa RicaPresentFlora Mesoamericana (2015); CABI (Undated)
CubaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); Oviedo Prieto et al. (2012); USDA-ARS (2015); CABI (Undated)
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); USDA-ARS (2015)
El SalvadorPresentFlora Mesoamericana (2015)
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedLiogier and Martorell (2000); Broome et al. (2007); USDA-ARS (2015)
JamaicaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); USDA-ARS (2015); CABI (Undated)
MexicoPresentIntroducedNaturalizedVillaseñor and Espinosa-Garcia (2004)Naturalised
NicaraguaPresentFlora of Nicaragua (2015)
PanamaPresentFlora Mesoamericana (2015); CABI (Undated)
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedNaturalizedLiogier and Martorell (2000); Acevedo-Rodríguez (2005); Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); USDA-NRCS (2015)Cultivated and naturalised
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroducedLiogier and Martorell (2000); Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); Randall (2012); USDA-ARS (2015); USDA-NRCS (2015)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedNaturalizedRandall (2012)Naturalised
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedNaturalizedRandall (2012)Naturalised
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedRandall (2012)Weed
Cook IslandsPresentPIER (2015)

South America

BoliviaPresentNativeCABI (Undated)Bolivia, Santa Cruz; Original citation: Bolivia Checklist (2015)
BrazilPresentNativeGonzalez (1990)Cultivated
-AmazonasPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
ColombiaPresentNativeVascular Plants of Antioquia (2015)Bello, Betania, Jericó, Medellín, Montebello, MutatÁ, Santa Fé de Antioquia, Tamesis, Venecia
PeruPresentNativeCABI (Undated); USDA-ARS (2015)Loreto; Original citation: Peru Checklist (2015)
VenezuelaPresentFunk et al. (2007); USDA-ARS (2015)Amazonas, Bolivar

History of Introduction and Spread

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A. ringens is considered native to South America but its exact origin is unknown. Date of introduction to the West Indies is uncertain, but may have occurred in the early 20th century. The species was not listed in Macfadyen’s (1837) work on Jamaica, floras of Puerto Rico by Bello (1881; 1883), Britton’s (1918) work on Bermuda, or the flora of the Bahamas by Britton and Millspaugh (1920). Britton and Wilson did include it in the fifth volume of their 1923-1926 scientific survey of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (Britton and Wilson, 1924), in which they report A. ringens had been previously cultivated as an ornamental on St. Croix. It is now reportedly invasive in Cuba (Oviedo-Prieto et al., 2012) and escaped in Puerto Rico (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005). The species does not appear to be common in tropical Asia, but in parts of Central America and central Africa it was introduced and has now naturalized (Randall, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2015).

Risk of Introduction

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Risk of introduction for A. ringens is still under evaluation, but it is likely to be higher than the PIER risk score of 4 warrants, considering its now known invasiveness in at least one non-native place, history of repeated introduction for ornamental purposes, and status as a known naturalized species outside of its native range (Oviedo-Prieto et al., 2012; Randall, 2012). The species is a climbing vine which grows quickly, reproduces by winged seeds (which it produces many of), and can tolerate shade. There is also mounting evidence of potential negative human and animal health effects of consuming Aristolochia species (Debelle et al., 2008; Michl et al., 2013). Considering these factors, and the fact that some of its closely related species are highly invasive and have been known to outcompete native flora by smothering (such as A. elegans), risk of introduction for this species is moderate but requires further evaluation.

Habitat

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A. ringens is cultivated in gardens but also occurs in a range of habitats including humid premontane forests, humid to very-humid tropical forests, and tropical secondary forests (Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2015). In Bolivia, it has been reported to grow in montane Chaqueno forest (Bolivia Checklist, 2015). In Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands the species is known to escape cultivation into roadsides and in open areas (Acevedo-Rodriguez, 2005). 

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details
Disturbed areas Present, no further details
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details
Natural grasslands Present, no further details

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Sporophytic count = 12 (IPCN Chromosome Reports, 2015).

Environmental Requirements

Aristolochia grows best on moist, fertile soils so long as they are well-drained, and can tolerate some shade but prefers full sun (Llamas, 2003; PIER, 2015; Queensland DAFF, 2015). In Antioquia, Colombia, the species has been reported growing anywhere between 0 and 2000 m (Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2015), while in Peru it has only been reported occurring at elevations up to 500 m (Peru Checklist, 2015), in Panama up to 1000 m (Panama Checklist, 2015), and in Bolivia between 1000 and 1500 m (Bolivia Checklist, 2015).

Associations

Aristolochia species are important as larval foodplants for swallowtail butterflies of the genera Battus and Parides, which feed exclusively on leaves and young shoots of Aristolochia; ingestion and storage of the toxic aristolochic acid in turn makes the butterflies unpalatable to predators (Kiew, 1999; Meerman, 2003). 

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil texture

  • medium

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Although caterpillars of various butterfly species feed on the leaves of Aristolochia, they are rarely reported to cause extensive defoliation (Kiew, 1999).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

The seeds of A. ringens are winged, relatively small (c. 7-15 mm), light, and flat, so dispersal by wind and water is possible.

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

The roots are used by humans in traditional medicine. Animals have been known to ingest the leaves of Aristolochia, but no information has been found regarding consumption of the vine’s fruits.

Accidental Introduction

Aristolochia can propagate vegetatively, so accidental introduction through human activity is possible (Bailey and Bailey, 1976; Starr et al., 2003). The species is known to have escaped from cultivation in Africa, parts of central America and the West Indies (Liogier and Martorell, 2000; Meerman, 2003; Acevedo-Rodriguez, 2005; Randall, 2012).

Intentional Introduction

A. ringens has been intentionally introduced beyond its native South American range to central America, Africa, and the Old World tropics as an ornamental plant.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
DisturbanceSpecies is known to grow in disturbed areas Yes Yes PIER, 2015; Wunderlin and Hansen, 2003
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005; Liogier and Martorell, 2000; Meerman, 2003; Randall, 2012
Garden waste disposalCultivated as an ornamental and for medicinal use; seeds are small, numerous, and winged Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005; USDA-ARS, 2015
Medicinal use Yes Duke, 2015; Hance, 1873; USDA-ARS, 2015
Ornamental purposesHas been intentionally introduced beyond its native range for use as an ornamental Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activities Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005; Liogier and Martorell, 2000; Meerman, 2003; Randall, 2012
WindSeeds are winged, adapted for wind dispersal Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Environment (generally) Negative
Human health Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

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This species is a climbing vine which grows and spreads its seeds quickly. Its’ close relative A. elegans, which smothers native flora and reduces local biodiversity, is considered one of the worst 50 invasive species of Queensland, Australia (Weeds of Australia, 2015). Several Aristolochia species including A. ringens and A. elegans that have been introduced to Australia, now threaten the Richmond birdwing butterfly Ornithopterarichmondia, which mistakenly lays its eggs on these plants instead of its sole foodplant, Pararistolochia praevenosa. The larvae are then poisoned by the toxic leaves, resulting in such a decline of population that the Richmond birdwing is now extinct in over two thirds of its range (Sands and Scott, 2002; Sands and New, 2013; Weeds of Australia, 2015).

Although this species’ invasive potential is still under evaluation (PIER, 2015), considering its demonstrated negative effect on the populations of native butterflies in Australia, it poses an overall negative environmental impact on non-native environments. 

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Fast growing
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts human health
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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The use of various Aristolochia species as an alexiteric has been known since antiquity; its use for snake bites was praised by Theophrastus, Cicero, and Pliny, and it was also known to counter venom in Arab and Indian medicine, as well as Native American medicine (Hance, 1873). 

A. ringens is cultivated and known to have medicinal properties, and is reportedly useful as an emmenagogue and alexiteric (Michl et al., 2013; Duke, 2015; Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2015). In Africa, where it has been introduced and in many places escaped from cultivation and become naturalized, the species is reportedly used for the management of snake bite venom, gastrointestinal disturbances such as diarrhoea, rheumatoid arthritis, and insomnia (Adeyemi et al., 2012). However, there is increasing evidence of the renal toxicity of various Aristolochia species, which contain aristolochic acid and have been associated with aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN), a renal interstitial fibrosis and upper urinary tract cancer (UUC) that is likely to be particularly underestimated among populations that rely heavily on traditional medicines (Debelle et al., 2008; Krell and Stebbing, 2013; Michl et al., 2013).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Ornamental

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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A. ringens is similar to some of its closely related species including A. elegans, one of the top 50 invasive weeds in Queensland, Australia. Both A. elegans and A. ringens have a small ear-like structure (i.e. auriculate pseudo-stipule) at the base of each leaf stalk, but the flowers of A. elegans are broad (up to 7.5 cm long and 10 cm wide) while those of A. ringens are longer (10-25 cm long), narrow, and are split into an upper and lower lobe (Weeds of Australia, 2015). Most species of the Aristolochia genus produce foul-smelling, showy flowers, and all produce the toxic aristolochic acid which evidence suggests is carcinogenic.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Physical/Mechanical Control

General information regarding mechanical control is available for members of the Aristolochia genus. According to the Queensland Department of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry (Queensland DAFF, 2015) regarding A. ringens’ closely related A. elegans, “manual removal may be the only suitable method of control available for this weed. Small plants can be pulled or dug out, ensuring that the crown and the roots are removed. Vigorous growth may be cut down using a brush hook or other such tool, preferably before seeds set. Trace vines to their main crown and cut with a knife well below this growing point, removing all parts of the plant from the soil.” However, once the species is established mechanical control will be difficult, as Aristolochia species are capable of vegetative propagation (Bailey and Bailey, 1976; Starr et al., 2003).

Chemical Control

Aristolochia species can apparently be controlled with herbicides (Queensland DAFF, 2015). In Hawaii, several non-native Aristolochia species have become weedy and invasive. According to Starr et al. (2003), “the preferred method of control for a similar vine, Coccinia grandis, is to leave the vines in place and use a basal bark application by applying Garlon 4 (triclopyr) at 100% to the base of the vine, as close to the root as possible. To allow proper translocation, do not cut vines. Repeat control is necessary to control any regrowth or stems that were originally missed.”

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Further research is needed on methods of prevention and control, especially considering its threat to native flora and fauna. As recommended by PIER (2015), further evaluation of the species’ invasive potential is needed.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2005. Vines and climbing plants of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 51:483 pp.

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Adeyemi OO; Aigbe FR; Badru OA, 2012. The antidiarrhoeal activity of the aqueous root extract of Aristolochia ringens (Vahl.) Aristolochiaceae. Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine, 22(1):29-33. http://www.ajol.info/index.php/nqjhm/article/view/112963

Bailey LH; Bailey EZ, 1976. Hortus third: a concise dictionary of plants cultivated in the United States and Canada. Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. New York, USA: Macmillan.

Bello D, 1883. [English title not available]. (Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. Segunda parte. Monoclamídeas.) Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, 12:103-130.

Bello Espinosa D, 1881. [English title not available]. (Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. Primera parte.) Anal. Soc. Española de Hist. Nat, 10:231-304.

Bolivia Checklist, 2015. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Bolivia, Tropicos website. St. Louis, MO, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/BC

Britton NL, 1918. Flora of Bermuda. New York, USA: Charles Scribner's Sons. 585 pp.

Britton NL; Millspaugh CF, 1920. The Bahama Flora. New York, USA: NL Britton & CF Millspaugh.

Britton NL; Wilson P, 1924. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin islands, Volume V, Botany of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. New York Academy of Sciences, New York.

Broome R; Sabir K; Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Chong KY; Tan HTW; Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/pdf/PUBLICATION/LKCNH%20Museum%20Books/LKCNHM%20Books/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Debelle FD; Vanherweghem JL; Nortier JL, 2008. Aristolochic acid nephropathy: a worldwide problem. Kidney International, 74(2):158-169.

Duke JA, 2015. Dr Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. Beltsville, USA: Germplasm Resources Information Network, National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. http://www.ars-grin.gov/duke/

Flora Mesoamericana, 2015. Flora Mesoamericana. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/fm

Flora of Nicaragua, 2015. Flora of Nicaragua, Tropicos website. St. Louis, MO, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/FN

Forzza R, 2010. List of species of the Flora of Brazil (Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil). http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2012/

Funk V; Hollowell T; Berry P; Kelloff C; Alexander SN, 2007. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 584 pp.

Gonzalez FA, 1990. Aristolochiaceae. Flora de Colombia, 12:1-185.

Hance HF, 1873. On the ch'ing muh hsiang, or "green putchuk," of the Chinese. With some remarks on the antidotal virtues ascribed to Aristolochiae. Journal of Botany, British and Foreign, XI:72-79.

Hutchinson J; Dalziel JME, 1931. Flora of West Tropical Africa: Vol.2, Part 1. http://plants.jstor.org/stable/10.5555/al.ap.flora.fwta320

IPCN Chromosome Reports, 2015. Index to Plant Chromosome Numbers (IPCN), Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/IPCN

Kiew R, 1999. Aristolochia L. In: Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA) No. 12(1): Medicinal and poisonous plants 1 [ed. by Padua, L. S. de \Bunyapraphatsara, N. \Lemmens, R. H. M. J.]. Leiden, The Netherlands: Backhuys Publisher, 133-139. http://proseanet.org/prosea/e-prosea_detail.php?frt=&id=160

Krell D; Stebbing J, 2013. Aristolochia: the malignant truth. The Lancet: Oncology, 14(1):25-26.

Liogier HA; Martorell LF, 2000. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis, 2nd edition revised. San Juan, Puerto Rico: La Editorial, University of Puerto Rico, 382 pp.

Llamas KA, 2003. Tropical flowering plants: a guide to identification and cultivation. Portland, OR, USA: Timber Press.

MacFadyen J, 1837. The flora of Jamaica: A description of the plants of that island. London, UK: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green & Longman, 351 pp.

Meerman JC, 2003. Aristolochia's native to Belize. Biodiversity in Belize online database. http://biological-diversity.info/

Mesler MR; Lu K, 1993. Aristolochiaceae- Pipevine family. Treatment from the Jepson Manual. http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?575,576

Michl J; Jennings HM; Kite GC; Ingrouille MJ; Simmonds MSJ; Heinrich M, 2013. Is aristolochic acid nephropathy a widespread problem in developing countries?: A case study of Aristolochia indica L. in Bangladesh using an ethnobotanical-phytochemical approach. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 149(1):235-244. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874113004480

Oviedo Prieto R; Herrera Oliver P; Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96.

Panama Checklist, 2015. Panama Checklist, Tropicos website. St. Louis, MO, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/PAC

Peru Checklist, 2015. The Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PEC

PIER, 2015. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Queensland DAFF, 2015. Dutchman's pipe (Aristolochia spp. other than native species)., Australia: Queensland Department of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry. https://www.daff.qld.gov.au/plants/weeds-pest-animals-ants/weeds/a-z-listing-of-weeds/photo-guide-to-weeds/dutchmans-pipe

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Sands DPA; New TR, 2013. Conservation of the Richmond Birdwing Butterfly in Australia. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer Press, 209 pp.

Sands DPA; Scott S, 2002. Conservation of Birdwing Butterflies. Queensland, Australia: Science Communication and Education Services.

Starr F; Starr K; Loope L, 2003. Aristolochia littoralis. Maui, Hawaii, USA: United States Geological Survey- Biological Resources Division. http://www.hear.org/pier/pdf/pohreports/aristolochia_littoralis.pdf

USDA-ARS, 2015. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2015. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2015. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of the Department of Antioquia (Colombia), Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CV

Villaseñor JL; Espinosa-Garcia FJ, 2004. The alien flowering plants of Mexico. Diversity and Distributions, 10(2):113-123.

Wagner WL; Herbst DR; Lorence DH, 2015. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands website. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/index.htm

Weeds of Australia, 2015. Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition. http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/03030800-0b07-490a-8d04-0605030c0f01/media/Html/search.html?zoom_query=

Wunderlin RP; Hansen BF, 2003. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. Institute for Systematic Biology, University of South Florida, Tampa, USA. http://www.plantatlas.usf.edu/.

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2005. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. 51, 483 pp.

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean., Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species., Singapore, Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp. http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/pdf/PUBLICATION/LKCNH%20Museum%20Books/LKCNHM%20Books/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Flora Mesoamericana, 2015. Flora Mesoamericana., St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/fm

Flora of Nicaragua, 2015. Flora of Nicaragua, Tropicos website., St. Louis, MO, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/FN

Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Alexander S N, 2007. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. 55, 584 pp.

Gonzalez FA, 1990. Aristolochiaceae. In: Flora de Colombia, 12 1-185.

HUTCHINSON J, DALZIEL J M, 1931. Flora of West Tropical Africa. Flora of West Tropical Africa. The British West African Colonies, British Cameroons, the French and Portuguese Colonies south of the Tropic of Cancer to Lake Chad, and Fernando Po. 2 (Parts 1 and 2), 651 pp.

Liogier HA, Martorell LF, 2000. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis, 2nd edition revised., San Juan, Puerto Rico: La Editorial, University of Puerto Rico. 382 pp.

Meerman JC, 2003. Aristolochia's native to Belize. In: Biodiversity in Belize online database, http://biological-diversity.info/

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

PIER, 2015. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds., Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia. 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

USDA-ARS, 2015. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2015. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2015. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of the Department of Antioquia (Colombia), Tropicos website., St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CV

Villaseñor J L, Espinosa-Garcia F J, 2004. The alien flowering plants of Mexico. Diversity and Distributions. 10 (2), 113-123. DOI:10.1111/j.1366-9516.2004.00059.x

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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08/10/2015 Original text by:

Marianne Jennifer Datiles, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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