Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Abutilon hirtum
(Indian mallow)



Abutilon hirtum (Indian mallow)


  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Abutilon hirtum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Indian mallow
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A. hirtum is a perennial herb or shrub which is a common weed, listed as an invasive in Cuba, French Polynesia and New Caledonia (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; ...

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Abutilon hirtum (Indian mallow); flowering habit. Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India. May 2010.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionAbutilon hirtum (Indian mallow); flowering habit. Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India. May 2010.
Copyright©Lalithamba/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Abutilon hirtum (Indian mallow); flowering habit. Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India. May 2010.
Flowering habitAbutilon hirtum (Indian mallow); flowering habit. Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India. May 2010.©Lalithamba/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Abutilon hirtum (Lam.) Sweet

Preferred Common Name

  • Indian mallow

Other Scientific Names

  • Abutilon graveolens (Roxb. ex Hornem.) Wight & Arn.
  • Abutilon graveolens var. hirtum (Lam.) Mast.
  • Abutilon graveolens var. queenslandicum Domin
  • Abutilon heterotrichum Hochst. ex Mattei
  • Abutilon hirtum var. heterotrichum (Hochst. ex Mattei) Cufod
  • Abutilon indicum var. hirtum (Lam.) Griseb.
  • Abutilon indicum var. yuanmouense K.M.Feng
  • Abutilon kotschyi Hochst. ex Webb
  • Abutilon lugardii Hochr. & Schinz
  • Napaea incurva Moench
  • Sida graveolens Roxb. ex Hornem.
  • Sida hirta Lam.

International Common Names

  • English: Florida Keys Indian mallow; Indian abutilon

Local Common Names

  • Aruba: tresor
  • Belize: pintor are pashuw
  • China: dong kui zi; e wei qing ma
  • Cuba: botón de oro
  • Dominican Republic: yerba blanca
  • India: atibala; belabenda; gondekaai; kanghi; malayalam; oorakam; tutturu benda
  • Indonesia: bunga waktu kuning; kecemplock; kembang sore besar
  • Kenya: asrilipog
  • Lesser Antilles: buenas tardes; grosse mauve; marie-l’hôpital; mauve-savane
  • Malaysia: angouri; bunga petang
  • Mexico: botón de oro; malva lisa
  • Montserrat: burry bark
  • Namibia: onyiva
  • Peru: rokotorokoto
  • Puerto Rico: buenos días; buenos días
  • Thailand: khrop chak krawaan; khrop see; top taap

Summary of Invasiveness

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A. hirtum is a perennial herb or shrub which is a common weed, listed as an invasive in Cuba, French Polynesia and New Caledonia (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; PIER, 2015). It is not considered a threat at high elevations (PIER, 2015). It was likely introduced in some countries to cultivate it for traditional medicinal uses, for its fibres or as an ornamental (Kshirsagar and Singh, 2001; Brussell, 2004; Achigan-Dako, 2010; Wesley et al., 2013). No details are given about the level of invasiveness or the impacts of the species where it is reported as invasive. It is reported as a serious weed of agriculture in Ghana, Thailand, Nigeria and Sudan; and as a common weed in India (Achigan-Dako, 2010; PIER, 2015). A risk assessment available on PIER (2015) gives it a score of 5 (reject for introduction).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Malvales
  •                         Family: Malvaceae
  •                             Genus: Abutilon
  •                                 Species: Abutilon hirtum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Abutilon is a genus in the Malvaceae family which includes about 200 species of herbs, sub-shrubs, shrubs and small trees from the Americas, Africa, Asia and Australia (Fryxell, 1988; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015). Abutilon hirtum was described from India in 1826. The name Abutilon has various possible origins, Greek, Oriental, or Arabic. Most probably it derives from the Arabic "abu" (father of) and the Persian "tula" or "thula" (Malva or mallow); hirtum is a reference to the hairs (Fryxell, 1988). 


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The following is from Malvaceae of Mexico (Fryxell, 1988):

Robust herbs ca. 1 m tall, the stems viscid and with long simple hairs 2-5 mm long. Leaf blades mostly 5-7 cm long, subrotund, cordate, finely serrate, acuminate, softly tomentose beneath, more sparsely pubescent above; petioles equaling to greatly exceeding the blades; stipules 7-9 mm long, lanceolate, recurved. Flowers solitary in the leaf axils but the inflorescence becoming a terminal panicle; pedicels 2-3.5 cm long; calyx 12-27 mm long, ca. half-divided, stellate-tomentulose; corolla rotate, with a dark red centre, the petals 18-20 mm long, orange-yellow; staminal column 7 mm long, pubescent, the filaments 4 mm long, the anthers yellow; styles 20-25. Fruits 12-14 mm long, ca. 2 cm in diameter, oblate, exceeding the calyx; mericarps 20-25, 3-seeded, apically obtuse to acute, stellate-hirsute, the hairs ca. 1 mm long; seeds 2.4-2.8 mm long, minutely scabridulous. 

Plant Type

Top of page Perennial
Seed propagated


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A. hirtum is considered native to tropical Asia and tropical Africa, (Achigan-Dako, 2010), and is also listed as native to parts of the Middle East (USDA-ARS, 2015). It is reported as introduced for Central America, the West Indies, North America, South America and Oceania (see distribution table for details; Fryxell, 1988; Achigan-Dako, 2010; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; PIER, 2015). The Peru Checklist (2015) lists it as native in Peru, but this is likely to be an error.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


AfghanistanPresentNativeAchigan-Dako, 2010
ChinaPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
-YunnanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
IndiaPresentNativeAchigan-Dako, 2010
-BiharPresentNativeAchigan-Dako, 2010
-HaryanaPresentNativeAchigan-Dako, 2010
-Indian PunjabPresentNativeAchigan-Dako, 2010
-OdishaPresentNativeAchigan-Dako, 2010
-Tamil NaduPresentNativeAchigan-Dako, 2010
-Uttar PradeshPresentNativeAchigan-Dako, 2010
IndonesiaPresentPIER, 2015
IranPresentNativeAchigan-Dako, 2010
IraqPresentNativeAchigan-Dako, 2010
IsraelPresentAchigan-Dako, 2010
JordanPresentAchigan-Dako, 2010
MalaysiaPresentNativeAchigan-Dako, 2010
MyanmarPresentNativeAchigan-Dako, 2010
OmanPresentNativeAchigan-Dako, 2010
PakistanPresentNativeAchigan-Dako, 2010
PhilippinesPresentAchigan-Dako, 2010; PIER, 2015
Saudi ArabiaPresentNativeAchigan-Dako, 2010
Sri LankaPresentNative
VietnamPresentPIER, 2015
YemenPresentNativeAchigan-Dako, 2010South Yemen, North Yemen


AngolaPresentNativeAchigan-Dako, 2010
BotswanaPresentNativeAchigan-Dako, 2010
BurundiPresentNativeAchigan-Dako, 2010
Cape VerdePresentNativeAchigan-Dako, 2010
ChadPresentNativeAchigan-Dako, 2010
EritreaPresentNativeAchigan-Dako, 2010
KenyaPresentNativeAchigan-Dako, 2010; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015
MadagascarPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015
MauritiusPresentNativeAchigan-Dako, 2010
MozambiquePresentNativeAchigan-Dako, 2010Gaza province
NamibiaPresentNativeAchigan-Dako, 2010Kaokoland, Grootfontein, Otjiwarongo districts.
NigerPresentNativeAchigan-Dako, 2010
NigeriaPresentNativeAchigan-Dako, 2010
RéunionPresentNativeAchigan-Dako, 2010
Rodriguez IslandPresentNativeAchigan-Dako, 2010
RwandaPresentNativeAchigan-Dako, 2010
SomaliaPresentNativeAchigan-Dako, 2010
South AfricaPresentNativeAchigan-Dako, 2010Natal, Transvaal
SudanPresentNativeAchigan-Dako, 2010
TanzaniaPresentNativeAchigan-Dako, 2010
UgandaPresentNativeAchigan-Dako, 2010
ZimbabwePresentNativeAchigan-Dako, 2010

North America

MexicoPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced1864-1865 Not invasive Fryxell, 1988; Achigan-Dako, 2010; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015
USAPresentIntroducedAchigan-Dako, 2010Southeastern USA
-FloridaPresentIntroduced1895-1897Wunderlin and Hansen, 2015Alachua, Hillsborough, Lake, Miami-Dade, Monroe Keys.

Central America and Caribbean

AnguillaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
ArubaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
BahamasPresentIntroducedBritton and Millspaugh, 1920; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
BelizePresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015Cayo: Ca. 15 km SW of San Ignacio; San Antonio: San Joaquín,Corozal, Orange Walk
BonairePresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012Tortola
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedAchigan-Dako, 2010
CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012
CuraçaoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
DominicaPresentIntroducedAchigan-Dako, 2010
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015Enriquillo; Azua; Santiago
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015
GrenadaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015La Désirade, Les Saintes
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015Petén, on Cadenas Road, south of San Luis
HaitiPresentIntroducedAchigan-Dako, 2010
HondurasPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015Choluteca, Marcovia, Cedeño Beach, Fonseca Gulf
JamaicaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015Kingston, Newport East.
MartiniquePresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
MontserratPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Netherlands AntillesPresentIntroducedAchigan-Dako, 2010
NicaraguaPresentIntroduced1923-1927 Not invasive Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015Managua; occasional near the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico.
PanamaPresentIntroduced1879Godman and Salvin, 1879-1915; Achigan-Dako, 2010; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced Not invasive Axelrod, 2011Northern Coastal Lowlands (Fajardo), Southern Coastal Limestone (Ponce), Southwestern Coastal Lowlands
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedBritton and Millspaugh, 1920; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015

South America

ColombiaPresentIntroducedAchigan-Dako, 2010
EcuadorPresentIntroducedAchigan-Dako, 2010
PeruPresentNativePeru Checklist, 2015Lima; disturbed areas
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedAchigan-Dako, 2010


AustraliaPresentPIER, 2015Continental
French PolynesiaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2015Marquesas Islands: Eiao Island, Hatuta'a Island, Hiva Oa Island, Mohotani Island, Nuku Hiva Island, Tahuata Island, Ua Huka Island, Ua Pou Island; Society Islands: Tahiti
New CaledoniaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2015Ile Grande Terre, also cultivated
VanuatuPresentAchigan-Dako, 2010

History of Introduction and Spread

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No details were found for the introduction of the species or its spread into countries outside its native range. Earliest reports for the New World are: 1845 for Cuba by Sagra, who described it as a “spontaneous” plant for the island and escaping from gardens, where it is frequently cultivated; 1879-1915 for Panama by Godman and Salvin; and 1895-1897 by Gray for Key West, Florida ("and perhaps elsewhere”). Britton reports the species in 1920 as present in the Bahamas, Florida, Cuba, St. Thomas, Barbados and Jamaica. Sagra (1845) reports that the Cuban specimens are "identical" to the ones collected in India.

Risk of Introduction

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No information is available on the effects of A. hirtum on habitats and/or native vegetation; there are also few documentations of its spread. It is sold as an ornamental over the internet locally and internationally. Since the species is a host for various insect pests, nematodes and the okra mosaic virus (Atiri, 1984; Achigan-Dako, 2010; Sakthivel et al., 2012), it can be a serious threat to agriculture. A risk assessment carried out for Florida gave it a score of 5 (reject) (PIER, 2015).


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A. hirtum is reported for lowlands, woodlands, grasslands, scrubs, roadsides, and riversides; from sea level to 1800 m altitude (Achigan-Dako, 2010). In China it is found in grasslands at 300-1300 m (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015).

Habitat List

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Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Principal habitat Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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A. hirtum is one of the preferred hosts of the papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus, and is recorded as a persistent source for the spread of the pest. The papaya mealy bug is a serious threat to the production of papaya, tapioca and mulberry in India (Sakthivel et al., 2012). A. hirtum is an alternate host of the spotted bollworms, Earias fabia and E. insulana, and the beetle Anthonomus grandis, which are reported as pests of cotton crops (Cherian and Kylasam, 1947; Szumkowski, 1954). A. hirtum is reported as a serious weed of agriculture in Ghana, Thailand, Nigeria and Sudan (Achigan-Dako, 2010). It is a host for the root nematodes Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita, which are pests of cotton and other crops (Achigan-Dako, 2010). It is also reported as a host for the Okra Mosaic Virus (OkMV) (Atiri, 1984; Achigan-Dako, 2010). 

Biology and Ecology

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The chromosome number is reported as: 2n = 42 (Fryxell, 1988).

Physiology and Phenology

In India, A. hirtum is reported as flowering and fruiting from October to April (India Biodiversity Portal, 2016).


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Am - Tropical monsoon climate Tolerated Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
31 25

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -1.1
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 40
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 4


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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall1400mm; lower/upper limits

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Notes on Natural Enemies

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The rust fungus, Puccinia heterospora, is reported to occur in the related Abutilon indicum (Arthur, 1915; Arthur and Johnston, 1918).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Breeding and propagationReported as cultivated for medicinal purposes and fibres. Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010
Crop productionCultivated for fibres for ropes and clothing. Yes Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010; Brussel, 2004
DisturbanceReported for disturbed habitats: as a weed of irrigated fields, roadsides and overgrazed grasslands. Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010
ForageEaten by goats, camels, bovines, elephants, rhinos, vervet monkeys and bushbucks Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010; Wesley et al., 2013; Whitten, 1988
Hedges and windbreaksUsed for hedges. Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010
HorticultureSeeds sold over the internet locally and available to be mailed internationally Yes Yes
Internet salesSeeds available on the internet. Yes Yes
Medicinal useVarious medicinal uses reported. Yes Achigan-Dako, 2010
Ornamental purposesSold over the internet as an ornamental plant. Yes Yes
Seed tradeSeeds available on the internet for conservation and restoration purposes. Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Germplasm Yes Yes
MailSeeds available over the internet Yes Yes

Impact Summary

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Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Human health Positive

Economic Impact

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A. hirtum is susceptible to various pests and the Okra Mosaic Virus (Cherian and Kylasam, 1947; Achigan-Dako, 2010; Sakthivel et al., 2012).) Since it is reported as a serious weed of agriculture, production could be affected if pests and the virus are carried into the crops (Achigan-Dako, 2010). The beetles Podagrica uniforma., P. sjostedti and Syagrus calcaratus are reported as vectors of the Okra Mosaic Virus and have been caught on A. hirtum plants near okra fields (Atiri, 1984). 

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Is a habitat generalist
Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
Impact mechanisms
  • Pest and disease transmission
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately


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A. hirtum is used in traditional medicine as a demulcent, diuretic, and to treat diarrhoea, bladder inflammations, wounds and ulcers (Kshirsgar and Singh, 2001; Wesley et al., 2013). Extracts of the leaves of A. hirtum show cytotoxic activities against human breast cancer cells (Wesley et al., 2013). Bark fibres are reported as used for clothes and rope-making (Brussell, 2004; Achigan-Dako, 2010).

Leaves are eaten by goats, camels and game animals (Achigan-Dako, 2010; Wesley et al., 2013). Whitten (1988) reports that the Vervet Monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops [Chlorocebus aethiops]) feeds on the flowers of A. hirtum, which was one of five species accounting for 60% of their feeding time.

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Forage


  • Boundary, barrier or support

Human food and beverage

  • Fruits
  • Leaves (for beverage)
  • Oil/fat
  • Seeds


  • Bark products
  • Baskets
  • Fibre
  • Oils

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore
  • Veterinary


  • Potted plant
  • Seed trade

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Apart from the ethnobotanical uses of the species, as a medicinal plant and a source of fibres, there is little information on the biology of the species, its environmental requirements, or effects on biodiversity and on the native flora of invaded areas. It is reported as a weed and/or invasive but without further details.


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Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.

Achigan-Dako EG, 2010. Abutilon hirtum (Lam.) Sweet. Record from PROTA4U. Wageningen, Netherlands: PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa / Ressources végétales de l'Afrique tropicale).

Arthur JC, 1915. Uredinales of Porto Rico based on collections by F. Stevens (continued). Mycologia, 7(5):227-255

Arthur JC; Johnston JR, 1918. Uredinales of Cuba. Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club, 17:97-175.

Atiri GI, 1984. The ocurrence and importance of Okra Mosaic Virus in Nigerian weeds. Annals of Applied Biology, 104(2):261-265.

Axelrod FS, 2011. A systematic vademecum to the vascular plants of Puerto Rico. Sida Botanical Miscellany, 34. 428 pp.

Britton NL; Millspaugh CF, 1920. The Bahama Flora. New York, USA: NL Britton & CF Millspaugh.

Brussel DE, 2004. A medicinal plant collection from Montserrat, West Indies. Economic Botany, 58(Supplement):S203-S220.

Cherian MC; Kylasam MS, 1947. Studies on the Spotted Bollworms of Cotton Earias fabia S., and E. insulana B. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 46(4):658-667 pp.

D'Arcy WG, 1967. Annotated checklist of the dicotyledons of Tortola, Virgin Islands. Rhodora, 69(780):385-450.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.

Fryxell PA, 1988. Malvaceae of Mexico. Systematic Botany Monographs, 25:1-522.

Godman D; Salvin O, 1879-1915. Biologia centrali-Americana: zoology, botany and archeology, V.1.

Gray A, 1895-1897. Synoptycal flora of North America, v.1 pt.1.

India Biodiversity Portal, 2016. Online Portal of India Biodiversity.

Kew Royal Botanic Gardens, 2015. Millennium Seed Bank - Seed List. Richmond, UK: Kew Royal Botanic Gardens.

Kshirsagar RD; Singh NP, 2001. Some less known ethnomedicinal uses from Mysore and Coorg districts, Karnataka state, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 75(2/3):231-238.

Liogier AH, 1994. Descriptive flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands, Vol. III. Río Piedras, Puerto Rico: Universidad de Puerto Rico, 461 pp.

Mathez-Stiefel SL; Brandt R; Lachmuth S; Rist S, 2012. Are the young less knowledgeable? Local knowledge of natural remedies and its transformations in the Andean highlands. Human Ecology, 40(6):909-930.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.

Oviedo Prieto R; Herrera Oliver P; Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96.

Peru Checklist, 2015. The Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.

PIER, 2015. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.

Sagra Rde la, 1845. Historia física, política y natural de la isla de Cuba, V. 10 ([English title not available]).

Sakthivel P; Karuppuchamy P; Kalyanasundaram M; Srinivasan T, 2012. Host plants of invasive papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus (Williams and Granara de Willink) in Tamil Nadu. Madras Agricultural Journal, 99(7/9):615-619.

Szumkowski W, 1954. A List of Food-plants of A. grandis in Venezuela. (Lista de plantas hospederas de Anthonomus grandis Boh. en Venezuela.) Agron. trop, 4(1):29-42 pp.

The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

USDA-ARS, 2015. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.

Wesley PS; Devi BC; Sarmad Moin; Shibu BS, 2013. In vitro phytochemical screening, free radical scavenging activity and anticancer activity of Abutilon hirtum (Lam.) sweet (Malvaceae). International Journal of PharmTech Research, 5(1):155-161.

Whitten PL, 1988. Effect of patch quality and feeding subgroup size on feeding success in Vervet Monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiopus). Behaviour, 105(1/2):35-52.

Wunderlin RP; Hansen BF, 2015. Atlas of Florida vascular plants. Tampa, Florida, USA: Institute for Systematic Botany, University of South Florida.

Links to Websites

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GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gateway source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
India Biodiversity Portal
Plant Resources for Tropical Africa


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11/04/2016 Original text by:

Jeanine Vélez-Gavilán, University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez

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