Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Clerodendrum paniculatum
(pagoda flower)

Rojas-Sandoval J, 2020. Clerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.119784.20203483167

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Datasheet

Clerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 July 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Clerodendrum paniculatum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • pagoda flower
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Clerodendrum paniculatum is a shrub which is widely cultivated as an ornamental for its spectacularly showy inflorescences. This species often establishes as a garden escapee. Its ability to produce root suckers allows the species to easi...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Clerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower); flowers. Southern Kerala, India. July 2005.
TitleFlowers
CaptionClerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower); flowers. Southern Kerala, India. July 2005.
Copyright©V.R. Vinayaraj/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Clerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower); flowers. Southern Kerala, India. July 2005.
FlowersClerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower); flowers. Southern Kerala, India. July 2005.©V.R. Vinayaraj/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Clerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower); flowering habit. Thailand. May 2014.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionClerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower); flowering habit. Thailand. May 2014.
Copyright©Tatiana Gerus (Tatters)/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Clerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower); flowering habit. Thailand. May 2014.
Flowering habitClerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower); flowering habit. Thailand. May 2014.©Tatiana Gerus (Tatters)/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Clerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower); flowering habit. India. January 2004.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionClerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower); flowering habit. India. January 2004.
Copyright©Mokkie/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Clerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower); flowering habit. India. January 2004.
Flowering habitClerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower); flowering habit. India. January 2004.©Mokkie/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Clerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower); flowering habit, planted as an ornamental. Togian Islands, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. September 2017.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionClerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower); flowering habit, planted as an ornamental. Togian Islands, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. September 2017.
Copyright©David E. Mead/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Clerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower); flowering habit, planted as an ornamental. Togian Islands, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. September 2017.
Flowering habitClerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower); flowering habit, planted as an ornamental. Togian Islands, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. September 2017.©David E. Mead/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Clerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower); flowering habit. nr Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. May 2018.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionClerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower); flowering habit. nr Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. May 2018.
Copyright©Yercaud Elango/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Clerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower); flowering habit. nr Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. May 2018.
Flowering habitClerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower); flowering habit. nr Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. May 2018.©Yercaud Elango/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Clerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower); habit. La Fortuna de San Carlos, Provincia de Alajuela, Costa Rica. December 2016.
TitleHabit
CaptionClerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower); habit. La Fortuna de San Carlos, Provincia de Alajuela, Costa Rica. December 2016.
Copyright©Katja Schulz/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Clerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower); habit. La Fortuna de San Carlos, Provincia de Alajuela, Costa Rica. December 2016.
HabitClerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower); habit. La Fortuna de San Carlos, Provincia de Alajuela, Costa Rica. December 2016.©Katja Schulz/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Clerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower); habit. Botanic Trail, Mulu National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia. October 2014.
TitleHabit
CaptionClerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower); habit. Botanic Trail, Mulu National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia. October 2014.
Copyright©Bernard Dupont/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Clerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower); habit. Botanic Trail, Mulu National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia. October 2014.
HabitClerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower); habit. Botanic Trail, Mulu National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia. October 2014.©Bernard Dupont/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Clerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower); flowering habit, yellow variety, with Kim Starr for scale. Panaewa Zoo, Hawaii, Hawaii, USA. July 2012.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionClerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower); flowering habit, yellow variety, with Kim Starr for scale. Panaewa Zoo, Hawaii, Hawaii, USA. July 2012.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Clerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower); flowering habit, yellow variety, with Kim Starr for scale. Panaewa Zoo, Hawaii, Hawaii, USA. July 2012.
Flowering habitClerodendrum paniculatum (pagoda flower); flowering habit, yellow variety, with Kim Starr for scale. Panaewa Zoo, Hawaii, Hawaii, USA. July 2012.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Clerodendrum paniculatum L.

Preferred Common Name

  • pagoda flower

Other Scientific Names

  • Caprifolium paniculatum Noronha
  • Cleianthus coccineus Lour. ex B.A.Gomes
  • Clerodendrum diversifolium Vahl
  • Clerodendrum pyramidale Andrews
  • Volkameria angulata Lour.
  • Volkameria diversifolia Vahl

International Common Names

  • English: orange pagoda; orange pagoda flower; orange tower; orange tower flower; pagoda flower
  • Spanish: clerodendron rojo
  • Chinese: yuan chi da qing

Local Common Names

  • Micronesia, Federated states of: tuhkehn sousou (Pohnpei)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Clerodendrum paniculatum is a shrub which is widely cultivated as an ornamental for its spectacularly showy inflorescences. This species often establishes as a garden escapee. Its ability to produce root suckers allows the species to easily colonize new areas. Once established, it can form clonal stands of several plants. C. paniculatum is included in the Global Compendium of Weeds and listed as invasive in Singapore, Cuba, Hawaii, French Polynesia, Micronesia, Fiji, Palau, New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Western Samoa.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Lamiales
  •                         Family: Lamiaceae
  •                             Genus: Clerodendrum
  •                                 Species: Clerodendrum paniculatum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Lamiaceae comprises 236 genera and approximately 7,280 species of mostly herbs and shrubs. Species within this family are commonly aromatic plants with quadrangular stems and verticillate inflorescences. The genus Clerodendrum is now classified within the subfamily Ajugoideae, being one of several genera reassigned from Verbenaceae to Lamiaceae in the 1990s, based on phylogenetic analysis of morphological and molecular data. The genus Clerodendrum includes between 300-350 species that are distributed through the tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Asia, and Pacific Oceania, with fewer representatives in the New World (Stevens, 2017; Steane et al., 2004).

Description

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The following description is from Flora of China Editorial Committee (2020): Shrub, 1-2 m tall. Branchlets 4-angled, subglabrous to pubescent, nodes villous. Leaves palmately lobed; petiole 3-11 cm, yellow-brown pubescent; leaf blade broadly ovate to subrounded, 5-17 × 7.5-19 cm, abaxially sparsely pubescent and sandy glandular, adaxially sparsely pubescent to subglabrous, base cordate, margin entire or minutely denticulate, apex acute. Inflorescences conical to rounded thyrses, 15-26 × 16-22 cm; peduncle long; bracts ovate-lanceolate to ovate; bractlets linear. Calyx ca. 7 mm, deeply 5-lobed, dotted; lobes usually lanceolate, 5 mm. Corolla red to orange, tube 1-1.5 cm, dotted, outside pubescent, inside subglabrous; lobes oblong to ovate, spreading. Stamens and style 4 times as long as corolla tube. Drupes globose, 5-9 mm in diameter.

Plant Type

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Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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Clerodendrum paniculatum is native to southeastern Asia, including China, India, Indonesia, and Malaysia. It has been introduced into tropical and subtropical regions and often establishes as a garden escapee. It can currently be found naturalized in Central America, Australia, Singapore, and on islands in the Caribbean and Pacific region (PIER, 2020; POWO, 2020; USDA-ARS, 2020).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Dec 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

SeychellesPresentIntroduced

Asia

BangladeshPresentNative
CambodiaPresentNative
ChinaPresentNative
-FujianPresentNative
-GuangdongPresentNative
IndiaPresentNative
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentNative
-AssamPresentNative
-KarnatakaPresentNative
IndonesiaPresentNative
-JavaPresentNative
-Maluku IslandsPresentNative
-SulawesiPresentNative
-SumatraPresentNative
LaosPresentNative
MalaysiaPresentNative
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentNative
-SabahPresentNative
-SarawakPresentNative
MyanmarPresentNative
PhilippinesPresentNative
SingaporePresentIntroducedInvasive
Sri LankaPresentIntroduced
TaiwanPresentNative
ThailandPresentNative
VietnamPresentNative

North America

Costa RicaPresentIntroducedCultivated
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasive
HondurasPresentIntroducedCultivated
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedCultivated
PanamaPresentIntroducedCultivated
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedNaturalizedEscaped from cultivation
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedGrowing along a highway
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroduced
United StatesPresentIntroduced
-FloridaPresentIntroducedCultivated

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroduced
AustraliaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive in Pohnpei. Also present in Chuuk and Yap. A third of the island of Pingelap is covered with C. paniculatum
-ChuukPresentIntroduced
-PohnpeiPresentIntroducedInvasive
-YapPresentIntroducedInvasive
FijiPresentIntroducedInvasive
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
GuamPresentIntroduced
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroduced
NauruPresentIntroduced
PalauPresentIntroducedInvasive
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedInvasive
SamoaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive

South America

ColombiaPresentIntroducedCultivated

Habitat

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Clerodendrum paniculatum inhabits evergreen jungles, open forests, thickets, open wet areas, railroad embankments, clearings and forest edges (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020; Flora of Panama, 2020). The species is cultivated in gardens and yards and can often be found naturalized around settlements and wastelands, and along roadside hedgerows (Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants, 2020; Flora of Panama, 2020).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

There are no genetic studies on this species specifically. However, for other Clerodendrum species, available studies indicate that they are polyploid with varied chromosome numbers between 2n = 46, 2n = 48 and 2n = 52 (Yuan et al., 2010).

Reproductive Biology

The most distinctive features of C. paniculatum are its large terminal inflorescences up to 45 cm long, bearing numerous red-orange flowers. Each slender, tubular flower is 1.2-2 cm long with five small lobes, these usually being slightly paler than the tube. Butterflies are the main pollinators (POWO, 2020).

Physiology and Phenology

In China, C. paniculatum has been recorded flowering and fruiting from April to February (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020). In Nicaragua, this species produces flowers from July to December and fruits from October to December (Flora of Nicaragua, 2020).

Environmental Requirements

Clerodendrum paniculatum grows best in moist habitats. It prefers well-drained soils, sunny places and elevations slightly above sea level up to 500 m (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
30 30

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 12 35

Rainfall Regime

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Bimodal
Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Clerodendrum paniculatum spreads by seeds and vegetatively by sprouts and root suckers. Plants in cultivation rarely produce fruits, and are therefore propagated using stem cuttings or by removing and replanting suckers at the base of the plant (John&Jacq’s Garden, 2017; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
DisturbanceNaturalized in open areas, waste fields, roadsides, etc Yes Yes Flora of Panama (2020)
Escape from confinement or garden escapeWidely cultivated as an ornamental. Often escaped from gardens Yes Yes POWO (2020)
Garden waste disposalWidely cultivated as an ornamental. Often escaped from gardens Yes Yes POWO (2020)
HorticultureWidely cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes POWO (2020)
Intentional releasePopular ornamental plant Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Internet salesPlants and seeds for sale online Yes Yes
Medicinal useUsed in traditional Asian medicine Yes Yes POWO (2020)
Nursery tradePopular ornamental plant Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)
Ornamental purposesPopular ornamental plant Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2020)

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesWidely cultivated as an ornamental. Often escaped from gardens Yes Yes POWO (2020)
MailPlants and seeds for sale online Yes Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive

Environmental Impact

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Clerodendrum paniculatum is widely cultivated as an ornamental and often establishes following escape from gardens. It is currently listed as invasive in Singapore, Cuba, Hawaii, French Polynesia, Micronesia, Fiji, Palau, New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Western Samoa. The ability of this species to produce root suckers allows it to easily colonize new areas. Once established, it can form clonal stands of several plants that may displace native vegetation (Chong et al., 2009; Oviedo and Gonzalez-Oliva, 2015; Randall, 2017; PIER, 2020; POWO, 2020).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Gregarious
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Clerodendrum paniculatum is popular as an ornamental shrub due to its showy inflorescences. It is also used in traditional Asian medicine. In Malaysia, an infusion is taken as a purgative and is also applied externally to distended stomachs (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020; POWO, 2020; USDA-ARS, 2020).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • garden plant

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Clerodendrum paniculatum is difficult to control mechanically (Englberger, 2009). The herbicide triclopyr has been recommended for the control of small infestations and young C. paniculatum plants (PIER, 2020). For large plants, undiluted triclopyr can be brushed onto freshly cut stems (Englberger, 2009).

References

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Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants, 2020. http://www.canbr.gov.au/cpbr/cd-keys/RFK7/key/RFK7/Media/Html/index_rfk.htm

Chong, K. Y., Tan, H. T. W., Corlett, R. T., 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species, Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore.273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Englberger K, 2009. Invasive weeds of Pohnpei: A guide for identification and public awareness. Kolonia, Federated States of Micronesia: Conservation Society of Pohnpei, 29 pp

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Nicaragua, 2020. Flora of Nicaragua. (Flora de Nicaragua). In: Flora de Nicaragua St. Louis, MO, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://tropicos.org/Project/FN

Flora of Panama, 2020. Flora of Panama (WFO). In: Flora of Panama (WFO) St. Louis, MO and Cambridge, MA, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FOPWFO

Florence, J, Chevillotte, H, Ollier, C, Meyer, J-Y, 2013. Nadeaud botanical database of the Herbarium of French Polynesia. (Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP)). https://nadeaud.ilm.pf/

Graveson, R, 2006. San Juan, Puerto Rico: University of Puerto Rico - Río Piedras.http://herbario.uprrp.edu/bol/

Herrera, K., Lorence, D. H., Flynn, T., Balick, M. J., 2010. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia with Local Names and Uses. Allertonia, 10, 1-192. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23193787

John&Jacq's Garden, 2017. Clerodendrum paniculatum with spectacular pagoda-shaped flowers. https://www.jaycjayc.com/clerodendrum-paniculatum-pagodaflower/#.XjCr3rt7lRY

Liogier, AH, 1981. San Juan, Puerto Rico: University of Puerto Rico - Río Piedras.http://herbario.uprrp.edu/bol/

Oviedo Prieto, R., González-Oliva, L., 2015. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2015. (Lista nacional de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2015). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 9(Special Issue No. 2), 1-88. http://repositorio.geotech.cu/jspui/bitstream/1234/1476/4/Lista%20nacional%20de%20plantas%20invasoras%20de%20Cuba-2015.pdf

PIER, 2020. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

POWO, 2020. Plants of the World Online. In: Plants of the World Online London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org

Randall, R. P., 2017. A global compendium of weeds, (Ed.3) [ed. by Randall, R. P.]. Perth, Australia: R. P. Randall.iii + 3653 pp.

Rueda, R M, 2015. Verbenaceae. In: Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Vol. VIII, 131 [ed. by Hammel, B E, Grayum, M H, Herrera, C, Zamora, N]. St Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press. 538-92.

Smith, A. C., 1991. Flora vitiensis nova. A new flora of Fiji, Vol. 5, Lawaii, Hawaii, USA: Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden.626 pp. doi:https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.44033

Steane, D. A., Kok, R. P. J. de, Olmstead, R. G., 2004. Phylogenetic relationships between Clerodendrum (Lamiaceae) and other Ajugoid genera inferred from nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequence data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 32(1), 39-45. doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2003.11.011

Stevens, P. F., 2017. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14. In: Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14 . St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

USDA-ARS, 2020. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Yuan, Y. W., Mabberley, D. J., Steane, D. A., Olmstead, R. G., 2010. Further disintegration and redefinition of Clerodendrum (Lamiaceae): implications for the understanding of the evolution of an intriguing breeding strategy. Taxon, 59(1), 125-133.

Distribution References

Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants, 2020. Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants, version 7.1. http://www.canbr.gov.au/cpbr/cd-keys/RFK7/key/RFK7/Media/Html/index_rfk.htm

Chong K Y, Tan H T W, Corlett R T, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Englberger K, 2009. Invasive weeds of Pohnpei: a guide for identification and public awareness. In: Invasive weeds of Pohnpei: a guide for identification and public awareness, Kolonia, Federated States of Micronesia: Conservation Society of Pohnpei (CSP). 29 pp.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020. Flora of China. In: Flora of China, St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer J-Y, 2013. Nadeaud botanical database of the Herbarium of French Polynesia. (Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP))., https://nadeaud.ilm.pf/

Graveson R, 2006. Herbario database. San Juan, Puerto Rico: University of Puerto Rico - Río Piedras. http://herbario.uprrp.edu/bol/

Herrera K, Lorence D H, Flynn T, Balick M J, 2010. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia with Local Names and Uses. Allertonia. 1-192. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23193787

Liogier AH, 1981. Herbarium collection. San Juan, Puerto Rico: University of Puerto Rico - Río Piedras. http://herbario.uprrp.edu/bol/

Oviedo Prieto R, González-Oliva L, 2015. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2015. (Lista nacional de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2015). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 9 (Special Issue No. 2), 1-88. http://repositorio.geotech.cu/jspui/bitstream/1234/1476/4/Lista%20nacional%20de%20plantas%20invasoras%20de%20Cuba-2015.pdf

PIER, 2020. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

POWO, 2020. Plants of the World Online. In: Plants of the World Online, London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org

Rueda R M, 2015. Verbenaceae. In: Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Vol. VIII. 131 [ed. by Hammel B E, Grayum M H, Herrera C, Zamora N]. St Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press. 538-92.

Seebens H, Blackburn T M, Dyer E E, Genovesi P, Hulme P E, Jeschke J M, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger H, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A (et al), 2017. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications. 8 (2), 14435. http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14435

Smith A C, 1991. Flora vitiensis nova. A new flora of Fiji, Vol. 5. Lawaii, Hawaii, USA: Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden. 626 pp. DOI:https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.44033

USDA-ARS, 2020. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database, Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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11/02/2020 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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