Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Mytilopsis sallei
(Caribbean false mussel)

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Datasheet

Mytilopsis sallei (Caribbean false mussel)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 25 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Mytilopsis sallei
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Caribbean false mussel
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Mollusca
  •       Class: Bivalvia
  •         Subclass: Heterodonta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • M. sallei is a small, epibyssate, filter-feeding bivalve. It is native to the Caribbean islands and the Bay of Mexico (Ma...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
A colony of Mytilopsis sallei on another bivalve, Isognomon ephippium
TitleHabit
CaptionA colony of Mytilopsis sallei on another bivalve, Isognomon ephippium
Copyright©Tan Koh Siang
A colony of Mytilopsis sallei on another bivalve, Isognomon ephippium
HabitA colony of Mytilopsis sallei on another bivalve, Isognomon ephippium©Tan Koh Siang
Colonies of Mytilopsis sallei in a tidal canal in Singapore
TitleHabit
CaptionColonies of Mytilopsis sallei in a tidal canal in Singapore
Copyright©Tan Koh Siang
Colonies of Mytilopsis sallei in a tidal canal in Singapore
HabitColonies of Mytilopsis sallei in a tidal canal in Singapore©Tan Koh Siang
Shell variation in Mytilopsis sallei; these individuals were obtained from a single 10cm x 10cm quadrat placed over a colony in a tidal storm canal in Singapore
TitleShell variation
CaptionShell variation in Mytilopsis sallei; these individuals were obtained from a single 10cm x 10cm quadrat placed over a colony in a tidal storm canal in Singapore
Copyright©Tan Koh Siang
Shell variation in Mytilopsis sallei; these individuals were obtained from a single 10cm x 10cm quadrat placed over a colony in a tidal storm canal in Singapore
Shell variationShell variation in Mytilopsis sallei; these individuals were obtained from a single 10cm x 10cm quadrat placed over a colony in a tidal storm canal in Singapore©Tan Koh Siang
TitleInternal view
Caption
Copyright©Tan Koh Siang
Internal view©Tan Koh Siang
Detail of anterior interior region of right valve of Mytilopsis sallei, showing septum, apophysis and internal ligament
TitleDetail of anterior
CaptionDetail of anterior interior region of right valve of Mytilopsis sallei, showing septum, apophysis and internal ligament
Copyright©Tan Koh Siang
Detail of anterior interior region of right valve of Mytilopsis sallei, showing septum, apophysis and internal ligament
Detail of anteriorDetail of anterior interior region of right valve of Mytilopsis sallei, showing septum, apophysis and internal ligament©Tan Koh Siang
Internal view of Mytilopsis sallei with left valve removed to show siphons (on right), ctenidia and byssus
TitleInternal view
CaptionInternal view of Mytilopsis sallei with left valve removed to show siphons (on right), ctenidia and byssus
Copyright©Tan Koh Siang
Internal view of Mytilopsis sallei with left valve removed to show siphons (on right), ctenidia and byssus
Internal viewInternal view of Mytilopsis sallei with left valve removed to show siphons (on right), ctenidia and byssus©Tan Koh Siang

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Mytilopsis sallei Recluz, 1849

Preferred Common Name

  • Caribbean false mussel

Other Scientific Names

  • Mytilopsis adamsi Morrison, 1946
  • Mytilopsis allyneana Hertlein & Hanna, 1949
  • Mytilopsis zeteki Hertlein & Hanna, 1949

International Common Names

  • English: black-striped false mussel; false mussel

Local Common Names

  • Australia: black-striped mussel
  • China: shashai bei
  • Japan: igai-damashi
  • Venezuela: caliche

Summary of Invasiveness

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M. sallei is a small, epibyssate, filter-feeding bivalve. It is native to the Caribbean islands and the Bay of Mexico (Marelli and Gray, 1983; Nuttall, 1990a). Its non-native distribution includes West Africa, eastern Pacific, Fiji, Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong, China, the Philippines, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia and India.

As a result of the uncertainties in defining M. sallei, its invasive history remains speculative.

No major ecological disasters have been reported involving M. sallei. An recent infestation that occurred in a marina in Darwin, Australia, was promptly eradicated (Willan et al., 2000). In Asia, the populations appear to be stable and persistent, and here M. sallei may be the dominant organism on intertidal and subtidal hard surfaces of sheltered, estuarine harbours and aquaculture farms.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Mollusca
  •             Class: Bivalvia
  •                 Subclass: Heterodonta
  •                     Order: Veneroida
  •                         Unknown: Dreissenoidea
  •                             Family: Dreissenidae
  •                                 Genus: Mytilopsis
  •                                     Species: Mytilopsis sallei

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The highly variable shell morphology of Mytilopsis species has led to confusion and their identities are not resolved (see Morton, 1981). A re-examination of relevant type material from both sides of the Atlantic and eastern Pacific, coupled with the analysis of suitable genetic material, is probably necessary to distinguish them.

There are at least seven tropical species of Mytilopsis recognized in recent literature but they are poorly defined in morphological terms. Two species, Mytilopsis salleiRécluz (1849) and M. domingensisRécluz (1849), are known from Guatemala and the Dominican Republic in the Bay of Mexico, respectively. Two other species, M. trautwineanaTryon (1866) and M. adamsiMorrison (1946), were described from the eastern Pacific (Colombia and Panama, respectively). From West Africa, two species (M. africana van Beneden, 1835; M. ornataMorelet, 1885; described from Senegal and Gabon, respectively) are generally recognized (Oliver et al., 1998; but see Daget, 1998). A new species of Mytilopsis, M. lopesi, was recently described from tropical Brazil (Alvarenga and Ricci, 1989). Here this datasheet loosely regards M. domingensis and M. adamsi as synonyms of M. sallei, in view of their morphological similarities (see also Salgado-Barragán and Toledano-Granados, 2006). Similarly, M. allyneana and M. zeteki, described from Fiji and Panama respectively (Hertlein and Hanna, 1949), are here considered synonyms of M. sallei. Nuttall (1990a) further suggested that M. domingensis and M. africana are synonyms of M. sallei, but he distinguished M. trautwineana based on its exceptionally large septum and rounded umbones.

Mytilopsis leucophaetaConrad (1831), the type species of the genus, has a subtropical to temperate distribution in the Gulf of Mexico and occurs natively along the Atlantic coastline of North America (Marelli and Gray, 1983), but was introduced to Northern Europe in the early 20th century (Oliver et al., 1998; Rajagopal et al., 2002) and was also recently observed in Brazil (Souza et al., 2005; Farrapeira et al., 2010). It is also superficially similar to M. sallei (see Pathy and Mackie, 1993) but the two are generally recognized as separate species based on their dissimilar (but slightly overlapping) native geographical distribution.

Three genera, Congeria, Dreissena and Mytilopsis, are broadly recognized in the family Dreissenidae. Congeria contains several fossil species (Morton, 1970; Nuttall, 1990a,b) and one extant species, C. kusceri, which is found attached bysally in underground streams (Morton et al., 1998). Members of the genus Dreissena, including D. polymorpha (zebra mussel) and D. bugensis (quagga mussel), are also confined to freshwater environments (Zhulidov et al., 2010), whilst Mytilopsis species prefer estuarine habitats, although they are able to tolerate freshwater conditions. Species belonging to the genus Mytilopsis are distinguished from the genus Dreissena in that Mytilopsis species possess an apophysis (hinge lobe) internally, whilst members of Dreissena do not. The distinction is also supported by molecular data (Stepien et al., 2001; Therriault et al., 2004). The morphological distinction between Mytilopsis and Congeria is less clear as they both possess an apophysis (Morton et al., 1998), but, based on molecular data, Mytilopsis is the sister genus to Congeria and this clade forms the sister taxon to Dreissena (Stepien et al., 2001).

Description

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Larvae

The larval shell of M. sallei was illustrated by Escarbassiere and Almeida (1976). The larval valves are equivalve and inequilateral, and the hinge lacks a provinculum.

Adult Morphology

The shell and anatomy of adult M. sallei have been described in detail (Escarbassiere and Almeida, 1976; Morton, 1981). The heteromyarian, mytiliform valves, which are widest at the posterior and narrowest at the anterior, are slightly unequal in size, with the left valve slightly smaller than the right. The terminal umbones are usually directed ventrally. A byssal notch is well defined anteriorly on the ventral edge of the valves. Externally, the valves are often covered by a thin, radially lamellate pale brown periostracum that is prominent towards the posterior region of the shell, but usually worn in the midregion and anteriormost end of the bivalve to expose the shell surface below. Under the periostracum, some individuals may have pigmented, light to dark grey concentric markings that have given rise to the name ‘black striped mussel’, but the shell is mostly dirty white. Internally, the shell is also white or bluish white, and no nacre is present. The internal ligament is located anteriorly, and at the anterior end of each valve, a septum (hinge plate) and an apophysis (hinge lobe) can be seen. The septum receives the anterior adductor muscles, while the apophysis anchors the anterior byssal retractor muscles. The muscle scars outlining these muscle insertions are much smaller than those of the posterior adductor and posterior byssal retractor muscles, which are located dorsally along the pallial line.

The animal within is light orange to pale yellow, possessing separate inhalant and exhalant siphons formed from the fusion of the inner folds of the mantle margins, which are pigmented light brown. Mantle fusion also occurs between the two siphons, as well as between the inhalant siphon and the small pedal gape. M. sallei possesses eulamellibranchiate ctenidia comprising two subequal demibranchs and very small labial palps (Morton, 1981).

The fine, brown byssus threads are long, flatttened strips up to 150 µm wide.

Individuals can reach shell lengths of between 30 and 35 mm (Escarbassiere and Almeida, 1976; Morton, 1981), but in many populations with high densities of individuals, mean shell lengths can be less than 15 mm.

Distribution

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M. sallei is often found in large colonies forming mats attached to hard substrata in intertidal (up to +1.0 m above chart datum; Morton, 1989) or subtidal estuarine conditions.

The native distribution of M. sallei centers on the Caribbean islands and the Bay of Mexico (Marelli and Gray, 1983; Nuttall, 1990a). It may have been carried on the hulls of ships to West Africa and beyond since the 16th century. It is generally believed that they were later also introduced to the Eastern Pacific via the Panama Canal (Morton, 1980; Nuttall, 1990a,b) to Fiji, Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong, China, the Philippines, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia and India. However, Marelli and Gray (1985) opined that M. adamsi, described from the Pearl Islands off Panama, is a native Eastern Pacific species distinct from M. sallei, and they maintained that M. adamsi (and not M. sallei) is the species now widespread in Asia. It remains possible that the native distribution of Mytilopsis species encompasses both sides of the American continent (Nuttall, 1990a,b), but without genetic evidence this is unlikely to be resolved.

Risk of further introduction remains high due to its persistent presence in major Asian and Indian ports. High haplotype variability of the COI gene in M. sallei from populations in Asia and India suggest on-going genetic exchange (Wong et al., 2011). Based on its current latitudinal distribution, M. sallei is able to survive and reproduce over a wide range of temperatures.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentIntroduced Invasive Zheng et al., 2010
-FujianPresentIntroduced1990Wang et al., 1999Maluan Bay, Xiamen; Bachimen seawall, Dongshan
-Hong KongWidespreadIntroduced1980Morton, 1980Victoria Harbour
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Andhra PradeshLocalisedIntroduced1967Ganapati et al., 1971Visakhapatnam port
-MaharashtraLocalisedIntroduced1969Karande and Menon, 1975Mumbai port
IsraelLocalisedIntroduced2008Galil and Bogi, 2009Haifa port
JapanPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-HonshuLocalisedIntroduced1974Habe, 1980; Furuse and Hasegawa, 1984; Kimura and Horii, 2004Shimizu port, Tokyo Bay
MalaysiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Peninsular MalaysiaLocalisedIntroducedTan and Morton, 2006Sungei Sekudai, Johor
PhilippinesPresent, few occurrencesVallejo, 2010
SingaporeLocalisedIntroducedSachidhanandam and Chou, 1996; Chan, 1997; Tan and Morton, 2006Singapore River
TaiwanWidespreadIntroduced1970'sChang, 1985; Liao et al., 2010Taperng Bay, nr Tungkang port, Pingtung
ThailandLocalisedIntroduced1990's?Wangkulangkul and Lheknim, 2008Songhkla lagoon system (as Mytilopsis adamsi)

Africa

EgyptPresentIntroducedHoffman et al., 2006Nile Delta
GabonPresentIntroducedMorelet, 1885As Dreissena ornata in Morelet, 1885
SenegalPresentIntroducedvan Beneden, 1835as Dreissena africana in van Beneden (1835)

North America

MexicoPresentIntroducedMarelli and Berrend, 1978; Salgado-Barragan and Toledano-Granados, 2006Laguna Bacalar, Quintana Roo
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentNative Not invasive Marelli and Gray, 1983Tampa to Miami

Central America and Caribbean

BahamasPresentNative Not invasive Marelli and Gray, 1983
DominicaPresentNative Not invasive Marelli and Gray, 1983
Dominican RepublicNativeMarelli and Gray, 1983As 'domingensis' Récluz, 1852; type locality of Dreissena domingensis
GuatemalaPresentNative Not invasive Recluz, 1849; Hinkley, 1920As Dreissena sallei; Rio Dulce; type locality of Mytilopsis sallei
PanamaPresentNativeJones and Rutzler, 1975Gatún Locks, Panama Canal

South America

ColombiaWidespreadNative Not invasive Puyana, 1995; Vilardy and Polanía, 2002Cienaga Grande de Santa Marta
VenezuelaPresentNative Not invasive Escarbassiere and Almeida, 1976; Marelli and Gray, 1983Laguna de Unare

Oceania

Australia
-Australian Northern TerritoryEradicatedIntroduced Invasive Willan et al., 2000Darwin; discovered and eradicated from Cullen Bay Marina in 1999
FijiPresentIntroducedAs Mytilopsis allyneana

History of Introduction and Spread

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As a result of the uncertainties in defining M. sallei, its invasive history remains speculative. However, it appears likely that the first descriptions of M. sallei in the Pacific during the 1940s were initially thought to be of new species (M. adamsiMorrison, 1946; M. allyneanaHertlein and Hanna, 1949; M. zetekiHertlein and Hanna, 1949). In the 1960s M. sallei was reported from India. Populations became established in ports around South and Southeast Asia in 1980s, presumably through shipping.

If it is similarly believed that M. africana is synonymous with M. sallei, as suggested by Nuttall (1990a), then it appears quite possible that it was also transported from the Caribbean across the Atlantic Ocean on vessels plying the slave trade during the 16th and 17th centuries.

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Brackish
Estuaries Present, no further details Natural
Lagoons Present, no further details Natural
Freshwater
Ponds Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Larvae and Reproduction

The larval shell of M. sallei was illustrated by Escarbassiere and Almeida (1976). The larval valves are equivalve and inequilateral, and the hinge lacks a provinculum. After fertilization, larvae settled within four days in the laboratory (Kalyanasundaram, 1975). Based on size-frequency distribution of samples in Visakhapatnam, India, Morton (1981) suggested that individuals attained shell lengths between 6 and 10 mm within one month of settlement, and subsequently required another three months to reach 20 mm during the summer months. In a separate study, Kalyanasundaram (1975) reported that many individuals reached a size of 30 mm in six months. In Hong Kong, Morton (1989) observed that M. sallei completed its life cycle in a maximum of 22 months, with an average of less than 18 months. It is reproductively mature by about 8 mm, thus reaching sexual maturity within one year of settlement (Morton, 1989). Karande and Menon (1975) detected hermaphroditic individuals in samples from Bombay harbour and suggested that M. sallei is protandric, but this was not seen in Hong Kong populations (Morton, 1989). In summary, M. sallei is characterized by rapid growth, early maturity and high reproductive capacity (Morton, 1981; 1989).

Population Size and Density

M. sallei is often found in large colonies forming mats attached to hard substrata in intertidal (up to +1.0 m above chart datum; Morton, 1989) or subtidal estuarine conditions. Densities of up to 830 individuals per 100 cm2 have been reported (Tan and Morton, 2006).

Pathway Vectors

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Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Impact

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Despite the widespread occurrence of M. sallei in Asian ports, there has been very limited investigation into their impact, management and control. Available studies indicate that adults are able to survive over a wide range of salinities between freshwater and hypersaline conditions, up to 50 ppt (Karande and Menon, 1975; Ramachandra Raju et al., 1975; Escarbassiere and Almeida, 1976). In Visakhapatnam, M. sallei dominated fouling panels placed in severly polluted waters with fluctuating salinities between 7 and 32 ppt (Satyanarayana and Balaji, 1994). Karande et al. (1993) showed that M. sallei has a very high tolerance to tributyltin oxide, with LC50 values reaching 13 µg L-1.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Modification of natural benthic communities
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts aquaculture/fisheries
  • Negatively impacts trade/international relations
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Filtration
  • Fouling
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult/costly to control

Prevention and Control

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Despite the widespread occurrence of M. sallei in Asian ports, there has been very limited investigation into their impact, management and control. Efforts to reduce or eradicate them have not been documented, apart from the drastic measures adopted in Cullen Bay Marina in Darwin, Australia in 1999, which resulted in their complete removal (Willan et al., 2000). The species was discovered only a few months after its introduction to the marina but it had already reached densities of 23,650/m. A rapid response initiative from the Northern Territory Taskforce was established and Cullen Bay Marina and two other infected marinas were chemically treated, first with a chlorine treatment, followed by a treatment of copper sulphate a few days later. Combined, the treatments caused mass mortality, and after intensive sampling of the marinas only a few mussels were detected. Copper sulphate was used again to target these specific sites. In less than a month following the initial reporting of the mussel in Darwin, it had been successfully eradicated. An Aquatic Pest Management Unit was set up within the Northern Territory Government to help prevent further invasion by alien marine organisms. This unit undertook a 12 month monitoring programme following the eradication of M. sallei and developed and implemented protocols to reduce the risk of a second invasion. Furthermore, all international vessels into the Darwin marinas are now inspected, treated and given clearance certificates (Bax et al., 2002).    

A number of laboratory trials of different treatment options, including chlorine dioxide, copper organic complexes and detergents were conducted when M. sallei was first detected within Darwin. Chlorine dioxide was thought to be effective from previous literature reports on zebra mussels but the activation of the stabilised chlorine dioxide solution did not work and so all further experiments with this treatment were abandoned due to time constraints. Copper organic complexes were found to be non-toxic but combined calcium hypochlorite/copper sulphate treatments and detergents were found to be effective (Bax et al., 2002).

Chlorination is routinely used to control its congener M. leucophaeta in Europe (Rajagopal et al., 2002).

References

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Aldridge DC; Salazar M; Serna A; Cock J, 2008. Density-dependent effects of a new invasive false mussel, Mytilopsis trautwineana (Tryon 1866), on shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone 1931), aquaculture in Colombia. Aquaculture, 281(1/4):34-42. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T4D-4SKRFFK-1&_user=10&_coverDate=09%2F01%2F2008&_rdoc=8&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%234972%232008%23997189998%23695418%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=4972&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=29&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=80456c130542a6ac6e12190f5b532618

Alvarenga LCF; Ricci CN, 1989. A new species of Mytilopsis Conrad, 1857, from Tocantins River, Tucurui, Para, Brazil (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Dreissenidae). Memoires Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 84:27-33.

Bax N; Hayes K; Marshall A; Parry D; Thresher R, 2002. Man-made marinas as sheltered islands for alien marine organisms: Establishment and eradication of an alien invasive marine species. Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species [ed. by Veitch, C. R. \Clout, M. N.]. Auckland: Invasive Species Specialist Group of The World Conservation Union (IUCN), 26-39. [Invasive Species Specialist Group of The World Conservation Union (IUCN) Occasional Paper 27.]

Beneden PJVan, 1835. On a new species of the genus Dreissena. (Sur une nouvelle espece du genre Dreissena.) Bulletin de l'Academie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux Arts de Belgique, 2:166-169.

Chan SY, 1997. A note on the freshwater bivalve Mytilopsis adamsi Morrison, 1946 in Singapore, and a compilation of related papers. The Papustyla, 11:1-3.

Chang KM, 1985. Newly introduced false mussel to Taiwan (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae). Bulletin of Malacology, 11:61-67.

Chavanich S; Tan LT; Vallejo B; Viyakarn V, 2010. Report on the current status of marine non-indigenous species in the Western Pacific region. Marine non-indigenous species in the Western Pacific region. Bangkok, Thailand: Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Subcommission for the Western Pacific (IOC/WESTPAC), 61 pp.

Chu KH; Tan PF; Fung CH; Chen QC, 1997. A biological survey of ballast water in container ships entering Hong Kong. Hydrobiologia, 352:201-206.

Daget J, 1998. Catalogue raisonné des Mollusques bivalves d'eau douce africans. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys, 329 pp.

Escarbassiere RM; Almeida P, 1976. Biological and ecological aspects of Mytilopsis sallei Recluz (Bivalvia-Eulamellibranchia) in areas adjacent to the Laguna de Unare (Anzoategui State, Venezuela). (Aspectos biologicos y ecologicos de Mytilopsis sallei Recluz (Bivalvia-Eulamellibranchia) en areas adyacentes a la Laguna de Unare (Estado Anzoategui, Venezuela).) Acta Biologia Venezuela, 9:165-193.

Farrapeira CMR; Ferreira GFA; Tenorio DO, 2010. Intra-regional transportation of a tugboat fouling community between the ports of Recife and Natal, northeastern Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Oceanography, 58:1-14.

Furota T; Nakayama S, 2010. Japan. Report on the current status of marine non-indigenous species in the Western Pacific region [ed. by Chavanich, S. \Tan, L. T. \Vallejo, B. \Viyakarn, V.]. Bangkok, Thailand: Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Subcommission for the Western Pacific (IOC/WESTPAC).

Furuse K; Hasegawa K, 1984. Mytilopsis sallei found in Tokyo Bay. Chiribotan: Newsletter of the Malacological Society of Japan, 15:18.

Galil BS; Bogi C, 2009. Mytilopsis sallei (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Dreissenidae) established on the Mediterranean coast of Israel. Marine Biodiversity Records, 2:1-4.

Ganapati PN; Lakshmana Rao MV; Varghese AG, 1971. On Congeria sallei Recluz, a fouling bivalve mollusc in the Visakhapatnam harbour. Current Science, 40:409.

Habe T, 1980. A newly introduced mussel to Japan (Shimizu port). Chiribotan: Newsletter of the Malacological Society of Japan, 11:141.

Hertlein LG; Hanna GD, 1949. Two new species of Mytilopsis from Panama and Fiji. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences, 48:13-18.

Hinkley AA, 1920. Guatemala Mollusca. The Nautilus, 34:37-55.

Hoffman L; Heugten Bvan; Dekker H, 2006. Marine mollusca collected during a journey to the Great Bitter Lake (Suez Canal) and Nile Delta, Egyp. Gloria Maris, 45(1-2):184-200.

Huang ZG; Morton B, 1983. Mytilopsis sallei (Bivalvia: Dreissenoidea) established in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong. Malacological Review, 16:99-100.

Jones ML; Rutzler K, 1975. Invertebrates of the Upper Chamber, Gatún Locks, Panama Canal, with emphasis on Trochospongilla leidii (Porifera). Marine Biology, 33:57-66.

Kalyanasundaram N, 1975. Studies on the biology of Mytilopsis sallei (Recluz), an important marine fouling mollusc. Bulletin of the Department of Marine Science, 7:685-693.

Karande AA; Ganti SS; Udhayakumar M, 1993. Toxicity of tributyltin to some bivalve species. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences, 22:153-154.

Karande AA; Menon KB, 1975. Mytilopsis sallei, a fresh immigrant in Indian harbours. Bulletin of the Department of Marine Science, 7:455-466.

Kimura T; Horii N, 2004. Mytilopsis sallei (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae) introduced into Ise Bay. Chiribotan: Newsletter of the Malacological Society of Japan, 35:37-43.

Liao ChungMin; Ju YunRu; Chio ChiaPin; Chen WeiYu, 2010. Risk-based probabilistic approach to assess the impact of false mussel invasions on farmed hard clams. Risk Analysis, 30(2):310-323. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/risk

Lin GM; Yang QL, 2006. Impacts of alien species Mytilopsis sallei on phytoplankton at Maluan Bay in Xiamen, Fujian, China. Journal of Tropical Oceanography, 25:63-67.

Marelli DC; Berrend RE, 1978. A new species record for Mytilopsis sallei (Recluz) in Central America (Mollusca: Pelecypoda). The Veliger, 21:144.

Marelli DC; Gray S, 1983. Conchological redescriptions of Mytilopsis sallei and Mytilopsis leucophaeta of the brackish Western Atlantic. The Veliger, 25:185-193.

Marelli DC; Gray S, 1985. Comments on the status of Recent members of the genus Mytilopsis (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae). Malacological Review, 18:117-122.

Morelet A, 1885. Coquilles terrestres et fluviatiles de l'Afrique equinoxiale. Journal de Conchyliologie, 33:20-33.

Morrison JPE, 1946. The nonmarine mollusks of San Jose Island, with notes on those of Pedro Gonzalez Island, Pearl Islands, Panama. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 106:1-49.

Morton B, 1970. The evolution of the heteromyarian condition in the Dreissenacea (Bivalvia). Palaeontology, 13:563-572.

Morton B, 1980. Mytilopsis sallei (Recluz) (Bivalvia: Dreissenacea) recorded from Hong Kong: an introduction by Vietnamese refugees? Malacological Review, 13:90-92.

Morton B, 1981. The biology and functional morphology of Mytilopsis sallei (Recluz) (Bivalvia: Dreissenacea) fouling Visakhapatnam Harbour, Andhra Pradesh, India. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 47:25-42.

Morton B, 1989. Life-history characteristics and sexual strategy of Mytilopsis sallei (Bivalvia: Dreissenacea), introduced into Hong Kong. Journal of Zoology, 219:469-485.

Morton B; Dinesen GE, 2010. Colonization of Asian freshwaters by the Mytilidae (Bivalvia): a comparison of Sinomytilus harmandi from the Tonle-Sap River, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, with Limnoperna fortunei. Molluscan Research, 30(2):57-72. http://www.mapress.com/mr/content/v30/2010f/n2p072.htm

Morton B; Velkovrh F; Sket B, 1998. Biology and anatomy of the 'living fossil' Congeria kusceri (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae) from subterranean rivers and caves in the Dinaric karst of the former Yugoslavia. Journal of Zoology, 245:147-174.

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29/03/12 Original text by:

KS Tan, Consultant, Singapore

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