Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Cecropia peltata
(trumpet tree)

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Datasheet

Cecropia peltata (trumpet tree)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cecropia peltata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • trumpet tree
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. peltata is a pioneer tree in humid forests in its native tropical Americas and, as such, has characteristics of an invasive species with its ability to establish quickly in disturbed ground. It is weedy in i...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Cecropia peltata (trumpet tree); habit. Charcos, Puntarenas, Costa Rica. July 2012.
TitleHabit
CaptionCecropia peltata (trumpet tree); habit. Charcos, Puntarenas, Costa Rica. July 2012.
Copyright©Reinaldo Aguilar-2012/via flickr - CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
Cecropia peltata (trumpet tree); habit. Charcos, Puntarenas, Costa Rica. July 2012.
HabitCecropia peltata (trumpet tree); habit. Charcos, Puntarenas, Costa Rica. July 2012.©Reinaldo Aguilar-2012/via flickr - CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
Cecropia peltata (trumpet tree); habit, showing branches Charcos, Puntarenas, Costa Rica. July 2012.
TitleHabit
CaptionCecropia peltata (trumpet tree); habit, showing branches Charcos, Puntarenas, Costa Rica. July 2012.
Copyright©Reinaldo Aguilar-2012/via flickr - CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
Cecropia peltata (trumpet tree); habit, showing branches Charcos, Puntarenas, Costa Rica. July 2012.
HabitCecropia peltata (trumpet tree); habit, showing branches Charcos, Puntarenas, Costa Rica. July 2012.©Reinaldo Aguilar-2012/via flickr - CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
Cecropia peltata (trumpet tree); habit, showing leaves. Charcos, Puntarenas, Costa Rica. July 2012.
TitleHabit
CaptionCecropia peltata (trumpet tree); habit, showing leaves. Charcos, Puntarenas, Costa Rica. July 2012.
Copyright©Reinaldo Aguilar-2012/via flickr - CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
Cecropia peltata (trumpet tree); habit, showing leaves. Charcos, Puntarenas, Costa Rica. July 2012.
HabitCecropia peltata (trumpet tree); habit, showing leaves. Charcos, Puntarenas, Costa Rica. July 2012.©Reinaldo Aguilar-2012/via flickr - CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
Cecropia peltata (trumpet tree); close view of leaves. Rio Tabaro, Venezuela. April 2010.
TitleLeaves
CaptionCecropia peltata (trumpet tree); close view of leaves. Rio Tabaro, Venezuela. April 2010.
Copyright©Vojtěch Zavadil-2007/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Cecropia peltata (trumpet tree); close view of leaves. Rio Tabaro, Venezuela. April 2010.
LeavesCecropia peltata (trumpet tree); close view of leaves. Rio Tabaro, Venezuela. April 2010.©Vojtěch Zavadil-2007/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Cecropia peltata (trumpet tree); habit. Costa Rica.
TitleHabit
CaptionCecropia peltata (trumpet tree); habit. Costa Rica.
Copyright©Sarah E. Thomas
Cecropia peltata (trumpet tree); habit. Costa Rica.
HabitCecropia peltata (trumpet tree); habit. Costa Rica.©Sarah E. Thomas
Cecropia peltata (trumpet tree); foliage showing leaf structure, Costa Rica.
TitleFoliage
CaptionCecropia peltata (trumpet tree); foliage showing leaf structure, Costa Rica.
Copyright©Sarah E. Thomas
Cecropia peltata (trumpet tree); foliage showing leaf structure, Costa Rica.
FoliageCecropia peltata (trumpet tree); foliage showing leaf structure, Costa Rica.©Sarah E. Thomas

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cecropia peltata L.

Preferred Common Name

  • trumpet tree

Other Scientific Names

  • Ambaiba peltata Kuntze
  • Coilotapalus peltata Britton

International Common Names

  • English: congo pump; pop-a-gun; snakewood tree; trumpet wood; wild paw paw
  • Spanish: guarumo; yagrumo hembra
  • French: bois cannon; faux ricin; parasolier; pisse-roux

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: embauba
  • France: papyrus géant
  • Germany: Trompetenbaum
  • Italy: legno trombetta

EPPO code

  • CECPE (Cecropia peltata)

Summary of Invasiveness

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C. peltata is a pioneer tree in humid forests in its native tropical Americas and, as such, has characteristics of an invasive species with its ability to establish quickly in disturbed ground. It is weedy in its native range with further spread enhanced by increased human disturbance. It has become invasive where introduced, notably in parts of West Africa and the Pacific. It recorded a high score in a weed risk assessment (PIER, 2007) and is listed as one of the 100 'World's Worst' invaders on the Global Invasive Species Database (ISSG, 2007).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Urticales
  •                         Family: Cecropiaceae
  •                             Genus: Cecropia
  •                                 Species: Cecropia peltata

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Cecropia peltata L. is the currently accepted name, however, distinction between different species of the genus is not always clear any some taxonomical confusion exists. The genus, variously placed in both the Moraceae and Urticaceae, has later been considered in the family Cecropiaceae. C. peltata is considered by some authorities to be a complex which consists of three species: C. peltata L. from Central America, the Caribbean and northern South America, C. pachystachya Trécul. from central South America and C. concolor Willd. from the Amazon basin. They are morphologically similar but have different geographical or ecological ranges and misidentifications are often made as a result of this. Other species in the genus include C. obtusifolia Bertol. from Mexico to Ecuador, C. palmate Willd. and C. polystachya Trécul. in the Amazon basin (USDA-ARS, 2007). The taxonomy is confusing within the genus and may be expected to change. The latter species are not covered in this datasheet, which deals with only C. peltata in its restricted sense. A variety, C. peltata var. candida, has been described from Venezuela. Other species described include C. schreberiana Miq. (USDA-NRCS, 2007) also used to describe C. peltata in Puerto Rico (Silander and Lugo, 1990), C. insignis, C. angustifolia, and others, indicating the caution that should be used when dealing with species of Cecropia. The common English name is the trumpet tree, though this is also applied to closely related species thus should not be used as an indicator.

Description

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C. peltata is a fast-growing tree that can reach a height of 20-25 m, with slender trunks up to 50 cm in diameter and a narrow crown. Bark is grey and reddish in colour. The stems are hollow, partitioned at the nodes, bearing conspicuous, amplexicaul, stipular scars and large, U-shaped leaf scars. C. peltata is evergreen, with leaves that are alternate and deeply-lobed, ovate to palmate. They are 10-50 cm wide or more, dark green and scabrous above and densely white-tomentose beneath. Leaves contain a milky latex. Staminate, pistillate flowers are in an umbellate cluster of three or more, often four but up to 15, slender spikes (spadices), 4-10 cm long x 10-12 mm broad. Males produce approximately 20 smaller spadices (3-7 cm x 2-4 mm) per inflorescence (Burger, 1977). On female individuals, the minute one-seeded fruits (achenes) form large fruit clusters which appear to take around a month to mature. The fleshy fruit clusters are cylindrical, yellowish in colour and measure 2-5 cm long. The numerous small seeds are approximately 1.9 mm long and weigh 1.6 mg (Perry and Fleming, 1980). Stilt roots are often conspicuous, as C. peltata is often found on steep slopes.

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Tree
Woody

Distribution

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C. peltata is native to the Caribbean and neighbouring countries to the west and south. It occurs as far north as Mexico and the Greater Antilles and as far south as northern South America. It is probably present in more Caribbean islands than indicated in the distribution table, and is especially likely to be more widespread in the Lesser Antilles. A record for Washington, USA (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2007), appears erroneous unless from a greenhouse specimen. This species has been planted in collections and for landscaping in private gardens in southern USA but has not been recorded as naturalized there. Records from Paraguay (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2007) possibly refer to other closely related species. C. peltata has been introduced into parts of West Africa and some Pacific islands, however, introductions to Malaysia are now thought to be of other Cecropia species and not C. peltata. Also, whereas some sources (e.g. ISSG, 2007 and others) note presence of C. peltata as an invasive species on Hawaii, PIER (2007) do not include presence there, possibly due to continuing taxonomic confusion. A new record for Madagascar is included (Missouri Botanic Garden, 2007) based on samples collected in 2005 which is assumed here as accurate. A detailed taxonomical study of Cecropia in both native an introduced population appears warranted to resolve remaining taxonomical issues.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Africa

CameroonPresentIntroducedearly 1900s Invasive McKey, 1988; Binggelli, 1999; ISSG, 2003
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroduced1910 Invasive Ake Assi, 1980; Binggelli, 1999; ISSG, 2003
GhanaPresentIntroduced Invasive Planted Missouri Botanical Garden, 2007
MadagascarPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2007
SenegalPresentIntroduced Planted Berhaut, 1967

North America

MexicoPresentNative Natural USDA-NRCS, 2007
USA
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Planted ISSG, 2007

Central America and Caribbean

BelizePresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2007
Costa RicaPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2007
CubaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2007
Dominican RepublicPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2007
El SalvadorPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2007
GuatemalaPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2007
HaitiPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2007
HondurasPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2007
JamaicaPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2007
NicaraguaPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2007
PanamaPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2007
Puerto RicoPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2007
Saint LuciaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2007
Trinidad and TobagoPresentNative Natural Mabberley, 1990
United States Virgin IslandsPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2007St Croix, St John

South America

BrazilPresentFenner et al., 2006
-ParaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2007
-RoraimaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2007
ColombiaPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2007
EcuadorPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2007
French GuianaPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2007
GuyanaPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2007
SurinamePresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2007
VenezuelaPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2007

Oceania

French PolynesiaPresentIntroduced Planted ISSG, 2003; PIER, 2007
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2007Cultivated

History of Introduction and Spread

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In many parts of its range the species abundance has increased following human-related disturbance. In the early 1900s, C. peltata was introduced into Africa as an ornamental species into botanical gardens in Cameroon as a shade tree in coffee plantations in Côte d'Ivoire in 1910 (Binggeli, 1999), and McKey (1988) observed leaf characters in Cameroon similar to those described in the Caribbean, and that C. peltata has spread in disturbed areas especially along the coast, competing with native pioneer species. In Côte d'Ivoire the spread of C. peltata increased after the destruction of forest cover. C. peltata is also invasive in French Polynesia. Material introduced into Java and hence to Malaysia originated from Brazil and would therefore appear to be C. pachystachya, whereas the identity of the Cameroon and Ivory Coast plants is unclear as their origin is unknown but is assumed to be C. peltata.

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Cameroon Early 1900s Botanical gardens and zoos (pathway cause) Yes Binggelli (1999)
Côte d'Ivoire 1910 Yes Binggelli (1999) As a shade tree

Risk of Introduction

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C. peltata has been introduced into coffee plantations as a shade tree in Africa. It has also been introduced to botanical gardens in tropical and subtropical regions and its fast growth and attractive leaves and fruit make it desirable for tropical landscaping or canopy planting. Plants are available to purchase over the internet in Florida and California, USA. However, its presence on the ISSG list of the 100 worst invasive species (ISSG, 2007) means that its notoriety as an invasive species may limit further introductions.

Habitat

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C. peltata is a fast growing tree, variously described as a pioneer species, early successional, early mid-successional, or dominant secondary species. It is found in moist tropical and sub-tropical regions, often in disturbed areas, on steep slopes, alongside riverbanks, lava flows, in forest gaps and where landslides and tree falls have occurred. It has become a weed along watercourses, roadsides and abandoned land where introduced. It is absent from dry coastal and dry limestone areas.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Principal habitat
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Principal habitat

Hosts/Species Affected

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C. peltata is primarily an environmental weed, though it is likely to invade forest plantations especially after clear-felling, natural forests after disturbance, and also abandoned farmland.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Musanga cecropioides (umbrella tree)CecropiaceaeWild host

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number of C. peltata is recorded to be 2n=28 (Velazquez, 1971).

Physiology and Phenology

C. peltata is a fast growing tree, variously described as a pioneer species, early successional or early mid-succession species. C. peltata is a light demanding, shade intolerant species, and seeds require full sunlight for germination to occur and in such conditions germination can reach 80-90% (Silander and Lugo, 1990). The leaves of seedlings are unlobed and downy on both sides. Seedlings grow rapidly and can reach 15 cm in 10 weeks. In one year, C. peltata trees can reach 2 m tall (Marrero, 1954). The maximum height of 20-25 m is reached after approximately 10 years and the species has a lifespan of 20-30 years (Crow, 1980). Trees appear to have only a superficial root systems and are such easily uprooted (Silander and Lugo, 1990).

Reproductive Biology

C. peltata is dioecious and becomes sexually mature in 3-5 years. In Puerto Rico, peak flowering occurs between January and March (Silander and Lugo, 1990). In Costa Rica flowering and fruiting are seasonal lasting about 9 months with a peak of 4 months during the early part of the wet season (Binggeli, 1999). Flowers are wind-pollinated and both staminate and pistillate trees flower and produce fruit all year. Females produce four spadices per inflorescence which can contain several hundred (up to 800) minute, single-seeded fruits. Seeds are orthodox in storage. Fruit clusters appear to take around a month to mature, and a large and persistent seedbank is formed in the forest soil.

Environmental Requirements

C. peltata is a tropical to sub-tropical species, intolerant to frost, preferring high rainfall and high relative humidity environments, and needing high light levels. It can grow on neutral to acidic soils and in a range of soil textures but clay loam soils are preferable (Binggeli, 1999).

Associations

C. peltata is often described as a myrmecophyte (e.g. Val and Dirzo, 2003), i.e. being a plant that lives in association with a colony of ants and possesses specialized organs in which the ants live. A highly specialized symbiotic association between C. peltata and stinging ants (Azteca sp.), the ants feeding on sugars produced from specialized Müllerian bodies at the base of petioles and in return they protect the tree from other herbivores such as leaf-cutting ants. This occurs in most of the mainland native range (Downhower, 1975), but in Puerto Rico and other Caribbean islands this association does not exist (Janzen, 1973; Putz and Holbrook, 1988). Numerous plant and animal associations including C. peltata are described by Silander and Lugo (1990) in Puerto Rico.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
23 0 0 0

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 0 0
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 12 30
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 0 0
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 0 0

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration00number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall9903810mm; lower/upper limits

Soil Tolerances

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Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • shallow

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Kretzschmaria clavus (Fr.) Sacc., the causal agent of root rot of macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia) has been recorded on C. peltata in Hawaii. C. peltata is also attacked by Historis spp. and various moth species in its native range. The following insect pests have been recorded from Puerto Rico attacking the leaves: Correbidia terminalis, Gynaecia dirce, Historis odious, Prepodes spp. and Sylepta salicalis (Martorell, 1945), though their effects upon tree growth and survival is not known. However, Silander and Lugo (1990) observed that such pests can cause heavy damage to the leaves of mature trees, and strangulation by vines is a further cause of tree mortality especially during the sapling stage.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Fruits of C. peltata are consumed and primarily dispersed by vertebrate frugivores such as birds, bats, monkeys and squirrels. The seeds pass through the digestive tract of the animal and are effectively spread considerable distances (Olson et al., 1968; Fleming and Heithaus, 1981; Fleming and Williams, 1990). Seeds may also be dispersed by water and deposited along riverbanks after flooding. There are no records of accidental intercontinental introductions, but the species has been intentionally introduced as a shade tree for coffee plantations and as a botanical specimen.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Botanical gardens and zoos Yes Binggelli, 1999
Crop productionAs a shade tree for coffee plantations Yes Binggelli, 1999
Disturbance Yes Binggelli, 1999
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes Binggelli, 1999
Flooding and other natural disasters Yes Binggelli, 1999
Internet salesAvailable for purchase in the USA Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
LivestockWild animals Yes Binggelli, 1999
Water Yes Binggelli, 1999

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Crop production None
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production Negative
Human health None
Livestock production None
Native fauna None
Native flora Negative
Rare/protected species None
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None

Environmental Impact

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There are few records of impacts on native biodiversity, but no other significant impacts, economic, social or environmental. In addition, as C. peltata is a pioneer species, it may be expected to die out and be replaced in later stages of succession, thus its impacts even on the environment and/or biodiversity could be assumed to be relatively temporary.

Impact: Biodiversity

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C. peltata is competing with and displacing some native species in Cameroon specifically Musanga cecropoides, a native pioneer tree (McKey, 1998).

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Musanga cecropioides (umbrella tree)No details No detailsCameroonCompetition - monopolizing resourcesMcKey, 1988

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Fast growing
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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C. peltata is used by local people in its native range for many medicinal purposes, including as an analgesic, anti-asthmatic, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, diuretic and as a laxative. It is also used to treat conditions such as Parkinson's disease, rheumatism, diabetes, liver disorders, high blood pressure and for the treatment of warts. C. peltata also has some use in the timber industry, being a light wood used for the production of plywood and low-quality timber products such as boxes and matchsticks (Binggeli, 1999), but with a specific density of 0.29, it is only slightly heavier than commercial ‘balsa’ (Silander and Lugo, 1990). Fibres can be obtained to make ropes, but the wood also produces a good yield of paper pulp. Hollow stems are used for gutters and pipes (Silander and Lugo, 1990). The young buds of C. peltata are sometimes cooked and eaten as a vegetable. Being a fast-growing species, it has also been planted as a shade tree in coffee plantations. A number of papers describe specific uses in parts of the native range, including Deuver and Christman (2006), and a detailed list of use in Puerto Rico (Silander and Lugo, 1990).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Amenity
  • Shade and shelter

Fuels

  • Fuelwood

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo
  • Ornamental

Materials

  • Fibre
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Wood Products

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Containers

  • Boxes

Wood-based materials

  • Plywood

Woodware

  • Matches

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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C. concolor, C. pachystachya, C. obtusifolia and C. palmata are all morphologically similar to C. peltata but have different geographical or ecological ranges, and may be separated in the native range by location, though this is not where introduced. It has also been confused with C. scherberiana. Mullerian bodies and other organs specialised for ant association are largely absent in Caribbean populations of C. peltata, which McKey (1988) used as an indicator for identifying the origin of Cameroonian populations. In Florida, USA, C. peltata is differentiated from C. palmata by having leaf lobes separated to only one third of their length rather than entirely separated (Deuver and Christman, 2006).

Prevention and Control

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Control

Very few control methods have been reported in the literature. However, PIER (2007) notes that seedlings and young trees should be pulled out or dug out, and larger trees should be cut and the stumps treated with herbicides.

References

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Ake Assi L, 1980. Cecropia peltata Linne (Moracees): ses origines, introduction et expansion dans l'est de la Cote d'Ivoire. Bull. Inst. Fond. Afr. Noire, 42(1):96-102.

Berhaut J, 1967. Flore du Senegal. Dakar, Senegal: Editions Clairafrique.

Binggeli P, 1999. Cecropia peltata L. (Cecropiaceae). Woody Plant Ecology. Website http://members.lycos.co.uk/WoodyPlantEcology/docs/web-sp3.

Binggeli P; Hall JB; Healey JR, 1998. An overview of invasive woody plants in the tropics. School of Agricultural and Forest Sciences Publication Number 13, University of Wales, Bangor.

Binggeli P; Hall JB; Healey JR, 1998. An overview of invasive woody plants in the tropics. School of Agricultural and Forest Sciences Publication, 13.

Burger WC, 1977. Moraceae. Fieldiana, Botany 40:94-215.

Crow TR, 1980. A rain forest chronicle: a 30-year record of change in structure and composition at El Verde, Puerto Rico. Biotropica, 12:42-55.

Deuver JC; Christman S, 2006. Cecropia peltata. Floridata. Tallahassee, Florida, USA. http://www.floridata.com/ref/C/cecr_pel.cfm

Downhower JF, 1975. The distribution of ants on Cecropia leaves. Biotropica, 7:59-62.

Fenner R; Betti AH; Mentz LA; Rates SMK, 2006. Plants with potential antifungal activity employed in Brazilian folk medicine. (Plantas utilizadas na medicina popular brasileira com potencial atividade antifúngica.) Revista Brasileira de Ciências Farmacêuticas, 42(3):369-394. http://www.bcq.usp.br

Fleming TH; Heithaus ER, 1981. Frugivorus bats, seed shadows, and the structure of tropical forests. Biotropica, 13:45-53.

Fleming TH; Williams CF, 1990. Phenology, seed dispersal, and recruitment in Cecropia peltata (Moraceae) in Costa Rican tropical dry forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 6:163-178.

ISSG, 2003. Global Invasive Species Database. Invasive Species Specialist Group, IUCN. Auckland, New Zealand: University of Auckland. www.issg.org.

ISSG, 2007. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database

Janzen DH, 1973. Dissolution of mutualism between Cecropia and its Azteca ants. Biotropica, 5:15-28.

Mabberley DJ, 1990. The Plant Book: a Portable Dictionary of the Higher Plants. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Marrero J, 1954. Regeneration: Seed studies. Cecropia peltata. USDA Forest Service, Institute of Tropical Forestry Report. Rio Piedras.

Martorell LF, 1945. A survey of the forest insects of Puerto Rico. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico, 29(3; 4):70-608.

McKey D, 1988. Cecropia peltata. An introduced neotropical pioneer tree, is replacing Musanga cecropioides in southwestern Cameroon. Biotropica, 20:262-264.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003. VAScular Tropicos database. St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2007. Tropicos database. St Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Olson SL; Blum KE, 1968. Avian dispersal of plants in Panama. Ecology, 49:565-566.

Perry AE; Fleming TH, 1980. Ant and rodent predation on small, animal-dispersed seeds in a dry tropical forest. Brenesia 17:11-22.

PIER, 2007. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. USA: Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Putz FE; Holbrook NM, 1988. Further observations on the dissolution of mutualism between Cecropia and its ants: the Malaysian case. Oikos, 53(1):121-125

Silander SR; Lugo AE, 1990. Cecropia peltata L. (Yagrumo Hembra, Trumpet-Tree). Silvics of North America, USDA Agriculture Handbook 654.

USDA; NRCS, 2007. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

USDA-ARS, 2003. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-ARS, 2007. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

Val Edel; Dirzo R, 2003. Does ontogeny cause changes in the defensive strategies of the myrmecophyte Cecropia peltata? Plant Ecology, 169(1):35-41.

Velazquez J, 1971. Contribución al conocimiento de las especies del género Cecropia L. Moraceae- "Yagrumbos" de Venezuela. Acta Botánica Venezolana, 6:25-64.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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26/10/2007 Updated by:

Nick Pasiecznik, Consultant, France

Distribution Maps

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