Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Sesbania sericea
(silky sesban)

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Datasheet

Sesbania sericea (silky sesban)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Sesbania sericea
  • Preferred Common Name
  • silky sesban
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • S. sericea is a fast-growing, short-lived woody shrub of frequently disturbed areas. It is commonly planted in agroforestry systems to be used as green manure, animal forage, and for soil improvement (...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Sesbania sericea (Willd.) Link, 1822

Preferred Common Name

  • silky sesban

Other Scientific Names

  • Agati sericea (Willd.) Hitchc
  • Coronilla sericea Willd.
  • Sesban sericeus (Willd.) Britton & P. Wilson
  • Sesbania aculeata var. sericea Baker
  • Sesbania polyphylla Miq.
  • Sesbania pubescens DC.

International Common Names

  • Spanish: coronilla; papagayo

Local Common Names

  • Dominican Republic: tamarindillo
  • Indonesia: turi
  • Lesser Antilles: danglepod
  • Venezuela: papagallo

Summary of Invasiveness

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S. sericea is a fast-growing, short-lived woody shrub of frequently disturbed areas. It is commonly planted in agroforestry systems to be used as green manure, animal forage, and for soil improvement (Ipor and Oyen, 1997). However, each plant is able to produce large amounts of seeds, allowing the species to escape from cultivated areas and colonize new habitats. Seeds may survive in the soil for several months (up to one year) waiting for suitable conditions to germinate. Once established in new areas, S. sericea grows forming dense thickets and competing aggressively with grasses and native vegetation (Francis, 2000). It is included in the Global Compendium of Weeds as a natural and agricultural weed (Randall, 2012).  

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Faboideae
  •                                 Genus: Sesbania
  •                                     Species: Sesbania sericea

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The legume genus Sesbania is placed in the Fabaceae subfamily Faboideae (USDA-ARS, 2012). The genus comprises about 60 species of herbs, shrubs, or small trees (Mabberley, 1997) distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. The centre of diversity of this genus is located in Africa, where more than 30 species occur (Masrahi et al., 2012). Most of the species within this genus are nitrogen-fixers, which enables these plants to grow vigorously on nutrient deficient soils. Consequently, the species Sesbania cannabina, S. grandiflora, S. exalta, S. sesban and S. sericea have been used extensively in agroforestry as fodder, green manure, and soil-improver plants (Ipor and Oyen, 1997).

Description

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Annual or biennial shrub, commonly 1 to 3 m tall but growing up to 6 m and with basal diameters reaching 10 cm under favourable conditions. Leaves are pinnately compound, 5 to 25 cm long and support (5)10 to 20 leaflet pairs. The leaflets are oblong to elliptic, rounded at both ends, mucronate at the apex, base slightly asymmetric, with a silky pubescence below. Stems often with minute prickles and often hidden among the hairs. The racemes have 2 to 8 flowers, peduncle up to 2 cm long, softly silky or pilose; pedicel 3-8 mm long, sparsely silky pilose; calyx 3-5× 3 mm, tube glabrous, teeth triangular, up to 0.7 mm long; corolla yellow, greenish-yellow, or orange. The brown pods that develop after flowering are 10 to 20 cm long, 3 mm broad, cylindrical, linear, long-tipped at apex, containing 20 to 30 seeds. Seeds 2- 3 mm long, 1.5 mm broad, cylindrical, brown to reddish-brown, with tiny blackish spots (Gillett et al., 1971; Ipor and Oyen, 1997).

Plant Type

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Herbaceous
Seed propagated
Shrub
Woody

Distribution

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The native distribution range of S. sericea is uncertain. While for some authors this species is native to Sri Lanka (Howard, 1988), other authors refer the native distribution range of this species to South East Asia and Africa (Long and Lakela, 1976). For this datasheet, we refer to the USDA-ARS GRIN Database that considers the native distribution range of S. sericea to be tropical Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and South-east Asia (USDA-ARS, 2012). Currently, this species is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical areas including Florida, Guatemala, the Bahamas, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Lesser Antilles, Trinidad and Tobago, Surinam, French Guiana, and Venezuela, (Liogier, 1988).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

CambodiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
IndiaPresentNativeIpor and Oyen, 1997
IndonesiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
LaosPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
Saudi ArabiaPresentNativeMasrahi et al., 2012; USDA-ARS, 2012
Sri LankaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
ThailandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
VietnamPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012

Africa

AngolaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
BeninPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
ChadPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
EgyptPresentNative Invasive Mashaly and Awad, 2003Agricultural weed
EthiopiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
GhanaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
KenyaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
MaliPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
NigerPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
NigeriaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
SenegalPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
SomaliaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
SudanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
TanzaniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
TogoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
UgandaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012

North America

USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroduced1900-1904Wunderlin and Hansen, 2008Date of introduction based on C.F. Millspaugh, 1907

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaWidespreadIntroduced1903-1911Broome et al., 2007Reported by I. Urban in his book Symbolae Antillanae (1903-1911)
BahamasPresentIntroduced1903Correll and Correll, 1982Date of introduction based on Smithsonian Herbarium Collections
CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive González-Torres et al., 2012
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced1911Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Date of introduction based on Smithsonian Herbarium Collections
GuadeloupeWidespreadIntroduced1903-1911Broome et al., 2007Reported by I. Urban in his book Symbolae Antillanae (1903-1911)
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedStandley and Steyermark, 1946
HaitiIntroduced1911Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Date of introduction based on Smithsonian Herbarium Collections
JamaicaPresentIntroduced1905Adams, 1972Reported in 1920 as apparently spontaneous by Fawcett & Barton-Rendle, 1920. Date of introduction based on Smithsonian Herbarium Collections
MartiniqueWidespreadIntroduced1903-1911Broome et al., 2007Reported by I. Urban in his book Symbolae Antillanae (1903-1911)
Netherlands AntillesPresentIntroduced1909Boldingh, 1909St. Martin
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced1884 Invasive Perkins, 1907Also on Vieques Island. Date of introduction based on Smithsonian Herbarium Collections
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedGraveson, 2012
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007Canouan
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroduced1921Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Date of introduction based on Smithsonian Herbarium Collections
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced1879 Invasive Eggers, 1879; Acevedo-Rodríguez, 1996St. Croix and St. Thomas, St. John

South America

French GuianaPresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007
GuyanaPresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007
SurinamePresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedHokche et al., 2008Carabobo, Miranda, Nueva Esparta, Sucre

History of Introduction and Spread

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S. sericea has been widely introduced in tropical and subtropical countries to be used in agroforestry systems. It is a nitrogen-fixing species commonly used as animal fodder, green manure, and for soil improvement. S. sericea was collected in Florida as early as 1904 and was reported as an introduced species growing in disturbed areas by C.F. Millspaugh in his book Flora of the Sand Keys of Florida (Millspaugh, 1907).

For the West Indies, this species was first reported in 1879 by H.F.A. Eggers as an “uncommon species” growing in thickets near to the coast on the island of St. Thomas (US Virgin Islands). Later, this species appears in herbarium collections made in 1884 in Puerto Rico, 1903 in the Bahamas, 1905 in Jamaica, and 1911 in Hispaniola (Smithsonian Institution, 2012). For the islands of Antigua, Guadalupe, and Martinique, this species was first reported between 1903-1911 by Ignaz Urban in his book Symbolae Antillanae (volume IV, 1903-1911) and by 1909, it was reported as “established” by I. Boldingh for the island of St. Martin (Boldingh, 1909).

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of S. sericea is moderate to high. The species is an aggressive competitor and each plant is able to produce large amounts of seed that can be easily dispersed by wind, water, grazing animals, and by human activities. Seeds can remain viable on the soil for several months and they can also germinate in high rates on moist bare soil (Francis, 2000). Thus, the probability of colonizing new habitats remains high.

Habitat

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S. sericea is highly intolerant to shade and it germinates and grows best on disturbed soil and areas exposed to open sunlight. This species can be found growing on low fertility and poorly drained soils along roadsides, disturbed areas, waste ground, coastal forest, riparian areas, secondary forest and scrublands near cultivated areas (Francis, 2000).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural
Coastal dunes Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal dunes Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

S. sericea has 2n = 24 chromosomes (Long and Lakela 1976). 

Reproductive Biology

Sesbania flowers are hermaphroditic and open for 2-3 days. Flowers are visited by insects, mainly bees. Species within this genus are self- and cross-compatible, but under natural conditions, outcrossing is probably the common method of reproduction. In the case of isolated trees, substantial selfing might occur to ensure reproduction (Heering, 1993). 

Longevity

S. sericea is a short-lived plant species. Plants live from 8 months to one year, depending on environmental conditions (i.e., soil humidity). After germination, seedlings are about 10 cm tall by the end of the first month and they can reach heights ranging from 2 to 6 metres in about 6 months. Plants die when their seeds are mature (Francis, 2000). 

Environmental Requirements

S. sericea prefers to grow in seasonally wet environments mainly in tropical areas. This species develops best in tropical temperatures (around 25-30°C), with annual rainfall varying from 500 to 2000 mm. S. sericea is very tolerant to drought, but does not tolerate frost (even light frost generates damage in plants). It is adapted to grow on seasonally waterlogged soils and it can also grow on clay, moderately acid and alkaline soils (Ipor and Oyer, 1997). It can grow on soils with low fertility and tolerates moderate amounts of salts in the soil (Francis, 2000).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 40
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 5

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall5002000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • saline
  • shallow

Notes on Natural Enemies

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The species Mesoplatys ochroptera (Chrysomelidae: Coleoptera) and Coptosoma sp. (Plataspidae: Heteroptera) have been reported feeding on S. sericea in natural stands and agroforestry systems in southern Malawi (Sileshi et al., 2000).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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S. sericea spreads by seeds that allow this species to easily escape from cultivated areas. Each plant is able to produce hundreds of seeds that can be easily dispersed by wind, water, grazing animals, and adhered to agricultural machinery. Germination rate is very high and seeds are able to remain dormant for several months (up to years) on the soil (Francis, 2000).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Animal productionUsed as fodder Yes Yes Ipor and Oyen, 1997
Crop productionUsed as green manure Yes Yes Ipor and Oyen, 1997
Digestion and excretionUsed as fodder Yes Yes Ipor and Oyen, 1997
DisturbanceSeeds germinate on disturbed areas Yes Yes Francis, 2000
Forage Yes Yes Ipor and Oyen, 1997

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Land vehiclesSeeds Yes Yes Francis, 2000
LivestockSeeds Yes Yes Francis, 2000
Machinery and equipmentSeeds Yes Yes Francis, 2000
WaterSeeds Yes Yes Francis, 2000
WindSeeds Yes Yes Francis, 2000

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Environmental Impact

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S. sericea has the potential to grow forming dense thickets which can displace native vegetation and wildlife. Thickets and dense stands created by this species can also impact habitats along river and stream banks because they can decrease water flows (Francis, 2000). On the island of St Croix (US Virgin Islands) this species negatively impacts the nesting areas of the sea turtle species Eretmochelys imbricate, Dermochelys coriacea, and Chelonia mydas. On this island, for these three sea turtle species, the access to nesting areas in upper beach areas has been eliminated by the establishment of dense stands of S. sericea in mid-beach areas. Consequently nests laid in the lower beach area are often too close to the high water mark and can be washed away during heavy tides or because of natural beach erosion cycles. In addition, roots of S. sericea can infiltrate nests decreasing nest moisture levels causing unnaturally low hatch success (Lombard, 2006).

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Chelonia mydas (green sea turtle)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesUnited States Virgin IslandsRootingLombard, 2006
Dermochelys coriaceaVU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable)United States Virgin IslandsRootingLombard, 2006
Eretmochelys imbricata (hawksbill turtle)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesUnited States Virgin IslandsRootingLombard, 2006

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Soil accretion
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
  • Transportation disruption
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally

Uses

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As with other Sesbania species, S. sericea is a nitrogen-fixing species commonly planted in agroforestry systems to be used as green manure, animal fodder, and for soil improvement. It is also planted in some areas for firewood. In Southeast Asia, seeds are used to produce natural gum and resin. The endosperm of 100 g of seeds contains 25-30 g of gum made up of galactose and mannose. This gum is water-soluble and produces a smooth, light colored, coherent and elastic film used for sizing textiles and paper products and for thickening and stabilizing solutions (Ipor and Oyer, 1997).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Forage

Environmental

  • Agroforestry

Fuels

  • Fuelwood

Materials

  • Green manure
  • Gums

Prevention and Control

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Mechanical control prior to seed set will be helpful in controlling future infestations, but this process must be practiced over a several year period as dormant seeds will continue to germinate. Seedlings and young plants should be hand-pulled and removed from treated areas, while large plants should be cut with specialized equipment (Ipor and Oyer, 1997).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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  1. Reproductive biology and breeding system
  2. Studies on the distribution within its native and introduced ranges as well as the history of introduction are needed.
  3. Studies focused on evaluating the impact of this exotic species on native plants are needed.
  4. Recommendations for management and control in natural areas invaded by this species are also needed.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 1996. Flora of St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 78:1-581.

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Adams CD, 1972. Flowering Plants of Jamaica. University of the West Indies, 267.

Boldingh I, 1909. The Flora of the Dutch West Indian Islands St. Eustatius, Saba and St. Martin. Leiden, Netherlands: Late E.J. Brill Ltd, 594 pp.

Broome R; Sabir K; Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Correll DS; Correll HB, 1982. Flora of the Bahama Archipelago. Vaduz, Germany: J. Cramer, 1692 pp.

Eggers HFA, 1879. The Flora of St. Croix and the Virgin Islands. Washington, USA: Washington Government Printing Office, 148 pp.

Fawcett W; Rendle AB, 1920. Flora of Jamaica: containing descriptions of the flowering plants known from the island. London, UK: British Museum, 369 pp.

Francis JK, 2000. Wildland Shrubs of the United States and its Territories: Thamnic Descriptions. General Technical Report - International Institute of Tropical Forestry, IITF-WB-1. http://www.fs.fed.us/global/iitf/wildland_shrubs.htm

Funk V; Hollowell T; Berry P; Kelloff C; Alexander SN, 2007. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 584 pp.

Gillett JB; Polhill RM; Verdcourt B, 1971. Flora of tropical East Africa. Leguminosae (Part 3) Subfamily Papilionoideae (1); Leguminosae (Part 4) Subfamily Papilionoideae (2) [ed. by Milne Redhead, E.\Polhill, R. M.]. London, UK: Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations, 1108 pp.

González-Torres LR; Rankin R; Palmarola A (eds), 2012. Invasive plants in Cuba. (Plantas Invasoras en Cuba.) Bissea: Boletin sobre Conservacion de Plantad del Jardin Botanico Nacional, 6:1-140.

Graveson R, 2012. Plants of Saint Lucia. http://www.saintlucianplants.com

Heering JH, 1993. The reproductive biology of three perennial Sesbania species (Leguminosae). Euphytica, 74:143-148.

Hokche O; Berry PE; Huber O, 2008. New catalogue of the vascular plants of Venezuela (Nuevo Catalogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela). Caracas, Venezuela: Fundacion Instituto Botanico de Venezuela.

Howard RA, 1988. Leguminosae. Flora of Lesser Antilles (Dicotyledoneae-Part 1), 4. 334-538.

Ipor IB; Oyen LPA, 1997. Sesbania sericea. In: Plant Resources of South-East Asia, No. 11. Auxiliary Plants [ed. by Faridan-Hanum, I. \Maesen, L. J. G. van der]. Bogor, Indonesia: PROSEA Foundation, 236-240.

Liogier AH, 1988. Flora of Puerto Rico and Adjacent Islands: A Systematic Synopsis. Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico: Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico.

Lombard CD, 2006. Protecting endangered sea turtle nesting habitat through invasive vegetation removal, St. Croix USVI. 2006 Grants Report: Volunteers Working With Invasives, US Fish and Wildlife Service. http://www.fws.gov/refuges/IS/2006/IGR_display_IGR_Internet_2006.cfm?ID=69

Long RW; Lakela O, 1976. A flora of tropical Florida - A manual of the seed plants and ferns of southern peninsular Florida, 2nd edn. Miami, Florida, USA: Banyan Books, xvii + 962 pp.

Mabberley DJ, 1997. The Plant Book: A Portable Dictionary of the Vascular Plants. 2nd edition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Mashaly IA; Awad ER, 2003. Weed flora of orchards in the Nile Delta, Egypt: Floristic features. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 2(3):314-324.

Masrahi Y; Al-Huqail A; Al-Turki T; Thomas J, 2012. Odyssea mucronata, Sesbania sericea, and Sesanum alatum- new discoveries for the flora of Saudi Arabia. Turkish Journal of Botany, 36:39-48.

Millspaugh CF, 1907. Flora of the Sand Keys of Florida. Fieldiana: Botany, 118(5):59 pp.

Perkins J, 1907. The Leguminosae of Porto Rico. Contributions from the US National Herbarium, 10(4):220 pp.

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Sileshi G; Maghembe JA; Rao MR; Ogol CKPO; Sithanantham S, 2000. Insects feeding on Sesbania species in natural stands and agroforestry systems in southern Malawi. Agroforestry Systems, 49(1):41-52.

Smithsonian Institution, 2012. Flora of the West Indies. Flora of the West Indies., USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/antilles/westindies/

Standley PC; Steyermark JA, 1946. Flora of Guatemala. V. Fieldiana (Bot.) 1946. 24 (5). pp. v + 502. Field Mus. Publ. No. 578.

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Urban I, 1905. Symbolae Antillanae. Volumen IV. Berlin, Germany: Fratres Borntraeger, 771 pp.

USDA-ARS, 2012. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2012. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Wunderlin RP; Hansen BF, 2008. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. Florida, USA: University of South Florida. http://www.plantatlas.usf.edu/

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Agroforestree Databasehttp://www.worldagroforestry.org/resources/databases/agroforestree
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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11/03/13 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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