Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Urena sinuata
(bur mallow)

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Datasheet

Urena sinuata (bur mallow)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Urena sinuata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • bur mallow
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • U. sinuata is a shrubby invasive plant included in the Global Compendium of Weeds. It has been classified as a noxious weed in Cuba (

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Urena sinuata L. 1753

Preferred Common Name

  • bur mallow

Other Scientific Names

  • Urena aculeata Mill.
  • Urena lobata subsp. sinuata (L.) Borss. Waalk
  • Urena lobata var. sinuata (L.) Miq.
  • Urena morifolia DC.
  • Urena muricata D.C.
  • Urena paradoxa Kunth
  • Urena swartzii DC.

International Common Names

  • English: burrmallow
  • Spanish: cadillo de perro; carapicho; malva blanca; malvabisco
  • French: cousin petit; grand cousin

Local Common Names

  • Bahamas: sleepy morning
  • Cuba: malva
  • Dominican Republic: malva; yerba blanca
  • Haiti: balai blanc; malaguette
  • Jamaica: raichie
  • Lesser Antilles: materebe; petit mahot-cousin; pikan kouzen; piquant cousi
  • Philippines: anonongkot
  • Puerto Rico: basora prieta; cadillo pata de perro; malvavisco
  • Trinidad and Tobago: patte chien
  • United States Virgin Islands: marshmallow

Summary of Invasiveness

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U. sinuata is a shrubby invasive plant included in the Global Compendium of Weeds. It has been classified as a noxious weed in Cuba (González-Torres et al., 2012) and as an environmental weed in Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands, Trinidad, Mexico and South-East Asia (Randall, 2012). It is a fast-growing plant that spreads by seeds and produces fruits with hooked spines which can easily be attached to animal fur and/or people’s clothing allowing seeds to be dispersed (Liogier, 1988). This species is able to form monocultures when environmental conditions are favourable.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Malvales
  •                         Family: Malvaceae
  •                             Genus: Urena
  •                                 Species: Urena sinuata

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Malvaceae is a large family of flowering plants containing about 243 genera and 4225 species of herbs, shrubs, and trees (Stevens, 2012). This family is largely tropical, but representatives can also occur in subtropical and temperate regions of the world (Stevens, 2012).

The genus Urena is morphologically very close to the genus Pavonia, and several authors consider that the two genera should be merged (Ong, 2001). The genera Urena, Malvaviscus and Pavonia have been placed in a tribe called the Malvaviscae based on genetic, pollen and morphological studies.

The species U. sinuata, U. lobata and U. procumbens were formally described by Carl Linneus in 1753 (Austin, 1999). Currently the genus Urena includes about 4 species and depending on the authors, it can be reduced to only one or two species (Liogier, 1988; Austin, 1999). For some botanists, the species U. sinuata is a synonymy of U. lobata, while others recognize U. sinuata as a separate species (Liogier, 1988; Wagner et al., 1999; Ong, 2001).

Description

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Erect, woody perennial herb or small shrub, up to 2 m tall, the stems minutely stellate pubescent or glabrate. Leaves are simple, alternate, and broadly ovate, up to 6 cm long, palmately lobed or deeply pinnatifid, the lobes rounded or obtuse, the margin serrate, the upper surface rough and the lower surface grayish. Flowers are small, showy, hibiscus-like, solitary on short stalks in leaf axils, 5 petals, rose or pink, darker at the base, rounded, up to 1.5 cm long; stamens fused into an obvious pink column beneath a 5-lobed style. Fruits are small, barbed, spiny capsules, 6-8 mm in diameter, containing one dark brown seed (Liogier, 1988; Rondon, 2009).

Plant Type

Top of page Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub

Distribution

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The original distribution range of U. sinuata is uncertain, although some authors suggest the original native distribution is probably Asiatic. Austin (1999) suggested that it was native to India and Sri Lanka. Currently, this species has a pan-tropical distribution and it can be found growing throughout moist tropical and subtropical regions of the world including North, Central and South America, the West Indies and South-East Asia (Valkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara, 2001; USDA-ARS, 2012). Data on distribution and origin is complicated by the fact that for many years botanists considered U. sinuata and Urena lobata to be the same species.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

BangladeshPresentNativeValkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara (2001)
IndiaPresentNativeMaiti (1979)
MalaysiaPresentNativeValkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara (2001)
PhilippinesPresentNativeValkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara (2001)
Sri LankaPresentNativeAustin (1999)
ThailandPresentNativeValkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara (2001)

North America

BahamasPresentNativeCorrell and Correll (1982)
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasiveGonzález-Torres et al. (2012)Considered a noxious weed
DominicaPresent, WidespreadBroome et al. (2007)
Dominican RepublicPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
GuadeloupePresent, WidespreadBroome et al. (2007)
HaitiPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
JamaicaPresentNativeAdams (1972)
MartiniquePresent, WidespreadBroome et al. (2007)
MexicoPresentIntroducedVillaseñor and Espinosa-Garcia (2004)Chiapas, Guerrero, Veracruz
PanamaPresentNativeCorrea et al. (2004)
Puerto RicoPresentNativeLiogier (1988)Weed
Saint LuciaPresent, WidespreadBroome et al. (2007)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent, WidespreadBroome et al. (2007)St. Vincent
Trinidad and TobagoPresentInvasiveCARDENAS and COULSTON (1967)Weed
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedKral et al. (2012)

South America

ColombiaPresentNativeIdárraga-Piedrahita et al. (2011)
VenezuelaPresentNativeFunk et al. (2007); Hokche et al. (2008)Amazonas, Bolivar, Carabobo, Delta Amacuro, Monagas, Nueva Esparta, Portuguesa, Zulia

History of Introduction and Spread

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U. sinuata was probably spread together with U. lobata by European voyagers during the eighteenth century, primarily for their medicinal properties and to be used as fibre crops. This species was reported as “common in moist pastures” by J. MacFadyen in Jamaica in 1837 (MacFadyen, 1837). In 1873, this species is reported by F. Sauvalle on the island of Cuba (Sauvalle, 1873). In Puerto Rico, U. sinuata is reported by A. Stahl in 1884 as a common plant that grows “everywhere” (Stahl, 1884). In the early twentieth century, this species is reported by I. Urban as a common plant in Cuba, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, St. Thomas, Guadalupe, Dominica, Martinique, St. Vincent, Tobago and Trinidad (Urban, 1905). Currently, U. sinuata is considered “exotic’ and it is classified as a noxious weed in Cuba (González-Torres et al., 2012) and as a naturalized weed in Puerto Rico, the US Virgin Islands, and Trinidad (Cardenas and Coulston, 1967; Liogier, 1988; Randall, 2012).

Risk of Introduction

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U. sinuata is able to spread into new habitats, forming monospecific stands when it grows under favourable environmental conditions (Cardenas and Coulston, 1967). In addition, seeds and spiny fruits can be easily dispersed attached to animal fur and clothing (Valkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara, 2001). Consequently, this species has the potential to spread much further than it has to date.

Habitat

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U. sinuata is a weed that can be found growing in disturbed areas, waste ground, roadsides, forest margins and cultivated areas at lower and middle elevations, mostly in tropical areas (Cardenas and Coulston, 1967; Liogier, 1988; Valkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara, 2001). This species does not tolerate shaded conditions (Rondon, 2009).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
Littoral
Salt marshes Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Salt marshes Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

There is no information available for the chromosome number for this species. However, we know that the chromosome number in the closest relative U. lobata is 2n = 28, 56 (Ong, 2001). 

Reproductive Biology

Flowers in U. sinuata are hermaphroditic, showy and rose or pink, darker at the base. The presence of floral nectaries and the morphological characters of flowers suggest that pollination in this species is performed mainly by insects (Valkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara, 2001). 

Physiology and Phenology

U. sinuata produces flowers and fruits throughout the year (Liogier, 1988). 

Environmental Requirements

U. sinuata is able to grow in sandy loam, fine sand, and wetland soils. It tolerates occasional flooding and dry conditions, but does not grow in saturated soils or in shaded areas beneath canopy forest (Rondon, 2009). In Puerto Rico, this species grows at low to middle elevations in areas receiving about 800 mm to 3000 mm of mean annual precipitation (Liogier, 1988).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -1
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 35

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall6003000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral
  • very acid

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • shallow

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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U. sinuata spreads by seeds. Fruits are covered with barbed-spines facilitating their dispersal attached to animal fur and people’s clothing. In addition, seeds may be dispersed in contaminated soil and/or contaminated agricultural equipment (Valkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara, 2001).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionUsed as a fibre crop Yes Yes Maiti, 1979
DisturbanceSeeds can germinate in disturbed areas Yes Liogier, 1988
Medicinal use Yes Yes Ong, 2001

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
LivestockSpiny fruits and barbed seed Yes Yes Liogier, 1988
Soil, sand and gravelSpiny fruits and barbed seed Yes Yes Liogier, 1988

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Environmental Impact

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U. sinuata is classified as a weed that invades disturbed areas, secondary forests, and cultivated areas (Cardenas and Coulston, 1967; Liogier, 1988). Under suitable environmental conditions, this species has the potential to form dense thickets and consequently alter native plant communities by displacing and out-competing native species (Valkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara, 2001). In Cuba, this species is listed as one of the 100 worst invasive plants impacting natural habitats on this island (González-Torres et al., 2012).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Loss of medicinal resources
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Competition - strangling
  • Rapid growth
  • Produces spines, thorns or burrs
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

Uses

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U. sinuata is used as a fibre crop and as a medicinal herb in traditional medicine in SE Asia (Valkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara, 2001) and the West Indies (Lans, 2007). Leaves and roots are used in the treatment of colic, malaria, fever, toothache, rheumatism and lumbago, and flower infusions are used in the treatment of bronchitis (Valkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara, 2001).

Uses List

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Materials

  • Fibre

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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U. sinuata looks very similar to U. lobata, but they can be distinguished based on leaf characters. In U. lobata, leaf-blades are generally sub-entire or angular lobed, while in U. sinuata, leaf-blades are deeply 3- to 5-palmately parted with the sinuses of the segments broad and rounded (Liogier, 1988).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Seedlings and young plants of U. sinuata should be pulled up and removed from treated areas. Fruits and seeds should be also removed from treated areas in order to avoid germination. Follow-up treatments are required to control sprouts.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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  1. Studies on reproductive biology and breeding system.
  2. Identification of environmental requirements for germination and seedling establishment.
  3. Studies evaluating the impact of this exotic species on native plants and natural communities are needed in order to develop appropriate management and control strategies.
  4. Recommendations for management and control in areas invaded by this species are also needed.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Adams CD, 1972. Flowering plants of Jamaica. Mona, Jamaica: University of the West Indies.

Austin DF, 1999. Caesar's weed (Urena lobata): An invasive exotic or a Florida native? Wildland Weeds, 3(1):13-16.

Broome R; Sabir K; Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Cardenas J; Coulston L, 1967. Weeds of Trinidad. A list of common and Scientific Names. OSU/AID. Mimeo, 67(5):6 pp.

Correa A; Galdames MDC; Stapf MNS, 2004. Catalogue of vascular plants of Panama (Catalogo de Plantas Vasculares de Panama.), Panama: Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, 599 pp.

Correll DS; Correll HB, 1982. Flora of the Bahama Archipelago. Vaduz, Germany: J. Cramer, 1692 pp.

Funk V; Hollowell T; Berry P; Kelloff C; Alexander SN, 2007. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 584 pp.

González-Torres LR; Rankin R; Palmarola A (eds), 2012. Invasive plants in Cuba. (Plantas Invasoras en Cuba.) Bissea: Boletin sobre Conservacion de Plantad del Jardin Botanico Nacional, 6:1-140.

Hokche O; Berry PE; Huber O, 2008. New catalogue of the vascular plants of Venezuela (Nuevo Catalogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela). Caracas, Venezuela: Fundacion Instituto Botanico de Venezuela.

Idárraga-Piedrahita A; Ortiz RDC; Callejas Posada R; Merello M, 2011. Flora de Antioquia. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares, vol. 2. Listado de las Plantas Vasculares del Departamento de Antioquia ([English title not available]). 939 pp.

Kral R; Diamond Jr AR; Ginzbarg SL; Hansen CJ; Haynes RR; Keener BR; Lelong MG; Spaulding DD; Woods M, 2012. Alabama Plant Atlas. http://www.floraofalabama.org/

Lans C, 2007. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for reproductive problems. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 3(13):(15 March 2007). http://www.ethnobiomed.com/content/pdf/1746-4269-3-13.pdf

Liogier AH, 1988. Flora of Puerto Rico and Adjacent Islands: A Systematic Synopsis. Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico: Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico.

MacFadyen J, 1837. The flora of Jamaica: A description of the plants of that island. London, UK: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green & Longman, 351 pp.

Maiti R, 1979. A study of the microscopic structure of the fiber strands of common Indian bast fibers and its economic implications. Economic Botany, 33(1): 78-87.

Mitchell A, 1982. Economic aspects of the Malvaceae in Australia. Economic Botany, 36(3): 313-322.

Ong HC, 2001. Urena lobata L. In: Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 12(2): Medicinal and poisonous plants 2 [ed. by Valkenburg, J. L. C. H. van \Bunyapraphatsara, N.]. Leiden, The Netherlands: Backhuys Publisher, 575-577.

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Róndon JB, 2009. [English title not available]. (La subfamilia Malvoideae (Malvaceae s.) en el occidente del estado Sucre, Venezuela.) Revista UDO Agrícola, 9(3):599-621.

Sauvalle FA, 1873. Flora Cuba. Enumeratio Nova Plantarum Cubensium ([English title not available]). Havana, Cuba: Imp. "La Antilla" de Cacho-Negrete, 90 pp.

Stahl A, 1884. Estudios sobre la flora de Puerto Rico. Folleto II ([English title not available]). San Juan, Puerto Rico: González & Cía.

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Urban I, 1905. Symbolae Antillanae. Volumen IV. Berlin, Germany: Fratres Borntraeger, 771 pp.

USDA-ARS, 2012. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2012. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Valkenburg JLCHvan; Bunyapraphatsara N, 2001. Plant resources of South-East Asia No. 12(2): medicinal and poisonous plants 2 [ed. by Valkenburg, J. L. C. H. van\Bunyapraphatsara, N.]. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers, 782 pp.

Villaseñor JL; Espinosa-Garcia FJ, 2004. The alien flowering plants of Mexico. Diversity and Distributions, 10(2):113-123.

Wagner WL; Herbst DR; Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press/Bishop Museum Press, 1919 pp.

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Adams C, 1972. Flowering plants of Jamaica., Mona, Jamaica: University of the West Indies.

Anon, 2012. Invasive plants in Cuba. (Plantas Invasoras en Cuba). In: Bissea: Boletin sobre Conservacion de Plantad del Jardin Botanico Nacional, 6 [ed. by González-Torres LR, Rankin R, Palmarola A]. 1-140.

Austin DF, 1999. Caesar's weed (Urena lobata): An invasive exotic or a Florida native? In: Wildland Weeds, 3 (1) 13-16.

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean., Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CARDENAS J, COULSTON L, 1967. 100] Weeds of Trinidad. A list of common and scientific names. Mimeograph. Oregon St. Univ. Agency int. Dev. 6 pp.

Correa A, Galdames MDC, Stapf MNS, 2004. Catalogue of vascular plants of Panama. (Catalogo de Plantas Vasculares de Panama)., Panama: Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. 599 pp.

Correll DS, Correll HB, 1982. Flora of the Bahama Archipelago., Vaduz, Germany: J Cramer. 1692 pp.

Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Alexander S N, 2007. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. 55, 584 pp.

Hokche O, Berry PE, Huber O, 2008. New catalogue of the vascular plants of Venezuela. (Nuevo Catalogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela)., Caracas, Venezuela: Fundacion Instituto Botanico de Venezuela.

Idárraga-Piedrahita A, Ortiz RDC, Callejas Posada R, Merello M, 2011. [English title not available]. (Flora de Antioquia). In: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares, 2 Listado de las Plantas Vasculares del Departamento de Antioquia. 939 pp.

Kral R, Diamond Jr AR, Ginzbarg SL, Hansen CJ, Haynes RR, Keener BR, Lelong MG, Spaulding DD, Woods M, 2012. Alabama Plant Atlas., http://www.floraofalabama.org/

Liogier AH, 1988. Flora of Puerto Rico and Adjacent Islands: A Systematic Synopsis., Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico: Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico.

Maiti R K, 1979. A study of the microscopic structure of the fiber strands of common Indian bast fibres and its economic implications. Economic Botany. 33 (1), 78-87. DOI:10.1007/BF02858221

Valkenburg J L C H van, Bunyapraphatsara N, 2001. Plant resources of South-East Asia No. 12(2): medicinal and poisonous plants 2. [ed. by Valkenburg J L C H van, Bunyapraphatsara N]. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers. 782 pp.

Villaseñor J L, Espinosa-Garcia F J, 2004. The alien flowering plants of Mexico. Diversity and Distributions. 10 (2), 113-123. DOI:10.1111/j.1366-9516.2004.00059.x

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Angiosperm Phylogeny Websitehttp://www.mobot.org/mobot/research/apweb/
Flora of the West Indieshttp://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/
Plants of the Eastern Caribbeanhttp://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Contributors

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11/02/13 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Distribution Maps

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