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Datasheet

Phaius tankervilleae
(nun’s-hood orchid)

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Datasheet

Phaius tankervilleae (nun’s-hood orchid)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Phaius tankervilleae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • nun’s-hood orchid
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • P. tankervilleae, commonly known as nun’s-hood orchid, is a robust perennial which produces large, multicoloured white, brown and pink flowers on tall stalks, and is a widely valued ornamental. It is native to...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Phaius tankarvilleae (nun's hood orchid); flowering habit. Iao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2010.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionPhaius tankarvilleae (nun's hood orchid); flowering habit. Iao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2010.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Phaius tankarvilleae (nun's hood orchid); flowering habit. Iao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2010.
Flowering habitPhaius tankarvilleae (nun's hood orchid); flowering habit. Iao, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2010.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Phaius tankervilleae (Banks) Blume

Preferred Common Name

  • nun’s-hood orchid

Other Scientific Names

  • Bletia tankervilleae Banks R. Br.
  • Calanthe bachmaensis Gagnep.
  • Dendrobium veratrifolium Roxb.
  • Limodorum incarvillei Pers.
  • Limodorum spectabile Salisb.
  • Limodorum tancarvilleae L'Hér.
  • Limodorum tankervilleae Banks
  • Limodorum tankervilleae Banks
  • Pachyne spectabilis (Salisb.) Salisb.
  • Phaius blumei Lindl.
  • Phaius carronii F.Muell.
  • Phaius giganteus Hemsl.
  • Phaius grandiflorus Rchb.f.
  • Phaius grandifolius Lour.
  • Phaius incarvillei (Pers.) Kuntze
  • Phaius leucophaeus F.Muell.
  • Phaius oweniae Sander
  • Phaius roeblingii O'Brien
  • Phaius sinensis Rolfe
  • Phaius tancarvilleae (L'Hér.) Blume
  • Phaius tankervilliae (Banks) Blume
  • Phaius veratrifolius (Roxb.) Lindl.
  • Tankervillia cantoniensis Link

International Common Names

  • English: Chinese ground orchid; kunai orchid; nun orchid; nun’s cap; nun’s hood; nun’s orchid; nun’s-hood; tall grass orchid; twelve apostles

Local Common Names

  • Australia: swamp lily; swamp orchid
  • China: he ding lan
  • Cuba: orquídea monja; red crane orchid
  • Japan: chiru-ran; kakucho-ran; kaku-ran; sarunkwa-bana
  • Thailand: ueang phrao

Summary of Invasiveness

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P. tankervilleae, commonly known as nun’s-hood orchid, is a robust perennial which produces large, multicoloured white, brown and pink flowers on tall stalks, and is a widely valued ornamental. It is native to parts of Asia and Oceania but has been introduced to North America, Pacific Islands (including Hawaii), Central America and the Caribbean. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (2011) suggest that P. tankervilleae may now be an invasive threat to native plants on the Hawaiian Islands, and it may also be invasive in Jamaica (Orchid Species, 2016). Its invasive qualities include its ability to reproduce vegetatively and its tolerance of shade. It is rare in some parts of its natural habitat and is ranked as an endangered species in Japan (Hirano et al., 2009), India (Bhuyan, 2010), and in some other areas of its range (Metcalfe and Lawson, 2015). This species is included in CITES Appendix II (CITES, 2016).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Orchidales
  •                         Family: Orchidaceae
  •                             Genus: Phaius
  •                                 Species: Phaius tankervilleae

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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There is some confusion over taxonomic hierarchy of Phaius tankervilleae (Banks) Blume. ITIS (2016) places the genus in class Magnoliopsida and order Asparagales, whereas USDA-NRCS (2015) places the genus in class Liliopsida and order Orchidales, also supported by The Plant List (2013).

There are various spellings of the species name. Several sources suggest that the correct spelling is Phaius tankervilleae (Cribb et al., 2004; ITIS, 2016; eMonocot, 2016; Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2016). This spelling variation reflects the fact that Joseph Banks named the species in honour of Lady Tankerville in whose greenhouse the plants flowered (Ackerman and Castillo, 1992). Others spell the species name with a ‘ca’, forming tancarvilleae which was deliberately used by Banks after realizing that tankervilliae could not be properly Latinized (Australian Native Plant Society, 2008; National Center for Biotechnology Information, 2016). Multiple sources use this 'ca' spelling(GRIN-NPGS, 2015; National Center for Biotechnology Information, 2016; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016). There is also some confusion over whether the species name should end ‘eae’ or ‘iae’ (Australian Native Plant Society, 2008).

In Australia, there is some confusion regarding the synonymy and therefore distribution of P. tankervilleae (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2015). Some authors treat it as synonymous with Phaius australis F. Muell. or Phaius grandifolius Lour., whereas others treated it as naturally restricted to Northeast Queensland or naturally occurring along the East Coast but locally extinct in New South Wales (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2015).

Molecular taxonomy (using nuclear rRNA) of Australia’s terrestrial swamp orchids of the Phaius genus (P. australis, P. tankervilleae and P. bernaysii) suggested that they belong to the same species (Harrison et al., 2005).

Four species in the genus Phaius along with other orchid species have been analyzed with rpl32-trnL marker to assess their phylogenetic relationships (Chen et al., 2010). A dendrogram based on sequence analysis of rpl32-trnL marker showed that P. tankervilleae, P. flavus (Blume) Lindl., P. takeoi (Hayata) J. J. Su and P. mishmensis (Lindl. & Paxton) Rchb.f. were clustered together, supporting the traditional taxonomy as described by Hu (1972) and Liu and Su (1978) (Chen et al., 2010).

Description

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P. tankervilleae is a robust perennial that produces stalks from pseudobulbs of up to 1.3 m tall bearing clusters of multicoloured white, brown and pink flowers (Wildlife of Hawaii, 2015). The inflorescences are classed as racemes (North American Orchid Conservation Centre, 2016). In Australia, flower stalks of up to 2 m bearing clusters of 4-12 flowers (each flower of up to 10 cm in diameter) have been described (Australian Native Plant Society, 2008). According to Vivi’s Orchids (2014), stalks bear 15-20 flowers when grown as an ornamental in Florida gardens, USA. Individual flowers are 7-12.7 cm across, wide open when young and droop with age (Wildlife of Hawaii, 2015).

Flower parts are positioned at the apex of the ovary that is tripartite in section (Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2016a). The outermost whorl of the flower is the calyx, consisting of three petal-like sepals that are yellow with a red stripe (Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2016a). The two lateral sepals are different to the thirds (dorsal or median sepal) (Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2016a). The corolla consists of three brightly coloured petals, with the two lateral petals resembling the dorsal sepal, while the third petal (the labellum) is 3-lobed with a short spur or nectary at the base (Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2016a). Flowers are fragrant with a pink-tipped labellum, and 5 oblong-lanceolate tepals (3 sepals and 2 lateral petals) that are white on the outside and brown inside (Wildlife of Hawaii, 2015). Flowers petals and tepals have also been described as ivory-white on the back, tan and white veined on the front, with a magenta labellum with a slighted frilled edge (Vivi’s Orchids, 2014).

Leaves are basal (North American Orchid Conservation Centre, 2016) leaf blades are green, plicate, erect or ascending, elliptical-lanceolate, and up to 1.2 m long (Wildlife of Hawaii, 2015). Each pseudobulb has 2-6 leaves (Wildlife of Hawaii, 2015).

Plant Type

Top of page Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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The following information is from eMonocot (2015) unless stated otherwise.

Native distribution includes: Temperate Asia (Southcentral and Southeast China); Eastern Asia (Japan, Nansei-shoto, Taiwan); Tropical Asia (Indian Subcontinent); Indo-China (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam); Malesia (Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Is.) and the Pacific (Southcentral Pacific, Southwestern Pacific, New Caledonia, Niue, Samoa, Tonga, Vanuatu, Wallis-Futuna Is.).

Introduced distribution includes: North America (Southeastern USA); Pacific (Northcentral Pacific, Hawaii); Caribbean (Cuba, Jamaica, Puerto Rico); Central America (Panama). It is also reported to have been introduced to Europe but its current distribution is unclear. P. tankervilleae was listed in W. Aiton's Hortus Kewensis in 1789 which is a catalogue of plant species then in cultivation at the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew in London, UK (Aiton, 1789; Desmond, 1995) and was included in The European Garden Flora in 2011 (Cullen et al., 2011).

In Australia, there is some confusion regarding distribution (see Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature). More recently, P. tankervilleae is treated as an exotic that is commonly cultivated in Australia and swamp orchid populations thought to be P. tankervilleae are now thought to be other Phaius spp. (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2015).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

BangladeshPresentNativeeMonocot (2015)
BhutanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
CambodiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015); eMonocot (2015)
ChinaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015); Flora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
-FujianPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
-GuangdongPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
-GuangxiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
-HainanPresentNativeeMonocot (2015); Flora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
-TibetPresentNativeeMonocot (2015); Flora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
-YunnanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
IndiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
-Arunachal PradeshPresentNativeKanwal (2014)
-AssamPresentNativeBhaskar Buragohain et al. (2016); eMonocot (2015)Dissoi valley reserve forest and Natunmati, Jorhat, Assam
-UttarakhandPresent, LocalizedNativeNaithani et al. (2009)Corbett National Park, Uttarakhand
IndonesiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
-JavaPresentNativeeMonocot (2015)
-Lesser Sunda IslandsPresentNativeeMonocot (2015)Lesser Sunda Islands
-Maluku IslandsPresentNativeeMonocot (2015)
-SulawesiPresentNativeeMonocot (2015)
-SumatraPresentNativeeMonocot (2015)
JapanPresentNativeeMonocot (2015)
-KyushuPresentBiglobe (2012)Kyushu (Tanegashima island, Yakushima island, Amami-Ohshima island)
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentBiglobe (2012)Okinawa
LaosPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015); eMonocot (2015)
MalaysiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015); eMonocot (2015)
MyanmarPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015); eMonocot (2015)
NepalPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015); eMonocot (2015)
PhilippinesPresentNativeeMonocot (2015)
Sri LankaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
TaiwanPresentNativeCheng ShuFen et al. (2012); eMonocot (2015); USDA-ARS (2015); Flora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
ThailandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015); eMonocot (2015)
VietnamPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015); eMonocot (2015)

North America

CubaPresentIntroducedeMonocot (2015)
JamaicaPresentIntroducedInvasiveOrchid Species (2016); eMonocot (2015)
PanamaPresentIntroducedeMonocot (2015)
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedAckerman and Castillo (1992); eMonocot (2015); USDA-NRCS (2015)Throughout main island, Culebra, Mayagüez and Vieques. Foothills of the Luquillo Mountains.
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresent, LocalizedIntroducedRobinson et al. (2011); Vivi's Orchids (2014); eMonocot (2015); USDA-ARS (2015)Hernando and South Florida
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasiveAckerman (2012); Wagner et al. (2012); CGAPS-RCUH (2014); eMonocot (2015); USDA-NRCS (2015); Flora of the Hawaiian Islands (2016); Orchid Species (2016)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
-New South WalesPresent, LocalizedNativeAustralian Native Plant Society (2008)
-QueenslandPresent, LocalizedNativeAustralian Native Plant Society (2008)
Cook IslandsPresentNativeeMonocot (2015)
FijiPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015); eMonocot (2015)
New CaledoniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015); eMonocot (2015)
NiuePresentNativeeMonocot (2015)
Papua New GuineaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015); eMonocot (2015)
SamoaPresentNativeeMonocot (2015)
Solomon IslandsPresentNativeeMonocot (2015)
TongaPresentNativeeMonocot (2015)
VanuatuPresentNativeeMonocot (2015)
Wallis and FutunaPresentNativeeMonocot (2015)

History of Introduction and Spread

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P. tankervilleae arrived in Europe as an ornamental from southern China in 1778 (Ackerman and Castillo, 1992; Clements and Jones, 2008; Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2015). 

It is thought that P. tankervilleae arrived on the Hawaiian Islands, USA, around 1900 with Chinese labourers (Chadwick, 2015). Along with other orchids, it was thought to have been deliberately imported as an ornamental, becoming very popular in gardens by the middle of the 20th century (Ackerman, 2012).

 

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Hawaii China circa 1900 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes Chadwick (2015)

Habitat

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P. tankervilleae is described as preferring shaded and damp places, including bogs, streamsides, valleys, woodlands/forests (forest margins) and swamps (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016; North American Orchid Conservation Centre, 2016).

P. tankervilleae is a terrestrial orchid species mainly native to the tropics, ranging from Eastern Asia to Australia (Hirano et al., 2009). In Hawaii, USA, P. tankervilleae grows in moist soil near the forest edge and along trails in disturbed mesic and wet forests (Wildlife of Hawaii, 2015). In Australia, it is found along the East Coast in wet areas (Australian Native Plant Society, 2008). In China, it occurs in damp places in forests, at forest margins, along valleys and by streams at 700-1800 m (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016). P. tankervilleae is usually terrestrial but sometimes, rarely, it is epiphytic (Flora of the Hawaiian Islands, 2016).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Principal habitat Natural
Natural grasslands Principal habitat Natural
Riverbanks Principal habitat Natural
Wetlands Principal habitat Natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Principal habitat Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

P. tankervilleae has a chromosome number of 2n=42, 46, 48 (Flora of the Hawaiian Islands, 2016). Other studies found that 2n=38 (Li & Chen, 1989; Li et al., 1992) and 2n=52 (Begum, 2005).

Reproductive Biology

P. tankervilleae is a terrestrial perennial with pseudobulbs as storage organs (Wildlife of Hawaii, 2015). Pseudobulbs arise from horizontal stems that grow underground, with pseudobulbs developing along the length that are capable of developing into new plants that are genetically identical to the parent (Baley, 2015). After flowering and floral drop, the inflorescence stalk is capable of producing plantlets when placed in favourable conditions (Encyclopedia of Life, 2016; Orchid Species, 2016).

Sticky pollen is produced by the single anther, and this may be carried to a receptive stigma by pollinators (Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2016a). In its native habitat it is pollinated by large carpenter bees (Xylocopa spp.), although it can self-pollinate (Ackerman and Castillo, 1992) via cleistogamous flowers (North American Orchid Conservation Centre, 2016). In Assam, India, Xylocopa violacea has been shown to be an effective pollinator of P. tankervilleae (Buragohain et al., 2016).

Double fertilization takes place in P. tankervilleae, with the two sperm cells (pear-shaped with pointed tails) migrating towards their target cells after reaching the end of the pollen tube (Ye et al., 2002). The fertilization process (from pollen tube entry into the embryo sac to gamete union) takes approximately 36 hours (Ye et al., 2002). Pollen has been shown to be viable for up to 6 weeks when stored at 4°C, and stigmas have shown to be receptive for up to 7 days after anthesis (Bhuyan, 2010). Floral structure has been shown to prevent self-pollination although there are no genetic barriers to this (Bhuyan, 2010).

Seed capsules are oblong and up to 6 cm long (Flora of the Hawaiian Islands, 2016). Seeds are exceptionally small (with thousands per capsule) and do not contain an energy reserve (Lotte and Thomas Orchids, 2016).

P. tankervilleae has rarely been cultivated or improved because of the difficulty of seed propagation, especially long-term storage of the seeds (Hirano et al., 2009). Therefore, studies have been conducted to investigate an efficient method for storage of seeds (Hirano et al., 2009). Seeds that are stored at lower temperatures for longer periods have lower germination rates (Yao et al., 2012).

Physiology and Phenology

P. tankervilleae is chlorophyllous, and exposed roots have been shown to develop chloroplasts (Muthukumar and Sathiyadash, 2009).

In Arunachal Pradesh, India, P. tankervilleae flowers and fruits from April to June (Kanwal, 2014).

Associations

P. tankervilleae has been found to be associated with endophytic fungi including Tulasnella sp. (anamorph Epulorhiza) and Fusarium spp. (Chutima and Lumyong, 2012).

Mycorrhizal fungi have been shown to increase growth and photosynthesis in P. tankervilleae (Cheng et al., 2012). Investigations have been conducted where roots of P. tankervilleae were inoculated with Rhizoctonia solani (R01), Rhizoctonia sp. teleomorph=Ceratobasidium sp. AG-A (R02), Rhizoctonia sp., teleomorph=Ceratobasidium sp. AG-Fb (R15), and Rhizoctonia sp., teleomorph=Ceratobasidium sp. AG-G (R19) (Cheng at al, 2012).

P. tankervilleae is usually terrestrial but sometimes, rarely, it is epiphytic (Flora of the Hawaiian Islands, 2016).

Environmental Requirements

P. tankervilleae requires shady woodland or swampy grasslands in the sun with constant moisture (Averyanov and Christenson, 1998).

In China, it ranges from 700-1800 m in altitude (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016) but can be found between 1000-2000 masl. in Arunchal Pradesh, India (Kanwal, 2014).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
30 -34

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Cymbidium mosaic virus Pathogen not specific
Odontoglossum ringspot virus Pathogen not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Cymbidium mosaic virus and odontoglossum ringspot virus have both been associated with P. tankervilleae in New Zealand (Veerakone et al., 2015).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

P. tankervilleae disperses via seed, and also by vegetative reproduction (Australian Native Plant Society, 2008; Encyclopedia of Life, 2016; Orchid Species, 2016;).

Vector Transmission

Seed may be accidentally dispersed via animals.

Accidental Introduction

No specific records of accidental introduction have been identified. Although it is thought to have naturalised on Hawaii, USA, after escaping from where it was grown as an ornamental (Ackerman, 2012).

Since inflorescence stalks have the potential to produce plantlets, removal of waste containing old but green stalks could potentially be a source of dispersal.

Intentional Introduction

P. tankervilleae has been deliberately imported to Europe and Hawaii as an ornamental.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Botanical gardens and zoos Yes Yes
Breeding and propagationPropagated as an ornamental in Taiwan Yes Yes Cheng et al., 2012
Cut flower tradeRemoval of waste containing old but green stalks can disperse plant Yes
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes Ackerman, 2012
Garden waste disposalRemoval of waste containing old but green stalks can disperse plant Yes
HorticulturePropagated as an ornamental in Taiwan Yes Yes
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes Ackerman, 2012
Seed tradeSeeds are readily available from several outlets, inc. Amazon.com Yes Yes

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Biodiversity

P. tankervilleae is reported to be an invasive threat to Santalum freycinetianum var. lanaiense [Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense] on Lanai, Hawaii (US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011). The rate of escapes into the wild by introduced orchids such as P. tankervilleae seems to be increasing and these plants may now become invasive species (Ackerman, 2012).

 

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense (Lanai sandalwood)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition (unspecified)
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Economic Value

P. tankervilleae is valuable as an ornamental plant in India and is collected unsustainably from the wild for this and other economic uses (Kanwal, 2014). Similarly, it is cultivated as an ornamental in Taiwan, where it is rare in the wild due to overharvesting (Cheng et al., 2012), as it is in other parts of the world (Hersh, 1997). It is propagated on a commercial scale by micropropagation (Malemnganba et al., 1994).

In Hawaii, USA, orchids have been widely grown as ornamentals, and their potential to become invasive has perhaps been overlooked because they are highly valued (Ackerman, 2012).

Social Benefit

P. tankervilleae is well known for ethnobotanical reasons among tribal communities of Arunchal Pradesh, India (Kanwal, 2014). The pseudobulbs, roots and leaves are used in poultices, and the leaves and flowers are used for natural dyes including indigo (Kanwal, 2014).

Smoked flowers of P. tancarvilleae are eaten as a contraceptive in Papua New Guinea (Orchid Species, 2016).
 

Uses List

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General

  • Botanical garden/zoo

Materials

  • Dyestuffs

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Cut flower
  • garden plant
  • Potted plant
  • Seed trade

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Some authors consider P. tankervilleae as synonymous with the Lesser swamp-orchid (Phaius australis), whereas others consider them to be separate species (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2015). P. tankervilleae tends to have fewer flowers per spike and a cinnamon brown perianth, compared to a red-brown perianth with yellow vent in P. australis (Australian Approved Conservation Advice, 2016).

P. tankervilleae is similar to Phaius wallichii, with the main differences being that the latter has larger flowers (that are spreading rather than pendular, with apiculate lips with longer spurs (10-20 mm compared with 3-6 mm), and with sepals that are yellowish-green compared with P. tankervilleae (Cribb et al., 2004).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

No information has been identified regarding specific control measures for P. tankervilleae.

Physical/Mechanical Control

As this is a large, easily visible plant that successfully reproduces sexually and asexually, it is possible that physical removal of plants could be a method of control. Since inflorescence stalks are a potential source of vegetative spread (besides carrying flowers and seed), it would be important to ensure these are completely removed from any sites being cleared.

Where invasive species (including P. tankervilleae) threaten Santalum haleakalae var. lanaiense on the Hawaiian Islands, weeding and fencing off individual plants is conducted (US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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There is little information in the literature that discusses the impact of P. tankervilleae as invasive species on native species and habitats. Where it is a potential threat, research on the rate of spread, method of reproduction in the field, viability of seeds in the soil, and the rate of loss of natives would be valuable in determining the best potential method of control.

References

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Ackerman JD, 2012. Orchids gone wild: Discovering Naturalized Orchids in Hawaii. (Orchids gone wild: Discovering Naturalized Orchids in Hawaii.) Bulletin of the American Orchid Society, 81(2):88-93.

Ackerman JD; Castillo Mdel, 1992. The Orchids of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (Las Orquídeas de Puerto Rico Y Las Islas Vírgenes). San Juan, Puerto Rico: University of Puerto Rico Press.

Aiton W, 1789. Hortus Kewensis: a Catalogue of the Plants Cultivated in the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew., UK: Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.

Australian Approved Conservation Advice, 2016. Approved Conservation Advice for Phaius tancarvilleae (Swamp Lily)., Australia: Australian Government, Department of the Environment; Biodiversity, Threatened Species, Publications. http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/2104-conservation-advice.pdf

Australian Government, 2016. Species Profile and Threats Database. Canberra, Australia: Department of the Environment. http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/sprat.pl

Australian Native Plant Society, 2008. Phaius tancarvilliae. Australia: Australian Native Plants Society. http://anpsa.org.au/p-tan.html

Averyanov LV; Christenson EA, 1998. Phaius tankervilliae. Orchids, 67(4):368-370.

Baley A, 2015. What Is a Pseudobulb In Orchids: Learn About The Function Of Pseudobulbs. Bedford, Ohio, USA: Gardening Know How. http://www.gardeningknowhow.com/ornamental/flowers/orchids/pseudobulb-in-orchids.htm

Begum R, 2005. Karyotype analysis of seven orchid species from Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Botany, 34(1):31-36.

Begum R; Alam SS, 2005. Karyotype analysis of seven orchid species from Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Botany, 34(1):31-36.

Bhaskar Buragohain; Chaturvedi SK; Puro N, 2016. Pollination biology of Phaius tankervilleae (Banks ex L'Herit) Bl. (Orchidaceae). The International Journal of Plant Reproductive Biology, 8(1):75-81.

Bhuyan J, 2010. Floral biology of Phaius tankervilliae, an endangered terrestrial orchid. Advances in Plant Sciences, 23(2):611-612.

Biglobe, 2012. Phaius tankervilliae. Japanese Wild Flowers. Orchidaceae. Prof Summer's Web Garden. http://www7a.biglobe.ne.jp/~flower_world/Orchids/Phaius%20tankervilliae.htm

CGAPS-RCUH, 2014. Phaius tankervilleae. Plant Pono. Hawaii, USA: Coordinating Group on Alien Pest Species, the Hawaiian Invasive Species Council. http://plantpono.org/files/Phaius%20tankervilleae.pdf

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Distribution References

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Ackerman JD, Castillo Mdel, 1992. The Orchids of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. (Las Orquídeas de Puerto Rico Y Las Islas Vírgenes)., San Juan, Puerto Rico: University of Puerto Rico Press.

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Biglobe, 2012. Phaius tankervilliae. Japanese Wild Flowers. Orchidaceae. In: Prof Summer's Web Garden, http://www7a.biglobe.ne.jp/~flower_world/Orchids/Phaius%20tankervilliae.htm

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

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CGAPS-RCUH, 2014. Phaius tankervilleae., Hawaii, USA: Plant Pono; Coordinating Group on Alien Pest Species, the Hawaiian Invasive Species Council. http://plantpono.org/files/Phaius%20tankervilleae.pdf

Cheng ShuFen, Yeh ChihHsing, Jan ChenHan, Chang ChiNing [Chang C N D ], 2012. Growth and development of Phaius tankervilleae (Banks) Blume when inoculated with orchid mycorrhizal fungi. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 7 (42), 5644-5652. http://www.academicjournals.org/ajar/PDF/pdf2012/2Nov/Cheng%20et%20al.pdf

eMonocot, 2015. eMonocot - an online resource for monocot plants.,

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of the Hawaiian Islands, 2016. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands., USA: National Museum of National History, Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/query2.cfm

Kanwal K S, 2014. Conservation of Phaius tankervilleae a valuable orchid of Arunachal Pradesh, India. Indian Forester. 140 (12), 1263-1264. http://indianforester.co.in

Naithani H B, Chandola S, Manoj Chandran, 2009. On the wild occurrence of orchid Phaius tankervilliae in North India. Indian Forester. 135 (4), 578-579. http://www.indianforester.org

Orchid Species, 2016. Phaius tankervilleae (Banks) Blume 1856., http://www.orchidspecies.com/phaiustankervillii.htm

Robinson DJ, Gandy E, VanHoek C, Pemberton RW, 2011. Naturalization of the Nun's Hood Orchid (Phaius tankervilleae: Orchidaceae) in Central Florida. In: Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 5 (1) 337-339.

USDA-ARS, 2015. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2015. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Vivi's Orchids, 2014. Phaius tankerville - The Nun's Orchid., 18 (4) Florida, USA: Vivi's Orchid Corner. http://www.viviorchids.com/index.php?module=webpage&id=20&page=5

Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Khan N, Flynn T, 2012. Hawaiian vascular plant updates: a supplement to the Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii and Hawaii's Ferns and Fern Allies. Version 1.3., 126 pp. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/Hawaiian_vascular_plant_updates_1.3.pdf

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk Project (HEAR)http://www.hear.org/

Contributors

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19/01/2016 Original text by:

Vicki Cottrell, Consultant, UK

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