Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Lythrum maritimum
(pukamole)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Lythrum maritimum (pukamole)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Lythrum maritimum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • pukamole
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • L. maritimum is a perennial shrub or subshrub, known to be native to South America. It is widespread in the Hawaiian Islands, where it has only relatively recently been classed as a noxious weed, being a threat...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Lythrum maritimum (Lythrum);flowers. Hanaula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2011.
TitleFlowers
CaptionLythrum maritimum (Lythrum);flowers. Hanaula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2011.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Lythrum maritimum (Lythrum);flowers. Hanaula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2011.
FlowersLythrum maritimum (Lythrum);flowers. Hanaula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2011.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Lythrum maritimum (Lythrum); leaves. Waikau Trail, Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2010.
TitleLeaves
CaptionLythrum maritimum (Lythrum); leaves. Waikau Trail, Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2010.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Lythrum maritimum (Lythrum); leaves. Waikau Trail, Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2010.
LeavesLythrum maritimum (Lythrum); leaves. Waikau Trail, Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2010.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Lythrum maritimum (Lythrum); leaves. Waikau Trail, Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2010.
TitleLeaves
CaptionLythrum maritimum (Lythrum); leaves. Waikau Trail, Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2010.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Lythrum maritimum (Lythrum); leaves. Waikau Trail, Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2010.
LeavesLythrum maritimum (Lythrum); leaves. Waikau Trail, Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March, 2010.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Lythrum maritimum (Lythrum); habit. Polipoli, Maui, Hawaii, USA. December, 2005.
TitleHabit
CaptionLythrum maritimum (Lythrum); habit. Polipoli, Maui, Hawaii, USA. December, 2005.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Lythrum maritimum (Lythrum); habit. Polipoli, Maui, Hawaii, USA. December, 2005.
HabitLythrum maritimum (Lythrum); habit. Polipoli, Maui, Hawaii, USA. December, 2005.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Lythrum maritimum (Lythrum); habit on a trail. Polipoli trail, Polipoli, Maui, Hawaii, USA. December, 2004.
TitleHabit
CaptionLythrum maritimum (Lythrum); habit on a trail. Polipoli trail, Polipoli, Maui, Hawaii, USA. December, 2004.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Lythrum maritimum (Lythrum); habit on a trail. Polipoli trail, Polipoli, Maui, Hawaii, USA. December, 2004.
HabitLythrum maritimum (Lythrum); habit on a trail. Polipoli trail, Polipoli, Maui, Hawaii, USA. December, 2004.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Lythrum maritimum Kunth

Preferred Common Name

  • pukamole

Other Scientific Names

  • Lythrum albicaule Bertero
  • Lythrum album Kunth
  • Lythrum campestre Griseb.

Local Common Names

  • USA/Hawaii: ninika

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

L. maritimum is a perennial shrub or subshrub, known to be native to South America. It is widespread in the Hawaiian Islands, where it has only relatively recently been classed as a noxious weed, being a threat to native plant species and habitats. Although some authorities still treat it as a Hawaiian endemic, the status of L. maritimum as native was only questioned and changed to naturalized in the 1990s. Even in 2010, in a survey of rare plants in Oahu Forest National Wildlife Refuge, there was uncertainty whether L. maritimum should be classed as naturalized or endemic, and no weed risk assessment of the species was given (Imada et al., 2011). This confusion over its status, along with the enormity of the problem of introduced alien species in Hawaii, appears to explain why so little research has been undertaken on its invasiveness and control.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Myrtales
  •                         Family: Lythraceae
  •                             Genus: Lythrum
  •                                 Species: Lythrum maritimum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

The genus Lythrum, which comprises 25-36 species of herbaceous annuals and perennials, is probably best known for its introduced and invasive members, including the noxious L. salicaria (purple loosestrife) and, in Hawaii, L. maritimum.

The name Lythrum maritimum was validly published by K. S. Kunth in 1823 in Nova Genera et Species Plantarum 6: 194 (although many authorities have 1824 as the date of publication, see http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/11238#page/200/mode/1up for a copy of the original publication).

There are no infraspecific taxa. Accepted synonyms for L. maritimum are L. albicaule, L. album and L. campestre (The Plant List, 2013). However, significant differences between L. maritimum and L. album have been noted by some authors; chromosome numbers are given as n = 20 for L. maritimum and n = 10 for L. album (Graham and Cavalcanti, 2001), and Fuentes et al. (2013) listed both species in their database of alien species in Chile, with L.maritimum as a perennial shrub and L. album as an annual herb.

In Hawaii, where L. maritimum is most widespread and problematic, its common names include pukamole and ninika.

Description

Top of page

From Hillebrand (1888), Wagner (1990) and Wagner (1999):

L. maritimum is a low prostrate perennial, herbaceous but often with a woody base, growing up to 30-45 cm long. It is glabrous and many-branched. Leaves are linear-oblong or lanceolate, 7-33 mm long, on very short petioles, acute, obtuse at the base. Flowers are single, on short bibracteolate peduncles 25-38 mm long. The calyx tube is 76 mm long, with 12 ribs and 6 membranous deltoid teeth, the 6 accessory teeth being more than twice as long as these and stiff subulate. Flowers have 6 purplish or pink, obovate petals about 4 mm long. The 6 stamens are enclosed, or nearly so, and the style is exserted, with a thick globose stigma. The capsule is about three-quarters the length of the calyx, 2-celled, with numerous, minute, obconical, angular seeds, 0.5 mm long. The bracts are subulate.

Distribution

Top of page

Most Lythrum species are distributed in the Northern Hemisphere, but L. maritimum has a native range extending above and below the Equator. It is widespread in South America, where it is largely considered a native species. Tropicos lists L. maritimum as present in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015). It is also native to Brazil (JSTOR Global Plants, 2015). Pensiero et al. (2005) recorded L. maritimum and classed it as native in the Castellanos and Vera departments of Santa Fe province in northeast Argentina.

The first record of L. maritimum in Chile is from 1974 (Ugarte et al., 2011). It is treated as naturalized rather than native there. Although L. maritimum and the synonymous L. album are both listed in Chile, both are classed as non-invasive alien species. L. maritimum is reported as a perennial shrub, whereas L. album as an annual herb (Fuentes et al., 2013).

Grisebach (1875) found L. maritimum in Veracruz in southeast Mexico. Hemsley (1888), noted populations at Jalapa, Papantla and Orizaba in Veracruz, eastern Mexico.

L. maritimum is found on the Hawaiian islands of Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui and Hawaii (Wagner et al., 1990; Wester, 1992). US collecting expeditions encountered the species on the coast of Oahu, near Honolulu, and at Waimea on Hawaii (Gray, 1854).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

North America

MexicoLocalisedNative Not invasive Grisebach, 1875; Hemsley, 1888In Veracruz state
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-CaliforniaPresentNative Not invasive JSTOR Global Plants, 2015
-HawaiiWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Wagner et al., 1990; Wester, 1992; Wagner et al., 1999On all of the main Hawaiian Islands except Niihau and Kahoolawe

South America

ArgentinaPresentNative Not invasive Pensiero et al., 2005; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015Reported in Santa Fe province
BoliviaPresentNative Not invasive Ritter, 2004; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015
BrazilPresentNative Not invasive JSTOR Global Plants, 2015
ChilePresentIntroduced Not invasive Ugarte et al., 2011; Fuentes et al., 2013; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015
ColombiaPresentNative Not invasive Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015
PeruWidespreadNative Not invasive Gray, 1854; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015
UruguayPresentNative Not invasive Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015
VenezuelaPresentNative Not invasive Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

L. maritimum was first recorded in Hawaii in 1794, suggesting it probably arrived in the islands much earlier and probably accidentally. Based on its several Hawaiian names and use in traditional medicine, it was for a long time regarded as an indigenous species (Bohm, 2012). Its native status was questioned by Wagner et al. (1990) in the Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii, the recognised standard work on the flora of Hawaii. By the mid-1990s, it was becoming accepted that L. maritimum was a naturalized alien (Wagner et al., 2012). It is now listed by the US federal government as a noxious weed and invasive in Hawaii (USDA–NRCS, 2015).

Habitat

Top of page

All members of Lythrum are facultative wetland indicator species, so it is unusual that L. maritimum in its native range is associated with native vegetation of the deserts along South America's western coast (5-30ºS), where it is largely restricted to fog-zone locations or lomas (small hill) formations, separated by hyper-arid habitat where virtually no plants exist (Dillon et al., 2011). However, these desert areas do have wet soils around springs and are subject to coastal fogs (Rundel et al., 1996). There are also brackish marshes, such as around the Reñaca estuary in central Chile (San Martín, 2001).

L. maritimum is also found in wetter habitats in its native range. Ritter (2004) listed it as a wetland species in its native Bolivia. L. maritimum was encountered in riverbed habitat in Callao and Lima in Peru in the course of US expeditions from 1838 to 1842 (Gray, 1854). Grisebach (1875) found L. maritimum in Veracruz in southeast Mexico, associated with coastal dunes interrupted by lagoons, whose waters were fringed or populated with a number of species including L. maritimum.

In Hawaii, where L. maritimum is adventive, it is associated with a range of habitats. It can be found in mesic, open, disturbed habitats, especially in pastures, on windward coastal cliffs, in margins of wet forest, and on igneous formations, from sea level up to 2450 m elevation, on all of the main Hawaiian Islands except Niihau and Kahoolawe (Wagner et al., 1999). It has been observed colonizing a lava field 9 years after the eruption of Mt. Kilauea in 1959 (Sauer, 1988), and it has been found along a pathway on the summit of Mt. Haleakala on Maui (Starr and Starr, 2005).

The wet cliffs along the windward sides of the Hawaiian Islands, which are fluted, basalt cliffs up to 1000 m high, with almost no soil, provide crevices in which L. maritimum grows (Mueller-Dombois and Fosberg, 1998). L. maritimum has been recorded growing on the Pohakuao cliffs of Kaua'i at elevations of 365-460 m (Wood et al., 2002).

L. maritimum can also be found in grasslands. With the eradication in 1987 of feral pigs in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park on the eastern flank of Mauna Loa (1400-1950 m elevation), vegetation recovery was monitored in mountain parkland ecosystems, especially grasslands. Over the period 1985-92, L. maritimum increased its percentage cover in the aalii (Dodonaea viscosa)/velvet grass (Holcus lanatus) community from 0% in 1985 to 0.3, 0.4, 2.2 and 3.2% in 1986, 1987, 1989 and 1992, respectively. It was not present at all in the Deschampsianubigena/velvet grass community nor sweet vernal grass (Anthoxanthum odoratum) community, and showed very low or no presence, depending on year, in the pukiawe (Styphelia tameiameiae)/Deschampsia and velvet grass/Deschampsia communities (Tunison et al., 1994).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedRail / roadsides Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Principal habitat Natural
Wetlands Principal habitat Natural
Rocky areas / lava flows Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Deserts Principal habitat Natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Principal habitat Natural
Coastal dunes Principal habitat Natural
Salt marshes Principal habitat Natural
Freshwater
Rivers / streams Principal habitat Natural
Ponds Principal habitat Natural
Brackish
Estuaries Principal habitat Natural
Lagoons Principal habitat Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page

On the dry cliffs of the Hawaiian islands Lanai and Maui, the endangered native species Bidens campylotheca subsp. pentamera, Phyllostegia haliakalae and Pleomele fernaldii [Chrysodracon fernaldii] are threatened by the presence of L. maritimum and other understorey and subcanopy species (US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012a). L. maritimum is one of the alien species threatening the sole surviving population of Dubautia plantaginea subsp. humilis on the wet cliffs of Maui (US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012b). On Hawaii, L. maritimum has invaded the habitat of the critically endangered Clermontia pyrularia (State of Hawaii, Division of Forestry and Wildlife, 2015).

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Genetics

The chromosome number is n = 20, although n = 10 has been recorded for the synonymous L. album (Graham and Cavalcanti, 2001).

Reproductive Biology

L. maritimum is pollinated by insects and is a cross fertilizing species with hermaphrodite flowers.

Physiology and Phenology

Seeds exhibit physiological dormancy, and have been found to require greenhouse temperatures for germination (Lilleeng-Rosenberger, 2005).

Associations

L. maritimum is associated with a number of plant communities on the Hawaiian Islands, including Dodonaea viscosa/Holcus lanatus grasslands (Tunison et al., 1994). It is eaten by introduced alien pheasants in Hawaii (Schwartz and Schwartz, 1951).

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
BW - Desert climate Preferred < 430mm annual precipitation

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

Top of page
Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
23 35

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page

Zimmerman (1948), quoting Muir (1917), noted that Nesosydne ipomoeicola [Ilburnia ipomoeicola] was very commonly found feeding on L. maritimum on the slopes of Mt. Kilauea on the island of Hawaii.

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Environment (generally) Negative

Environmental Impact

Top of page

L. maritimum has been reported in numerous habitats in the Hawaiian Islands, including national parks, where it is displacing native vegetation. In a survey in 1987 it was found in Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge on Hawaii (Stone et al., 1991). It is also known from Volcanoes National Park on Hawaii and Haleakala National Park on Maui (Johnson, 1999).

Of particular concern are the effects of invasion by L. maritimum and other exotic plant species on cliff habitats, and the consequent displacement of very specialized endemic plant taxa. For example, on the dry cliffs of Lanai and Maui the endangered native species Bidens campylotheca subsp. pentamera, Phyllostegia haliakalae and Pleomele fernaldii [Chrysodracon fernaldii] are threatened by the presence of L. maritimum and other understorey and subcanopy species, such as Ageratina adenophora, Hypochoeris radicata, Lapsana communis, Prunella vulgaris and Rubus spp. Non-native grasses that also threaten this ecosystem include Andropogon virginicus, Anthoxanthum odoratum, Dactylis glomerata and Holcus lanatus. These non-native plant species pose serious and ongoing threats to all three of these native species that depend on this ecosystem (US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012).

Similarly, one of the major threats to the Hawaiian endemic Dubautia plantaginea subsp. humilis, a short-lived perennial shrub found on wet, barren, wind-blown cliffs between 350 and 400 m altitude in the Iao Valley on western Maui, is displacement by introduced invasive plant species, including L. maritimum (US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012).

Threatened Species

Top of page
Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Bidens campylotheca subsp. pentamera (ko`oko`olau)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012a
Chrysodracon fernaldii (hala pepe)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012a
Clermontia pyrulariaCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered)HawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesCenter for Plant Conservation, 2015; State and of Hawaii, Division of Forestry and Wildlife, 2015
Dubautia plantaginea subsp. humilisNational list(s) National list(s)HawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012a
Peristylus holochila (Hawai'i bog orchid)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2000
Phyllostegia haliakalae (Lanai phyllostegia)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012a

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

Top of page

Social Benefit

L. maritimum has been used in traditional Hawaiian medicine as a cure for asthma. A mash is made from the bark of taproots mixed with plant parts from Sida fallax and ko kea (white-rinded sugarcane), and the liquid extracted from this is taken as a tonic (Krauss, 2001).

Detection and Inspection

Top of page

Species within the genus Lythrum exhibit considerable variation, and there are few readily apparent differences among species.

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Physical/Mechanical Control

Manual weeding of L. maritimum and other invasive species has been successfully applied to the remaining population of Dubautia plantaginea subsp. humilis on wet cliffs in the Iao Valley on Maui (US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012).

Case study: Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii

Although no specific control measures and actions have been reported for L. maritimum, it would have been included in general and affected by the following strategies and actions proposed and undertaken in Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii, in the 1990s: (1) controlling feral pigs and goats; (2) excluding fire; (3) controlling localized alien plants; (4) controlling all disruptive alien plants in special ecological areas (the most diverse and intact areas in the park); (5) confining one widespread species, fountain grass (Pennisetum setaceum), to the area it currently infests; (6) developing herbicidal control methods for target species; (7) developing biological controls for some widespread species; (8) mapping the distribution of important alien plants; (9) researching the ecology, seed biology and phenology of important alien plant pests; (10) educating the public to the importance of alien plant control, and (11) working with other agencies and groups in alien plant management. Control of new introductions and incipient infestations, and protection of some of the most diverse and intact areas in the park have been very successful strategies (Stone et al., 1992).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

Top of page

There seems little if any research into the biology, ecology, physiology, phenology, reproduction and dispersal of L. maritimum. It is seen as just one of many alien species in Hawaii when it comes to developing and assessing control measures, and no specific interventions have been reported for the species.

References

Top of page

Anderson SJ; Stone CP; Higashino PK, 1992. Distribution and spread of alien plants in Kipahulu Valley, Haleakala National Park, above 2,300 ft elevation. In: Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: management and research [ed. by Stone, C. P. \Smith, C. W. \Tunison, J. T.]. Honolulu, HI, USA: University of Hawaii Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, 300-338. http://manoa.hawaii.edu/hpicesu/book/1992_chap/14.pdf

Bohm BA, 2012. Part 25. Loganiaceae-Lythraceae. The flowering plants of Hawaii. http://www.floridata.com/tracks/bruce/HI/Loganiaceae25.cfm

Center for Plant Conservation, 2015. Clermontia pyrularia. Center for Plant Conservation. http://www.centerforplantconservation.org/

Dillon MO; Leiva González S; Zapata Cruz M; Lezama Asensio P; Quipuscoa Silvestre V, 2011. Floristic checklist of the Peruvian lomas formations. Arnaldoa, 18(1):7-32.

Fuentes N; Pauchard A; Sánchez P; Esquivel J; Marticorena A, 2013. A new comprehensive database of alien plant species in Chile based on herbarium records. Biological Invasions, 15(4):847-858. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10530-012-0334-6

Graham SA; Cavalcanti TB, 2001. New chromosome counts in the Lythraceae and a review of chromosome numbers in the family. Systematic Botany, 26(3):445-458.

Gray A, 1854. Botany Phanerogamia, XV. Philadelphia, USA: Sherman, 606.

Grisebach AHR, 1875. The vegetation of the Earth after its arrangement according to climate, Volume 2 (La végétation du globe d'après sa disposition suivant les climats, Tome 2). Paris, France: Guérin, 488-489.

Hemsley WB, 1888. Biologia Centrali-Americana, Botany, Volume I. London, UK: R. H. Porter, 448.

Hillebrand W, 1888. Flora of the Hawaiian islands: a description of their phanerogams and vascular cryptogams. Heidelberg, Germany: Carl Winter.

Imada C; Clifford P; Lau JQC, 2011. 2010 Rare plant survey, Oahu Forest National Wildlife Refuge, Waipio, Oahu. Bishop Museum Technical Report 55. Honolulu, HI, USA: Bishop Museum, 84 pp.

IUCN, 2015. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. http://www.iucnredlist.org/

Johnson T, 1999. CRC ethnobotany desk reference. Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press, 505.

JSTOR Global Plants, 2015. http://about.jstor.org/content/global-plants

Krauss BH, 2001. Plants in Hawaiian medicine. Honolulu, HI, USA: Bess Press.

Kunth KS, 1823. Lythrum maritimum. Nova Genera et Species Plantarum, 6:194. http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/11238#page/200/mode/1up

Lilleeng-Rosenberger KE, 2005. Growing Hawaii's native plants. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: Mutual Publishing LLC.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Mueller-Dombois D; Fosberg FR, 1998. Vegetation of the tropical Pacific islands. New York, USA: Springer-Verlag New York Inc., xxvii + 733 pp.

Muir FAG, 1917. New Hawaiian Delphacidae. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society, 3:298-311.

Pensiero JF; Gutiérrez HF; Luchetti AM; Exner E; Kern V; Brnich E; Oakley L; Prado D; Lewis JP, 2005. Flora vascular de la provincia de Santa Fe (Vascular flora of the province of Santa Fe). Santa Fe, Argentina: Universidad Nacional del Litoral, 404 pp.

Ritter N, 2004. Checklist of dicotyledonous species associated with Bolivian wetlands. http://www.botanize.com/bol_checklist/bolspecies.htm

Rundel PW; Dillon; MO; Palma B, 1996. Flora and vegetation of Pan de Azúcar National Park in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. Gayana Botanica, 53(2):295-315.

San Martín C; Ramírez C; San Martín J; Villaseñor R, 2001. Flora and vegetation of the Reñaca creek (central, Chile). (Flora y vegetación del estero Reñaca (V Región, Chile.) Gayana Botánica, 58(1):31-46.

Sauer JD, 1988. Plant migration: the dynamics of geographic patterning in seed plant species. Berkeley, California, USA: University of California Press.

Schwartz CW; Schwartz ER, 1951. An ecological reconnaissance of the pheasants in Hawaii. Auk, 68(3):281-314.

Starr F; Starr K, 2005. Botanical survey: the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST), 'Science City', island of Maui, Hawaii. http://atst.nso.edu/sites/atst.nso.edu/files/docs/SDEIS/Vol2/Vol%20II-Appendix%20E%20-%20Botanical%20Survey-%20Dec%202005.pdf

State of Hawaii; Division of Forestry; Wildlife (, 2015. 'Oha wai, Clermontia pyrularia. http://dlnr.hawaii.gov/wildlife/files/2013/09/Fact-Sheet-Clermontia-pyrularia.pdf

Stone CP; Higashino PK; Cuddihy LW; Anderson SJ, 1991. Preliminary survey of feral ungulate and alien and rare plant occurrence on Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge. Technical Report No. 81. Hawaii, USA: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 109 pp. http://manoa.hawaii.edu/hpicesu/techr/081.pdf

Stone CP; Smith CW; Tunison JT, 1992. Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: management and research. Honolulu, HI, USA: University of Hawaii Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit.

The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.theplantlist.org

Tunison JT; Loh RK; Pratt LW; Kageler DW, 1994. Early succession in pig-disturbed mountain parkland, Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. Technical Report 89. Hawaii, USA: Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 25 pp. http://manoa.hawaii.edu/hpicesu/techr/089.pdf

Ugarte E; Lira F; Fuentes N; Klotz S, 2011. Vascular alien flora, Chile. Check List 7, 3. 365-382.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2000. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; determination of prudency and designations of critical habitat for plant species from the islands of Maui and Kahoolawe, Hawaii. Federal Register, 65(243). 79192-79275. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2000-12-18/html/00-31078.htm

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; 5-year status reviews of 46 species in Idaho, Oregon, Washington, Nevada, Montana, Hawaii, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands. Federal Register, 77(44). 13248-13251. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc4394.%20humilis%20Final%202014.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; listing 38 Species on Molokai, Lanai, and Maui as endangered and designating critical habitat on Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe for 135 species. Federal Register, 77(112). 34463-34775. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-06-11/pdf/2012-11484.pdf

USDA-NRCS, 2015. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Wagner WL; Herbst DR; Khan N; Flynn T, 2012. Hawaiian vascular plant updates: a supplement to the Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii and Hawaii's Ferns and Fern Allies. Version 1.3. 126 pp. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/Hawaiian_vascular_plant_updates_1.3.pdf

Wagner WL; Herbst DR; Sohmer SH, 1990. Manual of Flowering Plants of Hawaii. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Special Publication 83. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii.

Wagner WL; Herbst DR; Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press/Bishop Museum Press, 1919 pp.

Wester L, 1992. Origin and distribution of adventive alien flowering plants in Hawai'i. 99-154. In: Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: management and research [ed. by Stone, C. P. \Smith, C. W. \Tunison, J. T.]. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, 99-154. http://manoa.hawaii.edu/hpicesu/book/1992_chap/07.pdf

Wood KR; Boynton D; VanderWerf E; Arnold L; LeGrande M; Slotterback JW; Kuhn D, 2002. The distribution and abundance of the band-rumped storm-petrel (Oceanodroma castro): a preliminary survey on Kauai, Hawaii. Pacific Rim Conservation Report 23. 22 pp. http://www.pacificrimconservation.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/23%20Wood%20etal%202003%20BSRP%20report.pdf

Zimmerman EC, 1948. Insects of Hawaii. A Manual of the Insects of the Hawaiian Islands, Including an Enumeration of the Species and Notes on their Origin, Distribution, Hosts, Parasites, etc. Volume 1. Introduction. Honolulu, Univ. Hawaii Press, xx [1+] 206 pp.

Links to Websites

Top of page
WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

Top of page

24/02/15 Original text by:

Andrew Praciak, consultant, Ireland

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map