Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Cyperus meyenianus
(Meyen's flatsedge)

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Datasheet

Cyperus meyenianus (Meyen's flatsedge)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cyperus meyenianus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Meyen's flatsedge
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. meyenianus is a perennial herb, native to much of South America. Although the genus contains some of the world's worst weeds, no specific study has identified the invasive risk of C. meyenianus. How...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cyperus meyenianus Kunth

Preferred Common Name

  • Meyen's flatsedge

Other Scientific Names

  • Chlorocyperus paranaguensis Palla
  • Cyperus cylindrostachys var. subcompositus (C.B. Clarke) Skottsb.
  • Cyperus kunthianus Nees
  • Cyperus meyenianus var. breviradiatus Maury
  • Cyperus meyenianus var. oligostachys (Schrad. ex Nees) Kük.
  • Cyperus meyenianus var. paranaguensis (Palla) Kük.
  • Cyperus meyenianus var. patentissimus Kük.
  • Cyperus palustris (Schrad.) Kük.
  • Cyperus prionensis Boeckeler
  • Cyperus subulatus Meyen
  • Cyperus subulatus R. Br.
  • Cyperus trispicatus Boeckeler
  • Mariscus meyenianus (Kunth) Nees
  • Mariscus oligostachys Schrad. ex Nees
  • Mariscus palustris Schrad.
  • Mariscus uliginosus Schrad. ex Nees

Local Common Names

  • Australia: Meyen's flat-sedge
  • Brazil: Juncas; Tiririca-de-três-quinas
  • USA: Meyen's sedge; three-cornered sedge

Summary of Invasiveness

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C. meyenianus is a perennial herb, native to much of South America. Although the genus contains some of the world's worst weeds, no specific study has identified the invasive risk of C. meyenianus. However, the species does form dense mats, tufts or clumps and has been reported as a threat to bog habitats and rare and endangered plants of Hawaii (Bruegmann and Zablan, 2008; Wood, 2011). The establishment and spread of C. meyenianus into Hawaii's fragile ecosystems and then into disturbed edges, such as roadways, as well as its establishment and spread in Australia, mirrors the habitat and range of the species in South America (Henneman, 2001; Evenhuis and Eldredge, 2003; Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust , 2012; Wagner et al., 2012).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Cyperaceae
  •                             Genus: Cyperus
  •                                 Species: Cyperus meyenianus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Cyperus meyenianus Kunth is the accepted name of this herbaceous grass-like species about which little is known. Cyperus is the second largest genus in Cyperaceae and is its most important genus in the tropics (Larridon et al., 2011). The genus also contains many of the world's worse weeds including C. rotundus, C. esculentus, C. difformis and C. iria (Holm, 1991). Within the C4 Cyperus clade, C. meyenianus is most closely related to C. stigosus L. In turn these two species are paired with C. filiculmis Vahl; all three are then closely related to C. sphacelatus Rottb. (Larridon et al., 2013). C. strigosus (false nutsedge or straw-colored flatsedge) is a well established agricultural weed and a highly invasive species (Douce et al., 2005).

As C. meyenianus is not well studied, making weed or invasive risk assessments is difficult. The genus Cyperus is taxonomically confused and a subject of continuing revisions (Larridon et al., 2011; Reynders et al., 2011). C. meyenianus has many synonyms and misidentifications in three genera: Chlorocyperus, Cyperus and Mariscus.

Description

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C. meyenianus is a perennial herb, which forms mats, dense tufts or clumps with short rhizomes.  The stems are three-sided (triangular) around 20-50 cm tall and thickened at the base (Schwirkowski, 2012).

The following description of C. meyenianus is adapted from Simpson (1989).

 A fairly robust, rhizomatous, glabrous perennial with slightly swollen culm bases. The roots are fibrous and the culms are erect, smooth, triquetrous, 11-30 (-43) cm x 2-2-5 mm and green. Leaves are mainly green and mostly basal, 2-4 cauline; leaf-blades linear, 13-30 cm x 4-8 mm. They gradually attenuate to an acuminate apex and are flat or channelled, the margins scabrid, often slightly inrolled; leaf sheaths up to 12 cm long, membranous ventrally, hard dorsally, splitting early on the ventral side, greenish or light brown towards the apex becoming reddish near the base. There are 3-10 bracts, which are leaf-like, 5-25 cm x 3-7(-9) mm, the longest 11- 25 cm long and scabrid along the margin. Inflorescence is an anthela, with 2-4 sessile spikes and 6-7 rays, each with 1 terminal and 0-2 secondary spikes; rays (1-) 1.5-11 cm long; spikes +/- oblong, 1.1-2.5 x 1.3-2.6 cm, each with up to 50 spikelets clustered along the rachis. Spikelets are linear, 6-12 x +1 mm, subterete, deciduous at maturity. There are 5-6 glumes per spikelet, which are distichous, linear-elliptic to ovate, 1.2-4.2 x 0.8-1.6 mm, the shortest at the base of spikelet, obtuse or very shortly mucronate, erect, golden-yellow to brown, rarely red-dish-brown, rarely shining, the midrib is green or brown, with 4-5 narrow longitudinal ribs on either side of the midrib; the rachilla is straight. There are 3 stamens; anthers are linear, 1-1.5 x +/- 0.1 mm, yellowish to mid-brown, with a connective tip +/- 0.1 mm long and brown; filaments are linear, flattened, membranous, 3.5- 4 mm long and translucent or light brown. Styles are 3-branched, +/- 2.5 mm long, reddish-brown. There are 3-4 achenes per spikelet, which are trigonous, linear-oblong or linear-elliptic in outline, 1.7-2.1(-2-3) x 0.5-0.7 mm and mid- to dark brown; the achene surface is minutely papillose.

Plant Type

Top of page Grass / sedge
Perennial
Seed propagated

Distribution

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C. meyenianus is found throughout large areas of South America, occasionally reported as Mariscus meyenianus, in both natural ecosystems and disturbed, urban systems (Aparecido de Souza and de Souza Poletto, 2007; Natural History Museum, 2012). There is no specifically identified indigenous region reported within the literature. It has been known to be introduced to a number of areas including Hawaii and Australia (Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust,  2012). C. meyenianus is also reported in the Netherlands Antilles as well as Central America and Mexico (Berendsohn and González, 1991; Schwirkowski, 2012).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

MalaysiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentSimpson (1989)

North America

El SalvadorPresentBerendsohn and Gonzalez (1991)
MexicoPresentSchwirkowski (2012)
Netherlands AntillesPresentSchwirkowski (2012)
PanamaPresentNativeGBIF (2013)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentNativeGBIF (2013)
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasiveEvenhuis and Eldredge (2003); NMNH (2012); USDA-NRCS (2012); Wagner et al. (2012); CABI (Undated)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)As C. subulatus; Original citation: Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust (2012)
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)As C. subulatus; Original citation: Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust (2012)
-VictoriaPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)As C. subulatus; Original citation: Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust (2012)

South America

ArgentinaPresentNativeGilly (1941); IABIN (2013)State/Province:Entre Ríos County:Federación Locality:Salto Grande State/Province: Entre Ríos County: Federación Locality: Colonia Eloisa, Barra del Mocoret; Buenos Aires
BoliviaPresentNativeMacbride (1936); Foster (1958)
BrazilPresent, WidespreadNativeSchwirkowski (2012); IABIN (2013)
-BahiaPresentNativeSimpson (1989)
-GoiasPresentNativeCABI (Undated)Original citation: Missouri Botanical Garden (2012)
-Mato GrossoPresentNativeSimpson (1989)
-Minas GeraisPresentNativeSimpson (1989)
-ParanaPresentNativeSimpson (1989)
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNativeSimpson (1989)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentNativeSimpson (1989)
-Santa CatarinaPresentNativeSimpson (1989)
-Sao PauloPresentNativeSimpson (1989); Aparecido Souza and Souza Poletto (2007)
ColombiaPresentNativeGBIF (2013)
EcuadorPresentNativeCABI (Undated)Specimens collected: 1980, 1985; Original citation: Missouri Botanical Garden (2012)
ParaguayPresentNativeCABI (Undated)Specimens collected: 1905,1938,1948,1989,1990; Original citation: Missouri Botanical Garden (2012)
PeruPresentNativeBrako and Zarucchi (1993); Schwirkowski (2012)
UruguayPresentNativeCABI (Undated)Specimen collected: 1944; Original citation: Missouri Botanical Garden (2012)
VenezuelaPresentNativeFunk et al. (2007); CABI (Undated)Specimens collected: 1896, 1982

History of Introduction and Spread

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C. meyenianus described under the name C. distans was established in the horticultural trade by the late nineteenth century (Robinson, 1890). It was first reported in Kauai, Hawaii, in 1926 and has since been introduced to the islands of Molokai and Hawaii (NMNH, 2012; Wagner et al., 2012). It has been found under the synonym Cyperus subulatus in New South Wales, Queensland and Victoria, Australia (Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust, 2012).   

There is no information as to pathways of introduction.

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Hawaii 1926 Yes No The Natural History Museum (2012)
USA   Yes No Robinson (1890) The species was in the horticulture trade in the late 19th century

Risk of Introduction

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There are no weed risk or invasive risk assessments reported for C. meyenianus. However, there is potential for it to be introduced to new areas as a contaminant or as an ornamental plant.

Habitat

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C. meyenianus is a fairly robust, rhizomatous, glabrous, ruderal perennial species found in sandy areas often near the coast (Schwirkowski, 2012). It is also an urban weed and can be found at great distances from the coast such as in Bolivia, where it is also native. It has also been reported in dry tropical forests in South America (eMonocut, 2013).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Secondary/tolerated habitat
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Principal habitat Natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Principal habitat Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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There is no information on C. meyenianus as an agricultural weed. It is cited as a threat to rare and endangered plants of Hawaii such as, Alsinidendron lychnoides and Melicope degeneri (Bruegmann and Zablan, 2008; Wood, 2011).

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

C. meyenianus is most closely related to the highly invasive and well established agricultural weed C. stigosus (false nutsedge or straw-coloured flatsedge) (Douce et al., 2005). These two species are paired withC. filiculmis and all three are then closely related toC. sphacelatus (Larridon et al., 2013)However, little is known about the genetics of C. meyenianus (Bruhl, 1995).

Reproductive Biology

In Brazil, flowering and fruiting occurs in December and January (Schwirkowski, 2012).

Other Cyperus species are successful invaders or prominent weeds because of their high reproductive output (propagule pressure), rapid growth, vegetative proliferation and extended seed dormancy (Bryson and Carter, 2008).

Environmental Requirements

The tropical range of this plant indicates that it is intolerant of low temperatures and cannot survive in temperatures below 15°C (Gardening.eu, 2012).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 15

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil texture

  • light

Notes on Natural Enemies

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No data or information.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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There is no research, data or information on pathways, vectors or means of movement of this species. Introduction pathways to new locations may however be inferred by C. meyenianus' affinity to other congeners in the genus, which have been dispersed and distributed with food and seed stocks or by movement of machinery and equipment.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Horticulture Yes Gardening.eu, 2012

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Negative

Economic Impact

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C. meyenianus has no discernible economic impact.

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Habitats

C. meyenianus is a threat to Hawaiian bog ecosystems (Wood, 2000).

Impact on Biodiversity

C. meyeniaus has demonstrated negative and adverse potential to alter and harm rare and endangered species and their ecosystems thereby reducing biodiversity (Bruegmann et al., 2008; Bruegmann and Zablan, 2008; Wood, 2011).

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Alsinidendron lychnoidesCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered)HawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesBruegmann and Zablan, 2008
Cyperus pennatiformisNational list(s)HawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesBruegmann et al., 2008
Melicope degeneriNational list(s)HawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesWood, 2011
Phyllostegia knudsenii (Waimea phyllostegia)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009a
Phyllostegia renovans (red-leaf phyllostegia)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010c
Platydesma rostrataCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resources; Competition - smotheringUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010c
Poa mannii (Mann's bluegrass)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010a
Pritchardia hardyi (Makaleha pritchardia)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - smotheringUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010d
Pritchardia viscosa (stickybud pritchardia)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - smotheringUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010d
Psychotria grandiflora (large-flowered balsamo)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - smotheringUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010c
Remya montgomeryi (Kalalau Valley remya)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010e
Schiedea stellarioidesCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resources; Ecosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010b
Solanum sandwicenseNational list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009b
Stenogyne purpurea (purplefruit stenogyne)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - smotheringUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010d

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Competition (unspecified)
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

Uses

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Economic Value

In the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century C. Meyenianus (under the name of Cyperus distans) was referred to as a popular houseplant. It appeared in various publications, including the influential horticultural journal, The Garden (Robinson, 1889; 1890) which described  the plant as "a most effective specimen" with a prominent inflorescence and mop like shoots, remaining long in good condition. The description continues, noting that "it was first brought under the notice of the public about half a dozen years ago by Messrs. Low, since which time it has rapidly advanced in favour” (Robinson, 1890).

Assorted flatsedge species, though not specifically Cyperus spp., are offered for sale, most notably on the Internet. In Europe, C. meyenianus is described in some detail as an ornamental house plant indicating a possible niche market for the species (Gardening.eu, 2012).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Schwirkowski (2012) reports that C. meyenianus is very similar to C. hermaphroditus (hermaphrodite flatsedge) but differentiated by a greater number of inflorescence involucres, smaller anthers and a single spike.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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A phylogenetic study should be undertaken for C. meyenianus, as well as a detailed report on biological and ecological details. This species has not been the subject of biological or chemical control research.

References

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Aparecido Souza Ade, Souza Poletto Rde, 2007. Survey of Invading Species in the Garca Squares - Sp - Magnoliopsida snd Liliopsida. (Levantamento de Especies Invasoras nas Pracas de Garca - Sp - Magnoliopsida E Liliopsida.) Revista cientifica eletronica de engenharia florestal, 9.

Berendsohn WG, Gonzalez AEA, 1991. Listado basico de la Flora Salvadorensis. Monocotelydoneae: Iridaceae, Commelinaceae, Gramineae, Cyperaceae. (Listado basico de la Flora Salvadorensis. Monocotelydoneae: Iridaceae, Commelinaceae, Gramineae, Cyperaceae.) Cuscatlania, 1(6):1-29.

Boynton D, Wood KR, 2007. Erinna newcombi Adams and Adams (Mollusca: Lymnaeidae): a rediscovered population in Hanakoa, Kaua'i, Hawai'i. Bishop Museum Occassional Papers, 96:52-54.

Brako L, Zarucchi JL, 1993. Catalogue of the flowering plants and gymnosperms of Peru (Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden, vol. 45), 1-1286.

Bruegmann M, Zablan MA, 2008. Alsinidendron lychnoides (kuawawaenohu) USFWS 5 Year Review, 9. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: US Fish and Wildlife Service.

Bruegmann M, Zablan MA, Newman J, 2008. Mariscus pennatiformis (Cyperus pennatiformis) USFWS 5 Year Review., USA: US Fish and Wildlife Service.

Bruhl J, 1995. Sedge genera of the world: Relationships and a new classification of the Cyperaceae. Austral. Syst. Bot, 83:125-305.

Bryson CT, Carter R, 2008. The Significance of Cyperaceae as Weeds. 186. In: Sedges: Uses, Diversity, and Systematics of the Cyperacea [ed by. Naczi RFC, Ford BA]. St Louis, Missouri, USA: MBG Press, 309 pp.

Bryson CT, Carter R, 2008. The significance of Cyperaceae as weeds. In: Sedges: uses, diversity and systematics of the Cyperaceae [ed. by Naczi, R. F. C.\Ford, B. A.]. St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 15-101.

Carr G, 2012. Cyperaceae. Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii. http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/carr/cyper.htm

Citadini-Zanette V, Pereira JL, Jarenkow JA, Klein AS, Santos Rdos, 2010. Estrutura da sinusia herbacea em Floresta Ombrofila Mista no Parque Nacional de Aparados da Serra, sul do Brasil "Structure of the herbaceous synusiae in Mixed Ombrofilous Forest at Parque Nacional de Aparados da Serra, southern Brazil". Revista Brasileira de Biociencias, 9(1):56-63.

Daehler CC, 1998. The taxonomic distribution of invasive angiosperm plants: ecological insights and comparison to agricultural weeds. Biological Conservation, 84(2):167-180.

Douce GK, Moorhead DJ, Bargeron CT, Reardon RC, 2005. Invasive.org: a Web-based Image Archive and Database System Focused on North American Exotic and Invasive Species. In: Proceedings, XV USDA interagency research forum on gypsy moth and other invasive species 2004, XV [ed. by Gottschalk, K. W.]. Pennsylvania, USA: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station, 25 pp.

eMonocut, 2013. Cyperus meyenianus Kunth. London, UK: eMonocut. http://e-monocot.org/taxon/urn:kew.org:wcs:taxon:237515

Evenhuis NL, Eldredge LG, 2003. Hawaii's biodiversity: a detailed assessment of the numbers of species in the Hawaiian Islands. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers, 76(1):28 pp.

Foster RC, 1958. A catalogue of the ferns and flowering plants of Bolivia (Contributions of the Gray Herbarium no. 184), 1-223.

Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Alexander SN, 2007. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 584 pp.

Gardening.eu, 2012. Cyperus meyenianus Mariscus meyenianus (Kunth) Nees. Lombardy, Italy: Gardening.eu. http://www.gardening.eu

GBIF, 2013. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). http://data.gbif.org/species/

Gilly C, 1941. Cyperaceae. In Moldenke. Lilloa, 6(2):292-295.

Goetghebeur PA, 1989. Studies In Cyperaceae 9. Problems in the Lectotypification and Infrageneric Taxonomy of Cyperus L. Bulletin de la Societe Royale de Botanique de Belgique/Bulletin van de Koninklijke Belgische Botanische Vereniging, 122(1):103-114.

Henneman ML, 2001. Cyperus meyenianus (Cyperaceae). http://mothskauai.biotunes. Cyperus meyenianus (Cyperaceae). Hawaii, USA: ML Henneman. http://mothskauai.biotunes.org/leps/cyperus-meyenianus/

Herbarium WU, 2012. Herbarium WU. Vienna, Austria: Institute of Botany, University of Vienna. http://herbarium.univie.ac.at/index.htm

Holm LG, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, Plucknett DL, 1991. A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons.

IABIN, 2013. Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network. http://iabin.databasin.org/

IPNI, 2012. The International Plant Names Index. The Plant Names Project. http://www.ipni.org/index

Koske RE, Gemma JN, Flynn T, 1992. Mycorrhizae in Hawaiian angiosperms: a survey with implications for the origin of the native flora. American Journal of Botany, 79(8):853-862.

Larridon I, Bauters K, Reynders M, Huygh W, Muasya AM, Simpson DA, Goetghebeur P, 2013. Towards a new classification of the giant paraphyletic genus Cyperus (Cyperaceae): phylogenetic relationships and generic delimitation in C4 Cyperus. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society [Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Comparative Biology of Monocotyledons (Monocots V), New York, USA, 7-13 July 2013.], 172(1):106-126. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1095-8339

Larridon I, Huygh W, Reynders M, Muasya AM, Govaerts R, Simpson DA, Goetghebeur P, 2011. Nomenclature and typification of names of genera and subdivisions of genera in Cypereae (Cyperaceae): 2. Names of subdivisions of Cyperus. Taxon, 60(3):868-884.

Macbride JF, 1936. Cyperaceae, Flora of Peru. Publications of the Field Museum of Natural History, Botanical Series. Chicago, USA: Field Museum, 13(1/1).

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2012. Tropicos database. Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Muasya AM, Simpson DA, Chase MW, 2002. Phylogenetic relationships in Cyperus L. (Cyperaceae) inferred from plastid DNA sequence data. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 138(2):145-153.

Muasya AM, Vrijdaghs A, Simpson DA, Chase MW, Goetghebeur P, Smets E, 2009. What is a Genus in Cyperaceae: Phylogeny, Character Homology Assessment and Generic Circumscription in Cyperaceae. Bot. Rev, 75:52-66.

National Biodiversity Institute (INBio), 2012. INBio Costa Rica. Santo Domingo de Heredia, Costa Rica: National Biodiversity Institute. http://www.inbio.ac.cr/

National Tropical Botanical Garden, 2012. National Tropical Botanical Garden. Hawaii, USA: National Tropical Botanical Garden. http://ntbg.org/

Natural History Museum, 2012. Bromus hordeaceus Linnaeus. London, UK: Natural History Museum. http://www.nhm.ac.uk/

New York Botanical Garden, 2012. The C. V. Starr Virtual Herbarium. New York, USA: The New York Botanical Garden.

NMNH, 2012. Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History. http://www.mnh.si.edu/

Reynders M, Huygh W, Larridon I, Muasya AM, Govaerts R, Simpson DA, Goetghebeur P, 2011. Nomenclature and typification of names of genera and subdivisions of genera in the Cypereae (Cyperaceae): 3. Names in segregate genera of Cyperus. Taxon, 60(3):885-895.

Robinson W, 1889. The Garden: An Illustrated Weekly Journal of Gardening in All Its Branches, 36.

Robinson W, 1890. The Garden: An Illustrated Weekly Journal of Gardening in All Its Branches, 37.

Robinson W, 1890. The Garden: An Illustrated Weekly Journal of Gardening in All Its Branches, Volume 39; Volume 1889. New York, USA: The New York Public Library, 312 pp.

Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust, 2014. PlantNET - The Plant Information Network System of The Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust. Sydney, Australia: National Herbarium of New South Wales. http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au

Schwirkowski P, 2012. Flora of São Bento do Sul: Cyperus meyenianus - Tiririca-de-tres-quinas. Santa Catarina, Brazil: Flora of São Bento do Sul. https://sites.google.com/site/florasbs/cyperaceae/tiririca-de-tres-quinas

Simpson DA, 1989. Taxonomic changes and new taxa in Cyperus, Pycreus and Mariscus: notes on Brazilian Cyperaceae IV. Kew bulletin, 44(2):279-287.

Torres-Santana C, Bruegmann M, Zablan MA, 2007. Diellia erecta (Asplenium-leaved diellia) USFWS 5 Year Review. USA: US Fish and Wildlife Service.

Torres-Santana C, Bruegmann M, Zablan MA, 2007. Phyllostegia knudsenii USFWS 5 Year Review. USA: US Fish and Wildlife Service.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998. In: Kauai II: Addendum to the Recovery Plan for the Kauai Plant Cluster. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 84 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Phyllostegia knudsenii (no common name). US Fish and Wildlife Service, 6 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. In: Solanum sandwicense (Popolo 'aiakeakua). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 13 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Poa mannii (Mann's bluegrass). US Fish and Wildlife Service, 10 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Schiedea stellarioides (no common name). US Fish and Wildlife Service, 7 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. In: Determination of Endangered Status for 48 Species on Kauai and designation of Critical Habitat: Final Rule. US Fish and Wildlife Service, i + 205 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. In: Recovery Outline for the Kauai Ecosystem. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 38 pp. + 3 maps.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010e. 5-YEAR REVIEW Short Form Summary Species Reviewed: Remya montgomeryi (no common name). Honolulu, Hawaii: 7 pp.

USDA-NRCS, 2012. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Khan N, and Flynn T, 2012. Hawaiian Vascular Plant Updates: A Supplement to the Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai`i and Hawai`i's Ferns and Fern Allies. 126.

Wood KR, 2000. Lumahai, Namolokama and Laau Ridge Kauai, Hawai`i. Personal Observations and Checklist of Vascular Plants with Topographical Mapping. US Fish and Wildlife Service.

Wood KR, 2011. Rediscovery, conservation status and taxonomic assessment of Melicope degeneri (Rutaceae), Kaua'i, Hawai'i. Endangered Species Research, 14(1):61-68. http://www.int-res.com/articles/esr_oa/n014p061.pdf

Zickel CS, Almeida Jr EBde, Medeiros DPWde, Lima PB, Souza TMSde, Barros Li de, 2007. Magnoliophyta species of restinga, state of Pernambuco, Brazil, Check List 3(3). 224-241.

Distribution References

Aparecido Souza Ade, Souza Poletto Rde, 2007. Survey of Invading Species in the Garca Squares - Sp - Magnoliopsida snd Liliopsida. (Levantamento de Especies Invasoras nas Pracas de Garca - Sp - Magnoliopsida E Liliopsida). In: Revista cientifica eletronica de engenharia florestal, 9.

Berendsohn WG, Gonzalez AEA, 1991. (Listado basico de la Flora Salvadorensis. Monocotelydoneae: Iridaceae, Commelinaceae, Gramineae, Cyperaceae). In: Cuscatlania, 1 (6) 1-29.

Brako L, Zarucchi J L, 1993. Catalogue of the flowering plants and gymnosperms of Peru. 1286 pp.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Evenhuis NL, Eldredge LG, 2003. Hawaii's biodiversity: a detailed assessment of the numbers of species in the Hawaiian Islands. In: Bishop Museum Occasional Papers, 76 (1) 28 pp.

Foster R C, 1958. A catalogue of the ferns and flowering plants of Bolivia. 223 pp.

Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Alexander S N, 2007. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. 55, 584 pp.

GBIF, 2013. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. http://www.gbif.org/species

Gilly C, 1941. Cyperaceae. In: Moldenke. Lilloa, 6 (2) 292-295.

IABIN, 2013. Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network., http://iabin.databasin.org/

Macbride JF, 1936. Cyperaceae, Flora of Peru. In: Publications of the Field Museum of Natural History, Botanical Series, 13 (1/1) Chicago, USA: Field Museum.

NMNH, 2012. Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History., Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History. http://www.mnh.si.edu/

Schwirkowski P, 2012. (Flora of São Bento do Sul: Cyperus meyenianus - Tiririca-de-tres-quinas)., Santa Catarina, Brazil: Flora of São Bento do Sul. https://sites.google.com/site/florasbs/cyperaceae/tiririca-de-tres-quinas

Simpson DA, 1989. Taxonomic changes and new taxa in Cyperus, Pycreus and Mariscus: notes on Brazilian Cyperaceae IV. In: Kew bulletin, 44 (2) 279-287.

USDA-NRCS, 2012. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Khan N, Flynn T, 2012. Hawaiian Vascular Plant Updates: A Supplement to the Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai`i and Hawai`i's Ferns and Fern Allies., 126.

Organizations

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USA: HBS Hawaii Biological Survey, 1525 Bernice Street, Honolulu, Hawai'i 96817, http://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/

Contributors

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30/10/2012 Original text by:

John Peter Thompson, Maryland, USA 

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