Aromia bungii (red necked longicorn)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Vectors
- Plant Trade
- Wood Packaging
- Economic Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Aromia bungii Faldermann, 1835
Preferred Common Name
- red necked longicorn
Other Scientific Names
- Aromia cyanicornis Guérin Méneville, 1844
- Aromia cyanicornis var. ruficollis Redtenbacher, 1868
- Aromia cyanipennis ab. puncticollis Plavilstshikov, 1940
International Common Names
- English: peach longhorn beetle; peach longicorn beetle; peach musk beetle; plum and peach longhorn; redneck longhorned beetle; red-necked longhorn beetle
Local Common Names
- Germany: Moschusbockkâfer
- Italy: Cerambice del collo rosso; Cerambice delle drupacee
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
A. bungii is native across the south-eastern Palaearctic and Oriental regions. It is recorded from China, Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam. A. bungii is an oligophagous species; its host range is largely limited to Prunus spp. Other host plants belonging to different families are reported in the literature, for example, from Ebenaceae (Shandong Academy of Environmental Science, 2009) and Salicaceae (Lei and Zhou, 1998), but sometimes with doubtful supporting evidence. In 2008 three adults of A. bungii were intercepted among wooden pallets in a warehouse in Bristol, UK, and during the same year the pest was intercepted in a manufacturing plant at Seattle, USA. In 2011, A. bungii was recorded for the first time from a host tree in Germany (Bavaria). In 2012, it was also reported in Italy (Campania) and in 2013 a new outbreak was found in Lombardia. In 2013 it was again recorded outside its native area, in Japan. Wood packaging material and nursery plants are potential pathways of accidental introduction.
A. bungii is on the EPPO A1 List of quarantine pests (EPPO, 2012c). It presents a significant risk to all stone fruit-growing countries in Europe and neighbouring countries. There is a real risk of economic loss if the pest is not eradicated from Italy and until suitable management practices are put in place.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Arthropoda
- Subphylum: Uniramia
- Class: Insecta
- Order: Coleoptera
- Family: Cerambycidae
- Genus: Aromia
- Species: Aromia bungii
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
The small genus Aromia Audinet-Serville, 1834, is mainly represented in the Palaearctic region with a south-eastern expansion in the Oriental region. It includes only four species: bungii Faldermann, 1835; japonica Podaný, 1971; moschata (Linnaeus, 1758); and orientalis Plavilstshikov, 1933. All other taxa listed under the genus Aromia are synonyms or subspecies of these species (Gressitt, 1951; Podaný, 1971; Löbl and Smetana, 2010).
DescriptionTop of page
The egg is elongate, subcylindrical, about 2 mm long. The chorion is yellow-green-whitish, with sclerotized parts of the first-instar larval head visible through the chorion at hatching. The data available from Chinese scientific literature report different sizes for the egg, ranging from 1.5 mm, to 3-4 mm, and up to 6-7 mm. The range of egg sizes for A. bungii was reviewed in 1982 (Zhen Tong District, 1982) and new data presented: the egg was described as similar to a sesame seed, about 2 mm long and 1 mm wide, and light green in colour, a description which corresponded to the eggs laid by females of A. bungii in Italy (Nugnes et al., 2014b).
The newly-hatched larva is 2-2.5 mm long; the mature larva varies in length from 42 to 52 mm. Examination of a large number of full-grown larvae revealed the existence of two quite diverse morphological types (Garonna, 2012), such as those identified for Aromia moschata (Duffy, 1953, 1968). Duffy designated the two larval types as 'a' and 'b' forms. The same arrangement has been observed for aged larvae in A. bungii. The larval form 'a', up to 50 mm long and 10 mm wide at its broadest point across the prothorax, and with body segments tapering towards the abdominal apex, is comparatively longer and more slender than the 'b' form. The latter form is more cylindrical and stout (Garonna, 2012). Both are pale yellowish-white and have 4-segmented legs. In form 'a' the mandibles are strong, prominent and their basal part is as dark as the apical part. Pronotum with anterior and lateral brownish pigmented areas clearly defined; posterior half coarsely and longitudinally rugose. In form 'b' mandibles are shorter with the basal part pale and separated from a dark apical part by a deep transverse impression. Pronotum whitish and shiny with posterior half longitudinally rugose. Qian (1989) compared the morphology of the larval stages of A. bungii to four other longhorn species, which were important pests in Fujian, China. Huang et al. (2012) provide identification characters to discriminate between adults and developmental stages of Anoplophora chinensis, Aromia bungii and Apriona germari.
The pupa is light yellow, 22-38 mm long, with legs and long, coiled antennae. The light-yellow pupa then becomes darker, gradually showing the coloration of the callow adult (Nugnes et al., 2014b).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|China||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Liu et al., 1998; Hua, 2002; Hua et al., 2009; CABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014|
|-Anhui||Present||Native||Not invasive||CABI/EPPO, 2014|
|-Beijing||Present||Native||Not invasive||Anderson et al., 2013|
|-Fujian||Present||Native||Not invasive||Qian, 1987, publ. 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014|
|-Gansu||Present||Native||Not invasive||CABI/EPPO, 2014|
|-Guangdong||Present||Native||Not invasive||Hua et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014|
|-Guangxi||Present||Native||Not invasive||Löbl and Smetana, 2010|
|-Guizhou||Present||Native||Not invasive||CABI/EPPO, 2014|
|-Hainan||Present||Hua et al., 1993; Löbl and Smetana, 2010|
|-Hebei||Present||Native||Not invasive||CABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014|
|-Heilongjiang||Present||Native||Not invasive||CABI/EPPO, 2014|
|-Henan||Present||Native||Not invasive||CABI/EPPO, 2014|
|-Hong Kong||Present||Native||Not invasive||Yiu, 2009; Löbl and Smetana, 2010|
|-Hubei||Present||Native||Not invasive||Lei and Zhou, 1998; Wang, 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2014|
|-Hunan||Present||Native||Not invasive||Qi, 1999; CABI/EPPO, 2014|
|-Jiangsu||Present||Native||Not invasive||CABI/EPPO, 2014|
|-Jiangxi||Present||Native||Not invasive||CABI/EPPO, 2014|
|-Jilin||Present||Native||Not invasive||CABI/EPPO, 2014|
|-Liaoning||Present||Native||Not invasive||CABI/EPPO, 2014|
|-Nei Menggu||Present||Native||Not invasive||Namkhaidorzh, 2007; Vitali, 2010; CABI/EPPO, 2014|
|-Shandong||Present||Native||Not invasive||Shandong Academy of Environmental Science, 2009; CABI/EPPO, 2014|
|-Shanghai||Present||Native||Not invasive||Löbl and Smetana, 2010|
|-Shanxi||Present||Native||Not invasive||CABI/EPPO, 2014|
|-Sichuan||Present||Native||Not invasive||CABI/EPPO, 2014|
|-Tianjin||Present||Native||Not invasive||Anderson et al., 2013|
|-Yunnan||Present||Native||Not invasive||Li, 2009; CABI/EPPO, 2014|
|-Zhejiang||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wang, 2009; CABI/EPPO, 2014|
|Japan||Present, few occurrences||Introduced||EPPO, 2013b; Anonymous, 2013; CABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014|
|-Honshu||Present, few occurrences||Introduced||EPPO, 2013b; Anonymous, 2013; CABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014|
|Korea, DPR||Present||Native||Not invasive||CABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014|
|Korea, Republic of||Present||Native||Not invasive||Lee, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014; Lim et al., 2014|
|Mongolia||Absent, unreliable record||Anderson et al., 2013; CABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014||Report by Danilevsky (2004) uncertain.|
|Taiwan||Present||Native||Not invasive||Yu et al., 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014|
|Vietnam||Present||Native||CABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014|
|USA||Absent, intercepted only||Smith, 2009; EPPO, 2014|
|-Washington||Absent, intercepted only||Smith, 2009; EPPO, 2014|
|Germany||Transient: actionable, under eradication||Invasive||EPPO, 2012a; Burmeister, 2012; Burmeister et al., 2012; CABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014|
|Italy||Present, few occurrences||Introduced||Invasive||EPPO, 2012b; EPPO, 2013c; Nugnes et al., 2014a; Garonna, 2012; Bariselli and Bugiani, 2013; Garonna et al., 2013; CABI/EPPO, 2014; EPPO, 2014|
|-Italy (mainland)||Present, few occurrences||CABI/EPPO, 2014|
|Netherlands||Absent, confirmed by survey||EPPO, 2014|
|Russian Federation||Restricted distribution||EPPO, 2016|
|-Russian Far East||Present||EPPO, 2016|
|UK||Absent, intercepted only||Ostojá-Starzewski and Baker, 2012; EPPO, 2014|
|-England and Wales||Absent, intercepted only||EPPO, 2014|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
A. bungii is native to eastern Asia. It is known as an agricultural pest in China. The first records of its occurrence in other geographic areas were published in 2009.
Smith (2009) reported the first detection of A. bungii in the USA, when one adult female was collected in a manufacturing plant in Seattle, Washington.
The first detection of A. bungii in Europe was in 2008 when three adults were intercepted among wooden pallets in a warehouse in Bristol, UK (Reid and Cannon, 2010). The first occurrence of the species in the open field in Europe, in relation to known host species, was reported in 2012 from Bavaria, Germany (Burmeister et al., 2012; EPPO, 2012a; Schrader and Schröder, 2012). That same year A. bungii was formally reported in Campania, Italy, where several infested Prunus trees were found (EPPO, 2012b; Garonna, 2012). Since 2010, data on the presence of A. bungii in Italy have been reported on 'Forum Natura Mediterraneo' (http://www.naturamediterraneo.com) and 'Forum Entomologi Italiani' (http://www.entomologiitaliani.net) with locality data and pictures of the adults observed (Garonna, 2012; Garonna et al., 2013). An updated Italian checklist of Cerambycidae (Sama and Rapuzzi, 2011) first cited the presence of A. bungii in Italy, but considered it 'not established'. The routes of introduction of A. bungii to Italy have not yet been identified.
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
A. bungii has entered Europe several times. Phytosanitary measures to prevent a new entry are indispensable. Potential pathways of introduction include wood packaging material and nursery plants. The larvae may live concealed inside infested wooden materials and remain undetected until after transportation, thus facilitating further accidental spread. International trade from eastern Asia, mainly from China, presents a real risk of re-introducing the pest into Europe. A detailed PRA focused on A. bungii has been published by the EPPO Expert Working Group (EPPO, 2014). Using the EPPO Standard for PRA and the climate-matching system CLIMEX, areas in southern Europe where the pest is most likely to establish and cause economic damage have been identified (Nugnes et al., 2014a).
HabitatTop of page
In China, A. bungii is distributed in agricultural, forest and urban areas of a large part of eastern territories from Vietnam to Korea (Gressitt, 1951; Podany, 1971; Smith, 2009; Löbl and Smetana, 2010; Lim et al., 2014). The actual distribution in China includes several provinces ranging from 20 to 48°N (Hua et al., 1993; Lei and Zhou, 1998; Qi, 1999; Yu et al., 2005; Hu et al., 2007; Ma et al., 2007; Li, 2009).
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial – Managed||Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Urban / peri-urban areas||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Urban / peri-urban areas||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Natural|
|Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-natural||Natural forests||Present, no further details|
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
In China, A. bungii has mainly been recorded on Prunus spp. The major hosts are fruit tree species, such as apricot, cherry, peach and plum. There are records on other host plant species associated with A. bungii which require confirmation, for example, Diospyros, Juglans (Hua, 2002; Shandong Academy of Environmental Science, 2009), Populus, Quercus and Salix (Lei and Zhou, 1998).
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Azadirachta indica (neem tree)||Meliaceae||Wild host|
|Bambusa textilis||Poaceae||Wild host|
|Castanea mollissima (hairy chestnut)||Fagaceae||Other|
|Diospyros kaki (persimmon)||Ebenaceae||Other|
|Diospyros lotus (Date plum tree)||Ebenaceae||Other|
|Diospyros virginiana (persimmon (common))||Ebenaceae||Other|
|Juglans regia (walnut)||Juglandaceae||Other|
|Olea europaea subsp. europaea (European olive)||Oleaceae||Other|
|Populus (poplars)||Salicaceae||Wild host|
|Populus alba (silver-leaf poplar)||Salicaceae||Wild host|
|Populus tomentosa (Chinese white poplar)||Salicaceae||Wild host|
|Prunus armeniaca (apricot)||Rosaceae||Main|
|Prunus avium (sweet cherry)||Rosaceae||Main|
|Prunus cerasifera (myrobalan plum)||Rosaceae||Main|
|Prunus domestica (plum)||Rosaceae||Main|
|Prunus grayana||Rosaceae||Wild host|
|Prunus japonica (Japanese bush cherry tree)||Rosaceae||Main|
|Prunus mume (Japanese apricot tree)||Rosaceae||Main|
|Prunus persica (peach)||Rosaceae||Main|
|Prunus pseudocerasus (chinese fruiting cherry)||Rosaceae||Wild host|
|Prunus salicina (Japanese plum)||Rosaceae||Main|
|Prunus yedoensis||Rosaceae||Wild host|
|Pterocarya stenoptera (chinese wing nut)||Juglandaceae||Wild host|
|Punica granatum (pomegranate)||Punicaceae||Other|
|Pyrus bretschneideri (yali pear)||Rosaceae||Other|
|Quercus (oaks)||Fagaceae||Wild host|
|Salix (willows)||Salicaceae||Wild host|
|Schima wallichii (Chinese guger tree)||Theaceae||Wild host|
|Zanthoxylum bungeanum||Rutaceae||Wild host|
Growth StagesTop of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage
SymptomsTop of page
Damage caused by young larvae of A. bungii can be identified by the presence of small galleries under the bark. Intermediate larval tunnels can be seen in both the sap wood and heart wood of the trunk and larger branches of healthy and unhealthy trees (Gressitt, 1942; Garonna et al., 2013). Considerable amounts of frass (small, cylindrical pellets of sawdust) are ejected through holes bored in the bark. High amounts of frass amassing at the base of an attacked tree may give a good indication of larval infestation. Moreover, the presence of adult emergence holes is sign of old establishment. Exit holes are elliptical in shape (6-10 x 10-16 mm). Several generations can develop within an individual tree, leading to its death. Localized symptoms on basal parts of the tree may be confused with attacks caused by other xylophagous pests. In Europe on Prunus spp. there are typical infestations caused by indigenous pests, like Capnodis tenebrionis, Cerambyx scopolii and Cossus cossus.
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Stems / internal feeding|
|Stems / visible frass|
|Whole plant / early senescence|
|Whole plant / frass visible|
|Whole plant / internal feeding|
|Whole plant / plant dead; dieback|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
Detailed information on the biology of A. bungii in China is available in Wang et al. (2007). A. bungii overwinters as larvae of different ages. Beetles emerge in native areas from June to August following a latitudinal gradient south-north (Gressitt, 1942; Ma et al., 2007). The sex-ratio reported by Ma et al. (2007) is 1 female: 1.31 males. The emergence rate and mating behaviour of adults are described by Wang et al. (2007). Females oviposit after mating and repeat mating several times during their lifespan. Eggs are laid in the trunk and branch crevices; the number of eggs per site can range from 1 to 6. According to Wang at al. (2007), the eastern quarter of the trunk is the preferred site for oviposition. Field observations in Italy suggest that deep bark cracks and lichen crusts may be another factor in site selection. Each female lays, on average, 325-357 eggs during its lifetime, with a minimum of 91 to a maximum of 734 eggs (Wang et al., 2007). In Hebei, China, oviposition occurs mainly in July (Ma et al., 2007). First-instar larvae hatch in about 10 days, then penetrate under the bark, boring a gallery in the phloem. Larval tunnelling behaviour and the frass-expelling process was studied in apricot by Liu et al. (1999). Larvae may overwinter two or three times and mature in 21-33 months, as reported for different provinces of China (Yu and Gao, 2005; Ma et al., 2007; Wang et al., 2007). Larvae may spend several months without feeding before pupation. Mature larvae pupate in a pupal chamber excavated in the trunk and branches. The pupal period lasts between 17 and 23 days, and pupation generally occurs in spring (Ma et al., 2007; Wang et al., 2007). The life-cycle from egg hatching to adult emergence ranges from 24 (Yu and Gao, 2005) to 36-48 months (Ma et al., 2007; Wang et al., 2007). These same authors state that A. bungii only completes a generation every 4 years in Hebei province. Gressitt (1942) reports the possibility of one generation per year in southern China.
The lifespan of adults is 47.5-48.8 days for males and 53.3-54.3 days for females, as reported by Wang et al. (2007).
Xylophagous larvae are active until late autumn. They overwinter inside the trunk or branches, protected from cold temperatures, and are therefore well adapted to survive in extreme climates. Pupation only takes place in spring, and adult flight occurs during the summer months. Oviposition occurs in daylight, from 05.00 to 20.00 h (Wang et al., 2007).
Population size and density
Wang and Chen (1992) investigated larval distribution inside the trunks of trees and reported a typical crowding pattern for A. bungii larvae in infested hosts.
Adults feed on mature or rotten fruits. They react to baiting liquids used in the field, a mixture of sugar, vinegar and wine (1:1.5:0.5) (Lu, 1995).
The environmental plasticity of A. bungii is noteworthy. If host trees are present, it may live under different climatic conditions of southern Chinese provinces or northern ones, simply by adjusting the lifespan of its biological evolution to the different environment. Overlapping the known distribution of A. bungii with Koeppen climate type maps shows that the species may live in territories with mean January temperatures ranging from -20 to 12°C and mean July temperatures from 20 to 28°C. Dry and cold winters do not affect A. bungii as it is protected in galleries bored deeply into the tree trunks.
ClimateTop of page
|C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate||Preferred||Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C|
|Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year||Preferred||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year|
|Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer||Preferred||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers|
|Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter||Preferred||Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)|
|D - Continental/Microthermal climate||Tolerated||Continental/Microthermal climate (Average temp. of coldest month < 0°C, mean warmest month > 10°C)|
|Df - Continental climate, wet all year||Tolerated||Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)|
|Ds - Continental climate with dry summer||Tolerated||Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)|
|Dw - Continental climate with dry winter||Tolerated||Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)|
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
|Beauveria bassiana||Pathogen||Adults/Eggs/Larvae/Pupae||not specific|
|Dastarcus helophoroides||Predator||Larvae/Pupae||not specific||China||peach|
|Heterorhabditis bacteriophora||Pathogen||Larvae||not specific||China||peach|
|Metarhizium anisopliae||Pathogen||Adults/Eggs/Larvae/Pupae||not specific|
|Sclerodermus guani||Parasite||Larvae||not specific||China||peach|
|Sclerodermus harmandi||Parasite||Larvae||not specific||China|
|Steinernema carpocapsae||Pathogen||Larvae||not specific||China||apricot|
|Steinernema feltiae||Pathogen||Larvae||not specific||China||apricot|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Beauveria bassiana was isolated from dead adults of A. bungii in Nei Menggu (Shi et al., 2009). Entomoparasitic nematode strains of the genus Heterorhabditis and Steinernema has been investigated in China in relation to their effectiveness against A. bungii (Liu et al., 1993, 1997; Huang et al., 2012). Information about entomophagous species targeting A. bungii is scarce. As a predator of the larval stages of longhorn beetles, Dastarcus helophoroides has been recorded preying on the larvae and pupae of A. bungii (Li et al., 2009; Gong et al., 2013). Few hymenopteran parasitoids have been recorded in association with A. bungii in its native area. In particular, species of the genera Scleroderma are reported to be effective parasitoids of several longhorn beetles including A. bungii in China and Korea (Lim et al., 2006; Shi et al., 2009). Parasitization rates of the polyphagous species Scleroderma guani and S. harmandi may be high.
The woodpecker species Dendrocopos major is considered an effective predator of A. bungii in Chinese habitats (Liu et al., 2012).
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
A. bungii can move via international trade. Pathways of accidental introduction have not yet been identified. Passive diffusion is certainly the main cause of the spread of the pest. It is most likely to be moved as eggs, larvae or pupae hidden in woody planting material or wood packaging. A. bungii may also be introduced to new areas via the transport of nursery plants, or even aged bonsai, although this is less likely. Individuals intercepted in Europe and in the USA have been associated with wood packaging material probably coming from countries where A. bungii occurs (Smith, 2009; Reid and Cannon, 2010; EPPO, 2012a). An unusual pathway of introduction of longhorn beetles has recently been reported for the UK: cerambycid larvae have been found in furniture (Ostojá-Starzewski, 2014). There is no data on the active dispersal of A. bungii over long distances, but considering the dispersal rate of other longhorn beetles such as Anoplophora spp., active flight do not should exceed several hundred metres per year.
Pathway VectorsTop of page
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches||larvae; pupae||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Wood||larvae; pupae||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
Wood PackagingTop of page
|Wood Packaging liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Timber type||Used as packing|
|Solid wood packing material with bark||No|
|Solid wood packing material without bark||No|
Economic ImpactTop of page
A. bungii is regarded as one of the most destructive cerambycid pests of fruit trees, especially peach, in lowland areas of China where economic loss can be substantial (Gressitt, 1942; Duffy, 1968). In a survey of fruit orchards in China, from 30 to 100% of trees were damaged by the pest (Liu et al., 1997). Trees are weakened by larval attack and are readily susceptible to diseases. Serious infestation causes tree decay and a decrease of fruit yield in orchards. Most severe damage is recorded on apricot and peach (Wu and Li, 2005). In Italy several hundred apricot, cherry and plum trees have been severely damaged or killed by larval attack (Garonna et al., 2013; Nugnes et al., 2014a).
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Has a broad native range
- Abundant in its native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Tolerant of shade
- Highly mobile locally
- Has high reproductive potential
- Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
- Host damage
- Negatively impacts agriculture
- Negatively impacts animal/plant collections
- Damages animal/plant products
- Negatively impacts trade/international relations
- Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
- Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
- Difficult/costly to control
DiagnosisTop of page
COI sequences of A. bungii have been submitted to Genbank (Anhui et al., unpublished data, 2005). Molecular identification is possible by amplification of the ribosomal 28S and mitochondrial and COI genes: in Campania, Italy, only one haplotype has been found from analysis of several biological samples (Nugnes et al., 2014b). A non-invasive identification method, based on polymerase chain reaction amplification using DNA extracted from field collected faecal material, has been used to identify Anoplophora chinensis-infested trees (Strangi et al., 2013). The same protocol could be adapted to test larval frass collected in A. bungii outbreak areas in Italy for use as a possible diagnostic method to discriminate A. bungii infestations from those of other xylophagous species.
Detection and InspectionTop of page
Traps baited with different mixtures have been proposed for detecting adults in the field during the summer months (Gong et al., 2013). Baited traps can also be installed around a site where wood ready for shipment is stored, and for early detection at official points of entry and potentially newly-invaded areas, such as stone fruit orchards. Synthetic pheromone blends of cerambycid beetles have been used to develop trap lures that simultaneously attract multiple species with interesting results in the USA (Wong et al., 2012). In another investigation, A. bungii was not listed among 71 cerambycid species collected in a tropical montane rainforest in southern China by means of traps baited with 10 known cerambycid pheromones (Wickham et al., 2014). Different blends could be tested on A. bungii to verify whether this option for pest surveillance could be considered in the future.
Detailed morphological description of the adult stage is given by several authors for easy identification of A. bungii from cogeneric species Aromia moschata ssp. ambrosiaca and A. orientalis (Plavilstshikov, 1934; Gressitt, 1951; Podany, 1971; Lompe, 2013).
Trees should be inspected, especially trunks and branches, for signs of larval tunnels. Frass extruding from holes in the trees is a sign of infestation (Liu et al., 1999; Garonna, 2012; Garonna et al., 2013; Nugnes et al., 2014a).
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
There are some forms or varieties of Aromia moschata that may be superficially confused with A. bungii. A. moschata var. ambrosiaca and A. orientalis present a bright red coloration of the central part of the prothorax similar to that of the typical form of A. bungii. The main differences may be found in the general greenish, metallic coloration of the body and the rugose-punctuate aspect of the elytra with two to three longitudinal veins (Lompe, 2013).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
SPS Measures (quarantine, certification, prohibition)
In the USA and Europe, strong regulatory measures have been introduced for wood packaging materials from China. The case of Anoplophora glabripennis has stimulated the development of an international standard for phytosanitary measures (ISPM) by the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (FAO, 2009). All packaging must be treated by methods recognized to have adequate efficacy against all wood pests (EPPO, 2009a, 2009b). These include heat treatment (to an internal temperature of 56°C for 30 min): once treated, wood packaging is unlikely to be re-infested. An internationally recognized mark is impressed on the treated wood. The international standard, ISPM No. 15, approved in 2002, updated in 2009, with Annex 1 and 2 revised in 2013, is now implemented worldwide. To date A. bungii is subject to eradication measures in Europe and Japan (EPPO, 2012c; Anonymous, 2013). Rapid Pest Risk Assessments have been developed for Germany and the UK (Schrader and Schröder, 2012; Anderson et al., 2013). Official measures have been applied in Italy where A. bungii has been collected in the field: the outbreak area and outer buffer zone have been demarcated together with coordinated actions for monitoring pest presence in neighbouring areas (Massaro and Passari, 2014; Diasco, 2012; Danise, 2014).
Early Warning Systems
An early warning system with baited traps is established by regional phytosanitary services in Italy (DG-SANCO, 2014). A tool considered useful for the early detection and efficient containment of invasive Anoplophora chinensis and A. glabripennis in Italy increased public awareness through detailed and continuous informative campaigns (Ciampitti and Cavagna, 2014). The same information/alert system is applied to A. bungii. In Campania, Italy, the communication activities regarding A. bungii to stakeholders and the general public included press releases and articles, leaflets, posters and videos detailing morphological and biological characteristics of the beetle. Specific meetings and workshops on the economic impact due to further spread of the pest were also organized (Diasco, 2012; Danise, 2014).
A. bungii has been intercepted outside its native area in the USA, Japan and Europe (UK, Germany and Italy) but it is only established to some extent in Italy, where quarantine measures are applied and eradication is ongoing (Diasco, 2012; EPPO, 2013c; Danise, 2014; Massaro and Passari, 2014; Nugnes et al., 2014a). Information from Japan is not available.
Sanitation measures include the removal and destruction of infested fruit trees by chipping, and establishing limits on the movement of wooden materials from infested areas. Preventive felling of asymptomatic host plants can be implemented to avoid further spread of the pest, as has been suggested for Italy (DG-SANCO, 2014).
The outbreak area in Italy has been demarcated together with the outer buffer zone (Diasco, 2012; Danise, 2014). Regular monitoring activities are carried out together with destruction of infested trees in order to slow further spread of the pest.
Manual control is one of the oldest and most effective pest control options, including adult capture, bark scraping, and killing or removal of larvae from galleries with hooked wire. Emergence holes may be blocked by concrete material to kill the adults inside the pupal chambers.
Physical methods can also be used against A. bungii. Sticky cardboard can capture adults and prevent oviposition. Physical tree protection using anti-insect film or nets to protect trunks and prevent oviposition are used in China and are considered in alternative control strategies (Gong et al., 2013). At the beginning of adult emergence, the trunk or large branches may be painted with a deterrent mixture of lime, sulphur, salt, animal oil and water (10:1:0.2:0.2:40) to prevent oviposition (Wen et al., 2010).
Entomopathogenic fungi and nematodes such as Beauveria bassiana, Steinernema carpocapsae, Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditisbacteriophorae have been assessed as potential biological control agents of A. bungii in China (Liu et al., 1997, 1998; Shi et al., 2009). Different application methods are available for parasitic nematodes against longhorn beetles. Brabbs et al. (2014) reviewed the prospects of biological control against Anoplophora species in Europe.
The beetle Dastarcus helophoroides and the parasitoid Scleroderma guani, in combination with entomopathogenic nematodes, have been employed in the biological control of A. bungii in China with positive results (Gong et al., 2013). High mortality rates of A. bungii were achieved using plastic test tubes containing eggs of D. helophoroides placed above larval galleries in infested peach orchards and on ornamental plants (Li et al., 2009).
Insecticide treatments are used against A. bungii in peach orchards in China. The insecticides are sprayed on the tree canopy to kill adults, and on the trunk to kill eggs and larvae at hatching (Zhang et al., 2000). The range of insecticides available for use on A. bungii includes organophosphates, pyrethroids and neonicotinoids. The efficacy of the available insecticides against A. bungii is limited as the larvae burrow deep inside the trunks. Direct injections of organophosphates to larval galleries results in high larval mortality. Fumigation is used in China to kill larvae inside trunks by means of aluminium phosphide tablets (Wang et al., 2007). Timely field applications of lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, dimethoate and phosmet, all broad spectrum insecticides, may also provide good control of A. bungii in European countries.
Preliminary tests on larvae of A. bungii have been carried out in China in order to evaluate insecticidal proprieties of extracts of fungi (Agaricales) of the genera Amanita and Lepiota with interesting results (Hong and Yang, 2010a, 2010b). A list of active ingredients available to control A. bungii on apricot, peach and persimmon has been published for Shandong, China (Shandong Academy of Environmental Science, 2009).
The use of IPM against A. bungii is poorly investigated. Gong et al. (2013) summarized the techniques that have been used against A. bungii in China. The control options used against Anoplophora glabripennis could also be considered for control of A. bungii (Yang, 2005).
The removal and destruction of infested and potentially infested trees is the main eradication strategy for A. bungii in Italy, but biological control agents could be used in the future to complement other management strategies, especially in locations where eradication is no longer possible.
Monitoring and Surveillance (including remote sensing)
The presence of adult A. bungii in the field can be monitored using traps baited with a mixture of sugar, vinegar and wine (1:1.5:0.5). Simple 1500-2000 ml plastic bottles can be used as traps. They must be checked weekly during the flight period of the adults.
ReferencesTop of page
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OrganizationsTop of page
China: CAAS (The Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences), 12 Zhongguancun Nandajie 100081 Beijing, http://www.caas.net.cn/
Japan: NIES (Invasive Species Research Team, Environmental Risk Research Center, National Institute for Environmental Studies), 16-2, Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, http://www.nies.go.jp/biodiversity/invasive/
France: EPPO, European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization, 21 boulevard Richard Lenoir, 75011 Paris, http://www.eppo.int/
Germany: JKI (Julius Kühn-Institut Bundesforschungsinstitut für Kulturpflanzen), Messeweg 11/12 38104 Braunschweig, http://pflanzengesundheit.jki.bund.de/
Italy: SESIRCA (Servizio Fitosanitario Regionale - Settore Sperimentazione, Informazione, Ricerca e Consulenza in Agricoltura - Regione Campania), Centro Direzionale, isola A6, Via G. Porzio - 80143 Napoli, http://www.sito.regione.campania.it/agricoltura/difesa/difesa.html
UK: FERA (The Food and Environment Research Agency), Sand Hutton, York, Y0411LZ, http://www.fera.defra.gov.uk
ContributorsTop of page
19/12/14 Original text by:
Antonio P. Garonna, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Portici, Italy
Distribution MapsTop of page
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