Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Acanthospermum australe



Acanthospermum australe (spiny-bur)


  • Last modified
  • 13 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Acanthospermum australe
  • Preferred Common Name
  • spiny-bur
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Acanthospermum australe is a creeping annual or short-lived perennial plant, which originates from the tropics and sub-tropics of Central and South America. A. australe has been introduced to China, Au...

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Acanthospermum australe (spiny-bur); close view of fruits and a flower. Honeydew, Gauteng, South Africa. February 2016.
CaptionAcanthospermum australe (spiny-bur); close view of fruits and a flower. Honeydew, Gauteng, South Africa. February 2016.
Copyright©Paul Venter-2016/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Acanthospermum australe (spiny-bur); close view of fruits and a flower. Honeydew, Gauteng, South Africa. February 2016.
FruitsAcanthospermum australe (spiny-bur); close view of fruits and a flower. Honeydew, Gauteng, South Africa. February 2016.©Paul Venter-2016/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Acanthospermum australe (spiny-bur); habit. Kukumamalu gulch, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. May, 2005.
CaptionAcanthospermum australe (spiny-bur); habit. Kukumamalu gulch, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. May, 2005.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Acanthospermum australe (spiny-bur); habit. Kukumamalu gulch, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. May, 2005.
HabitAcanthospermum australe (spiny-bur); habit. Kukumamalu gulch, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. May, 2005.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Acanthospermum australe (spiny-bur); habit. Polihua Rd, Lanai, Hawaii, USA. April, 2007.
CaptionAcanthospermum australe (spiny-bur); habit. Polihua Rd, Lanai, Hawaii, USA. April, 2007.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Acanthospermum australe (spiny-bur); habit. Polihua Rd, Lanai, Hawaii, USA. April, 2007.
HabitAcanthospermum australe (spiny-bur); habit. Polihua Rd, Lanai, Hawaii, USA. April, 2007.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Acanthospermum australe (spiny-bur); habit, with flowers. Hanaula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2011.
CaptionAcanthospermum australe (spiny-bur); habit, with flowers. Hanaula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2011.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Acanthospermum australe (spiny-bur); habit, with flowers. Hanaula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2011.
HabitAcanthospermum australe (spiny-bur); habit, with flowers. Hanaula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2011.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Acanthospermum australe (spiny-bur); flowers and leaves. Hanaula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2011.
TitleFlowers and leaves
CaptionAcanthospermum australe (spiny-bur); flowers and leaves. Hanaula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2011.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Acanthospermum australe (spiny-bur); flowers and leaves. Hanaula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2011.
Flowers and leavesAcanthospermum australe (spiny-bur); flowers and leaves. Hanaula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2011.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Acanthospermum australe (Loefl.) Kuntze

Preferred Common Name

  • spiny-bur

Other Scientific Names

  • Acanthospermum brasilum Schrank.
  • Acanthospermum hirsutum DC.
  • Acanthospermum xanthioides (Kunth) DC.
  • Echinodium prostratum Poit.
  • Melampodium australe Loefl.
  • Orcya adhaerens Vell.
  • Orcya adhaerescens Vell.

International Common Names

  • English: creeping starbur; guay greenstripe; Paraguayan starbur; Paraguay-bur; Paraguay-starbur; sheep-bur; spiny bur; star bur

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: amor-de-negro; carrapichinho; carrapicho-rasteiro; cordao de sapochifrinho; maroto; mata-pasto; tapekué
  • Paraguay: tapeku
  • South Africa: donkieklits; eight-seeded starbur; jodeluis; kruipsterklits; setla-bocha
  • USA/Hawaii: ‘ihi kukae hipa; kukaehipa; pipili

Summary of Invasiveness

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Acanthospermum australe is a creeping annual or short-lived perennial plant, which originates from the tropics and sub-tropics of Central and South America. A. australe has been introduced to China, Australia, Africa, and the USA, where it is classed as invasive in the states of Hawaii and Oregon. It spreads to form dense mats that can smother other low-growing vegetation. In Australia, A. australe is seen as a threat to native mat-forming species in coastal sand dunes and in hind-dune vegetation. It is also regarded as an invasive species within its native range in Brazil, where it occurs in conservation areas.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Asterales
  •                         Family: Asteraceae
  •                             Genus: Acanthospermum
  •                                 Species: Acanthospermum australe


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Annual or short-term perennial, stems 10-60(-120) cm, mostly procumbent. Leaves cauline. Leaves rhombic-ovate to triangular, 1.5-3.5 cm long, 1-3 cm wide, with conspicuous glands on both surfaces, margins irregularly serrate above the middle, base cuneate, petioles 0.3-1.5 cm long. Heads 4-6 mm in diameter, generally solitary, with 3-8 white-cream-yellow ray florets and 3-8 yellowish disc florets functionally staminate. The single-seeded fruits (cypselae) are each enclosed within and shed with an often hardened, ± prickly perigynium, ultimately plumply ellipsoid to fusiform, or ± compressed (PIER, 2015; PROTA, 2015; ZipcodeZoo, 2015).

A. australe has small stomata and 4-5-cellular non-glandular hairs (Martins et al., 2006).

Plant Type

Top of page Annual
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated


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A. australe is native to South and Central America, but has been introduced widely to Mexico and USA, including Hawaii. Distribution is generally localized in China and Australia, and mostly sporadic in a number of countries in Africa. GBIF (2015) has single records from many African countries, perhaps suggesting some mis-identification. GBIF (2015) records for A. australe in South Africa and Swaziland include multiple specimens. Contrastingly, there are no occurrences of A. australe listed in these countries in Flora Zambesiaca (2015).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


ChinaLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Liu et al., 2006; GBIF, 2015
-YunnanPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015


CameroonLocalisedIntroducedGBIF, 2015
CongoLocalisedIntroducedGBIF, 2015
GhanaLocalisedIntroducedGBIF, 2015
KenyaLocalisedIntroducedGBIF, 2015One collection only
MadagascarPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2015One collection only
MalawiPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2015One collection only
MozambiquePresentIntroducedGBIF, 2015One collection only
NigeriaLocalisedIntroducedGBIF, 2015
South AfricaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015
SwazilandPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015
TanzaniaLocalisedIntroducedGBIF, 2015
ZimbabweLocalisedIntroducedGBIF, 2015One collection only

North America

MexicoPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2015
USAPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2015
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015
-ArkansasPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015
-District of ColumbiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015
-FloridaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015
-HawaiiWidespreadIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2015Big, Kaho‘olawe, Kaua‘I, Lana‘I, Maui, Moloka’I, Ni‘ihau, O’ahi islands
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015
-MassachusettsPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015
-MississippiPresentIntroducedBONAP, 2015
-New JerseyPresentIntroducedBONAP, 2015
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedBONAP, 2015
-OregonPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2015
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015
-TennesseePresentIntroducedBONAP, 2015
-TexasPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015
-VirginiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2015

Central America and Caribbean

GrenadaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
MartiniquePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015

South America

ArgentinaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
BoliviaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
BrazilWidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
-AcrePresentNativeLorenzi, 1982
-AlagoasPresentNativeLorenzi, 1982
-AmapaPresentNativeLorenzi, 1982
-AmazonasPresentNativeLorenzi, 1982
-BahiaPresentNativeLorenzi, 1982
-CearaPresentNativeLorenzi, 1982
-Espirito SantoPresentNativeLorenzi, 1982
-Fernando de NoronhaPresentNativeLorenzi, 1982
-GoiasPresentNativeLorenzi, 1982
-MaranhaoPresentNativeLorenzi, 1982
-Mato GrossoPresentNativeLorenzi, 1982
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentNativeLorenzi, 1982
-Minas GeraisPresentNativeLorenzi, 1982
-ParaPresentNativeLorenzi, 1982
-ParaibaPresentNativeLorenzi, 1982
-ParanaPresentNativeLorenzi, 1982
-PernambucoPresentNativeLorenzi, 1982
-PiauiPresentNativeLorenzi, 1982
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNativeLorenzi, 1982
-Rio Grande do NortePresentNativeLorenzi, 1982
-Rio Grande do SulPresentNativeLorenzi, 1982
-RondoniaPresentNativeLorenzi, 1982
-RoraimaPresentNativeLorenzi, 1982
-Santa CatarinaPresentNativeLorenzi, 1982
-Sao PauloPresentNativeLorenzi, 1982
-SergipePresentNativeLorenzi, 1982
-TocantinsPresentNativeLorenzi, 1982
ColombiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
EcuadorPresentNativeGBIF, 2015
French GuianaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
GuyanaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
ParaguayPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
PeruPresentNativeGBIF, 2015
SurinamePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
UruguayPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
VenezuelaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015


AustraliaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2015
-New South WalesPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2015
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedTechnigro, 2010

History of Introduction and Spread

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In the USA, early introductions of A. australe occurred in Alabama and Hawaii in 1877 and 1895, respectively. In Australia, it was first recorded in New South Wales in 1967 (Benson and McDougall, 1994), and in Queensland in 1994 (Technigro, 2010). However, the origins of these introductions are not detailed.


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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Alabama 1877 Yes No GBIF (2014); GBIF (2015)
Hawaii 1895 Yes No GBIF (2014); GBIF (2015)
New South Wales 1967 Yes No Benson and McDougall (1994)
Queensland 1994 Yes No Technigro (2010)


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A. australe, a plant of disturbed ground, commonly occurs on roadsides and in crops in its native South America. In Hawai’i it is naturalized along roadsides and other relatively dry, open, disturbed areas (PIER, 2015). In Australia it occurs on sand dunes and sandy soils along footpaths and roadsides in the near-coastal areas (Technigro, 2010). 

Habitat List

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Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Secondary/tolerated habitat
Disturbed areas Principal habitat
Rail / roadsides Principal habitat
Urban / peri-urban areas Secondary/tolerated habitat
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Secondary/tolerated habitat
Rocky areas / lava flows Secondary/tolerated habitat
Scrub / shrublands Secondary/tolerated habitat
Coastal areas Secondary/tolerated habitat
Coastal dunes Principal habitat

Hosts/Species Affected

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A. australe is a frequent and sometimes dominant weed of crops in its native area in South America, particularly in Brazil where it is recorded in Phaseolus beans, rice, cotton, groundnut, maize, cassava, okra and tomatoes.
In Hawaii, the endangered Poa mannii on the island of Kauai is threatened by a number of invasive plants, including A. australe (USFWS, 2008).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Growth Stages

Top of page Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Biology and Ecology

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The chromosome number of A. australe has been found as 2n = 20 and 22 (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015). Other sources usually indicate 2n = 22.    

Reproductive Biology

In the cogeneric A. hispidum, self-pollination and cross-pollination occur by wind. A. australe is assumed to have similar pollination behaviour, since it is also monoecious, having male flowers in the centre and female flowers on the outside of the inflorescence. However, it is also known to be pollinated by bees (Isahara and Miamoni-Rodell, 2011).

Very little information is available on the germination of A. australe seeds, but B & T World Seeds (2015) suggest that it may be stimulated by smoke.

Vegetative propagation can occur from the prostrate stems (Technigro, 2010).

Physiology and Phenology

As a member of the Heliantheae (tribe Asteraceae), A. australe is known to have C4 physiology.


Longevity of the plant is not normally more than one year. However, although A. australe is generally referred to as an annual, Technigro (2010) describes it as ‘long-lived’ and refers to the dangers of vegetative propagation, presumably from the prostrate stems.


The following endophytic fungi have been found to have associations with A. australe in Argentina: Alternaria alternata, Aureobasidium pullulans, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, Myrothecium roridum, Phoma sp. and Sordaria fimicola. It is suggested that some of these may have significance in medicinal terms (Giusiano et al., 2010).

Environmental Requirements

A. australe thrives in warm, relatively dry conditions.


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Am - Tropical monsoon climate Tolerated Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
35 35

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • shallow

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Thanatephorus cucumeris Pathogen

Notes on Natural Enemies

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A. australe is an alternate host of Thanatephorus cucumeris, the causal agent of web blight on dry beans, and the plants are quite severely affected (Costa et al., 2007). No other natural enemies are commonly reported.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Vector Transmission

A. australe is readily transported by livestock due to the spiky burs, which attach themselves to the coats/tails.

Accidental Introduction

Accidental introduction can occur via the import of pelts or wool of livestock.

Intentional Introduction

Intentional introduction is unlikely. The plant’s applications in medicine are generally known only locally, where the weed already occurs, so the risk of introduction outside of these areas is minimal.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Animal production Yes
Crop production Yes Yes
Harvesting fur, wool or hair Yes
Hitchhiker Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessions Yes Yes
Hides, trophies and feathers Yes Yes
Land vehicles Yes
Livestock Yes
Machinery and equipment Yes

Impact Summary

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Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Human health Positive

Economic Impact

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A. australe is a major weed of crops, especially in Brazil. These include soybean, Phaseolus beans, rice, cotton, groundnut, maize, cassava, okra and tomatoes, but there are no exact estimates of the losses caused.

It is also an alternate host of Thanatephorus cucumeris, the causal agent of web blight on dry beans (Costa et al., 2007).

Environmental Impact

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A. australe is regarded as an environmental weed in Australia, where it can threaten the native vegetation of sand dunes (Technigro, 2010). In Hawaii it is among the group of invasive species threatening the endangered grass Poa mannii on the island of Kauai (USFWS, 2008).

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Poa mannii (Mann's bluegrass)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Competition
  • Produces spines, thorns or burrs
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally


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Social Benefit

A. australe has a wide range of traditional medicinal uses, with supposed activity against: the protozoan Acanthamoeba polyphaga trophozoites (Castro et al., 2013); a range of fungi causing skin diseases in Paraguay (Portillo et al., 2001) and specifically Candida albicans in Brazil (Fabri et al., 2011); rheumatism and arthritis (by internal administration); and swelling and bleeding (by external application) (Shimizu et al., 1987); malaria in South Africa (Nethengwe et al., 2012); herpes and polio viruses (Martins et al., 2011); and for anti-fertility, foot problems and sores (Duke, 2015). Hepatoprotective properties have also been reported.

The basis for these uses has not been explained, but Carvalho et al. (2014) have confirmed antimicrobial activity of oil from A. australe, and high antioxidant activity was confirmed in Argentina (Desmarchelier et al., 1997). The detection of high concentrations of caffeoylquinic acids in the plants indicated that their use in traditional medicine is justified (Debenedetti et al., 1993). Acanthostral, a novel germacranolide, was isolated as an antineoplastic constituent from the above-ground parts of A. australe, showing significant activity against L1210 (murine leukaemia) cell cultures (Matsunaga et al., 1996).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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A. australe is similar to A. hispidum, but the latter can be distinguished by its upright habit and the fact that its fruits have two larger spines at their tips. A short petiole in A. hispidum is another diagnostic trait that distinguishes it from A. australe. Types of glandular trichomes can also be used to distinguish these two species (Araújo et al., 2013).

Prevention and Control

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Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures

It is especially important to avoid the spread of A. australe by the sticky burs on animal coats or human clothing.

Physical/Mechanical Control

A. australe can be controlled mechanically in the early stages of growth, but this becomes more difficult as the plant matures and becomes woody at the base.

Movement Control

Avoid transfer by grazing animals and in human clothing.

Chemical Control

A. australe is controlled by glyphosate in non-crop situations and in glyphosate-tolerant soybeans. Other herbicides of use in soybean include: a mixture of diclosulam and flumetsulam (Fortuna and Dutra,1999); chlorimuron-ethyl plus metribuzin (with or without cyanazine) (Guimarães, 1988); and sethoxydim plus bentazone (sethoxydim is not effective on its own).

Herbicides for other crops include: benthiocarb (thiobencarb) + propanil, propanil + 2,4-D, propanil + oxadiazon (for rice); diuron +/- sethoxydim, paraquat (for cotton); trifluralin (for okra).

A. australe apparently has an unusual susceptibility to fluazifop-butyl (Zhang and Luo, 2010), a characteristic which could be of value in a range of broad-leaved crops.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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There is a scarcity of information on many aspects of this weed, particularly its environmental requirements, germination requirements, and seed longevity.


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Araújo Ede L, Xavier HS, Ferreira CP, Randau KP, Pimentel RMde M, 2013. Macro and microscopical identification of two Acanthospermum medicinal plants. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 7(35):2606-2615.

B & T World Seeds, 2015. Graines de germination induites par fumee. Aigues-Vives, France: B & T World Seeds.

Benson D, McDougall L, 1994. Ecology of Sydney plant species: Part 2 - Dicotyledon families Asteraceae to Buddlejaceae. Cunninghamia 3:789-1004.

BONAP, 2015. Taxonomic Data Center. North American vascular flora. North Carolina, USA: The Biota of North America Program.

Carvalho CCde, Turatti ICC, Lopes NP, Salvador MJ, Nascimento AMdo, 2014. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil from Brazilian plants Acanthospermum australe, Calea fruticosa and Mikania glauca. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 8(14):392-398.

Castro LC, Sauter IP, Ethur EM, Kauffmann C, Dall'agnol R, Souza J, Cibulski SP, Muniz AW, Weidlich L, Lohmann PM, Roehe PM, Germani JC, Rott MB, Sand STvand der, 2013. In vitro effect of Acanthospermum australe (Asteraceae) extracts on Acanthamoeba polyphaga trophozoites. Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais, 15(4):589-594.

Costa GR, Lobo Júnior M, CaféFilho AC, 2007. Acanthospermum australe is an alternate host of Thanatephorus cucumeris, the causal agent of web blight on dry beans. (Acanthospermum australe é hospedeiro alternativo de Thanatephorus cucumeris, agente causal da mela do feijoeiro.) Fitopatologia Brasileira, 32(1):83.

Debenedetti SL, Palacios PS, Wilson EG, Coussio JD, 1993. HPLC analysis of caffeoylquinic acids content in Argentine medicinal plants. In: Acta Horticulturae, No. 333 [ed. by Franz Ch, Seitz R, Verlet N], 191-199.

Desmarchelier C, Novoa Bermudez MJ, Coussio J, Ciccia G, Boveris A, 1997. Antioxidant and prooxidant activities in aqueous extracts of Argentine plants. International Journal of Pharmacognosy, 35(2):116-120.

Duke J, 2015. Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases online resource. Beltsville, USA: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.

Fabri RL, Nogueira MS, Dutra LB, Bouzada MLM, Scio E, 2011. Antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of Asteraceae species. (Potencial antioxidante e antimicrobiano de espécies da família Asteraceae.) Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais, 13(2):183-189.

Flora Zambesiaca, 2015. Flora Zambesiaca online (eFloras). Richmond, Surrey, UK: Kew Databases.

Fortuna Pde A, Dutra IS, 1999. Effects of a mixture of diclosulam + flumetsulam on Acanthospermum australe (Loef.) Kuntze in Ponta Porã. (Efeitos da mistura diclosulam + flumetsulam sobre Acanthospermum australe (Loef.) Kuntze em Ponta Porã.) In: Documentos - EMBRAPA Agropecuaria Oeste, No. 3 [ed. by Melhorança, A. L.]. 63-66.

Gastauer M, Messias MCTB, Meira Neto JAA, 2012. Floristic composition, species richness and diversity of campo rupestre vegetation from the Itacolomi State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Environment and Natural Resources Research, 2(3):115-130.

GBIF, 2015. Global Biodiversity Information Facility.

Giusiano G, Rodolfi M, Mangiaterra M, Piontelli E, Picco AM, 2010. Endophytic fungi in medicinal plants of northeast of Argentina. I: Morphotaxonomic approach of their foliar community. (Hongos endófitos en 2 plantas medicinales del nordeste Argentino. I: Análisis morfotaxonómico de sus comunidades foliares.) Boletín Micológico, 25:15-27.

Guimarães SC, 1988. Acanthospermum australe control using a formulation of chlorimuron ethyl and metribuzin, with or without alachlor in soyabeans. (Controle co carrapicho rasteiro (Acanthospermum australe) utilizando formulação de chlorimuron ethyl e metribuzin, com e sem alachlor, na cultura da soja.) Pesquisa em Andamento - Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Estado de Mato Grosso, No. 15. 3 pp.

Isahara KL, Miamoni-Rodella RCS, 2011. Pollination and dispersal systems in a cerrado remnant (Brazilian Savanna) in southeastern Brazil. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 54(3):629-642.

Liu Jian, Dong Ming, Miao SL, Li ZhenYu, Song MingHua, Wang RenQing, 2006. Invasive alien plants in China: role of clonality and geographical origin. Biological Invasions, 8(7):1461-1470.

Lorenzi H, 1982. Plantas Daninhas do Brasil. Nova Odessa, San Paulo, Brazil: H. Lorenzi.

Martins LRR, Brenzan MA, Nakamura CV, Dias Filho BP, Nakamura TU, Cortez LER, Cortez DAG, 2011. In vitro antiviral activity from Acanthospermum australe on herpesvirus and poliovirus. Pharmaceutical Biology, 49(1):26-31.

Martins LRR, Mourão KSM, Albiero ALM, Cortez DAG, Dias Filho BP, NakamuraFunke CV, 2006. A preliminary morphological and anatomical study of the stem and leaf of Acanthospermum australe (Loefl.) Kuntze (Asteraceae-Heliantheae). (Estudo morfoanatômico preliminar do caule e da folha de Acanthospermum australe (Loefl.) Kuntze (Asteraceae-Heliantheae)). Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, 16(1):42-52.

Matsunaga K, Saitoh M, Ohizumi Y, 1996. Acanthostral, a novel antineoplastic cis,cis,cis-germacranolide from Acanthospermum australe. Tetrahedron Letters, 37(9):1455-1456.

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17/04/15 Original text by:

Chris Parker, Consultant, Bristol, UK

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