Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Persicaria chinensis
(Chinese knotweed)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Persicaria chinensis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Chinese knotweed
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • P. chinensis is closely related to other important invasive Persicaria species such as P. orientalis, P. capitata, and P. perfoliata, all species included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); habit.
TitleHabit
CaptionPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); habit.
Copyright©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); habit.
HabitPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); habit.©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); habit. June, 2011.
TitleHabit
CaptionPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); habit. June, 2011.
Copyright©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); habit. June, 2011.
HabitPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); habit. June, 2011.©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); habit, showing leaves.
TitleHabit
CaptionPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); habit, showing leaves.
Copyright©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); habit, showing leaves.
HabitPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); habit, showing leaves.©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); single leaf. July, 2011.
TitleLeaf
CaptionPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); single leaf. July, 2011.
Copyright©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); single leaf. July, 2011.
Leaf Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); single leaf. July, 2011.©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); vegetative shoot, showing leaves and stems. July, 2011.
TitleVegetative shoot
CaptionPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); vegetative shoot, showing leaves and stems. July, 2011.
Copyright©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); vegetative shoot, showing leaves and stems. July, 2011.
Vegetative shootPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); vegetative shoot, showing leaves and stems. July, 2011.©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); stem and leaf node.
TitleStem and leaf node
CaptionPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); stem and leaf node.
Copyright©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); stem and leaf node.
Stem and leaf nodePersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); stem and leaf node.©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); stem and leaf node.
TitleStem and leaf node
CaptionPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); stem and leaf node.
Copyright©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); stem and leaf node.
Stem and leaf nodePersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); stem and leaf node.©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); flowering stem.
TitleFlowering stem
CaptionPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); flowering stem.
Copyright©Trevor James-2013/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); flowering stem.
Flowering stemPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); flowering stem.©Trevor James-2013/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); flower heads.
TitleFlower heads
CaptionPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); flower heads.
Copyright©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); flower heads.
Flower headsPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); flower heads.©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); flowers. New Zealand. June, 2013.
TitleFlower heads
CaptionPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); flowers. New Zealand. June, 2013.
Copyright©Trevor James-2013/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); flowers. New Zealand. June, 2013.
Flower headsPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); flowers. New Zealand. June, 2013.©Trevor James-2013/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); extreme close-up of flowers. New Zealand. June, 2013.
TitleFlowers
CaptionPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); extreme close-up of flowers. New Zealand. June, 2013.
Copyright©Trevor James-2013/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); extreme close-up of flowers. New Zealand. June, 2013.
FlowersPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); extreme close-up of flowers. New Zealand. June, 2013.©Trevor James-2013/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); new shoots. July, 2011.
TitleNew shoots
CaptionPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); new shoots. July, 2011.
Copyright©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); new shoots. July, 2011.
New shootsPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); new shoots. July, 2011.©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Persicaria chinensis (L.) H. Gross

Preferred Common Name

  • Chinese knotweed

Other Scientific Names

  • Polygonum chinense L.

International Common Names

  • English: red bush
  • French: empreinte-la-vierge; liane rouge; persicaire de Chine
  • Chinese: huo tan mu

Local Common Names

  • India: mudanthi; mukkala; oduthan; poovallikod; thiruthanni; thondi
  • Thailand: phayaadong

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

P. chinensis is closely related to other important invasive Persicaria species such as P. orientalis, P. capitata, and P. perfoliata, all species included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012). P. chinensis is a fast-growing herb that forms dense mats and tolerates diverse environmental conditions (Galloway and Lepper, 2010). It spreads by seed and by resprouting from broken fragments. Its high growth rates and spread potential provides this species the ability to smother other plants affecting plant community structure and composition (USDA-APHIS, 2012). Biosecurity New Zealand described the species in a risk assessment as “a highly invasive plant that quickly smothers available surfaces including other plants and trees,” and PIER (2014) lists it as invasive in several territories, including Hawaii.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Polygonales
  •                         Family: Polygonaceae
  •                             Genus: Persicaria
  •                                 Species: Persicaria chinensis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

Polygonaceae is a well-defined family of flowering plants including 43 genera and 1110 species. Members of the Polygonaceae are diverse in habit ranging from annual and perennial herbs, shrubs to lianas and some trees. The most distinctive feature of the family is the presence of a membranous or hyaline sheath uniting the stipules (Maharajan and Rajendran, 2014). The genus Persicaria was segregated from the genus Polygonum and at present includes approximately 150 species of annual and perennial herbs with taproots or fibrous root systems, and sometimes rhizomes or stolons (Stevens, 2012). 

Description

Top of page

P. chinensis is a perennial herb. Rhizomes stout. Stems erect, 70-100 cm tall, ligneous at base, much branched, striate, glabrous or retrorsely hispid. Petiole 1-2 cm, usually auriculate at base, upper leaves subsessile; leaf blade ovate, elliptic, or lanceolate, 4-16 × 1.5-8 cm, both surfaces glabrous or hispid, abaxially sometimes pubescent along veins, base truncate or broadly cordate, margin entire, apex shortly acuminate; ocrea tubular, 1.5-2.5 cm, membranous, glabrous, much veined, apex oblique, not ciliate. Inflorescence terminal or axillary, capitate, 3-5 mm, usually several capitula aggregated and panicle-like; peduncle densely glandular hairy; bracts broadly ovate, each 1-3-flowered. Perianth white or pinkish, 5-parted; tepals ovate, accrescent in fruit, becoming blue-black, fleshy. Stamens 8, included. Styles 3, connate to below middle. Achenes included in persistent perianth, black, opaque, broadly ovoid, trigonous, 3-4 mm (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). 

Plant Type

Top of page
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated

Distribution

Top of page

P. chinensis is native to much of Asia (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; Maharajan and Rajendran, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014), but it has been introduced to other geographic areas including Pakistan, Hawaii, Jamaica, La Réunion, and Singapore (Wagner et al., 1999; Kairo et al., 2003; USDA-APHIS, 2012; PIER, 2014). In New Zealand, this species was recently eradicated (Galloway and Lepper, 2010).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

RéunionPresentIntroducedInvasive

Asia

BhutanPresentNative
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AnhuiPresentNative
-FujianPresentNative
-GansuPresentNative
-GuangdongPresentNative
-GuangxiPresentNative
-GuizhouPresentNative
-HainanPresentNative
-HubeiPresentNative
-HunanPresentNative
-JiangsuPresentNative
-JiangxiPresentNative
-ShaanxiPresentNative
-SichuanPresentNative
-TibetPresentNative
-YunnanPresentNative
-ZhejiangPresentNative
IndiaPresentNative
-KarnatakaPresentNative
-KeralaPresentNative
-SikkimPresentNative
-Tamil NaduPresentNative
IndonesiaPresentNative
-JavaPresentWeed
JapanPresentNative
-HonshuPresentNative
-KyushuPresentNative
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentNative
-ShikokuPresentNative
MalaysiaPresentNative
MyanmarPresentNative
NepalPresentNative
North KoreaPresentNative
PakistanPresentIntroduced
PhilippinesPresentNative
SingaporePresentIntroducedInvasive
South KoreaPresentNative
Sri LankaPresentNative
TaiwanPresentNative
ThailandPresentNative
VietnamPresentNative

North America

JamaicaPresentIntroducedInvasive
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MarylandAbsent, Formerly present
-MassachusettsAbsent, Formerly present
-New JerseyAbsent, Formerly present

Oceania

New ZealandAbsent, Eradicated
Papua New GuineaPresent

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

P. chinensis behaves as an environmental and agricultural weed and thus it was probably introduced into new habitats accidentally. In Jamaica, this species appears in herbarium collections made in 1905 (US National Herbarium). In the USA, it has previously been reported as introduced in Maryland, Massachusetts, and New Jersey (USDA-APHIS, 2012) and it appears in collections made in those states in the 1990s, but is unclear if it is truly established in those areas and the current USDA-NRCS (2014) database does not list it as present in the USA other than in Hawaii.
 

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

The risk of introduction of P. chinensis is moderate. Even when this species is not used in cultivation or in commercial trade (horticultural, ornamental, or other), it might be introduced and/or dispersed by people for use as a medicinal herb (USDA-ARS, 2014). In addition, P. chinensis is a fast-growing herb that behaves as a weed and has the capability to tolerate diverse environmental conditions. Therefore, it has the potential and the traits necessary to spread into new habitats (USDA-APHIS, 2012; PIER, 2014). 

Habitat

Top of page

Within its native distribution range, P. chinensis grows in wet valleys, grassy slopes, mixed forests, thickets in valleys, and mountain slopes from sea level to 3000 m (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). Outside its native distribution range, it can be found growing in disturbed open areas, home gardens, abandoned gardens, riverbanks, and roadsides (Galloway and Lepper, 2010). It also grows as a weed in agricultural lands and tea plantations (Tjitrosemito and Jaya, 1990; Wagner et al., 1999). The species can tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions including shade, high temperatures, high salinity and drought.

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page

P. chinensis is a common weed requiring control in tea plantations where it covers tea bushes and blocks drainage systems (Tjitrosemito and Jaya, 1990). 

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Camellia sinensis (tea)TheaceaeMain

    Growth Stages

    Top of page
    Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

    Biology and Ecology

    Top of page

    Genetics

    The chromosome number reported for P. chinensis varies from 2n = 22 to 2n = 32 depending of the location (Subramanian, 1980; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014).

    Reproductive Biology and Phenology

    In China, P. chinensis has been recorded flowering from July to November and fruiting from July to December (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). In Pakistan, this species flowers from September to November (Flora of Pakistan, 2014) and in India from September to December (India Biodiversity, 2014). 

    Climate

    Top of page
    ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
    Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
    Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
    As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
    Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

    Soil Tolerances

    Top of page

    Soil drainage

    • free

    Soil reaction

    • neutral

    Soil texture

    • light
    • medium

    Natural enemies

    Top of page
    Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
    Haltica Herbivore not specific Tjitrosemito and Jaya (1990)

    Notes on Natural Enemies

    Top of page

    In West Java, larvae and adults of Haltica sp. (Coleoptera: Halticidae) cause considerable damage to plants of P. chinensis. Biological control using this beetle species has been proposed for the control of P. chinenses when it grows as a weed in tea plantations (Tjitrosemito and Jaya, 1990). 

    Means of Movement and Dispersal

    Top of page

    P. chinensis spreads by seeds. Seeds are dispersed by birds and accidentally and/or intentionally by people. It is also able to spread vegetatively by resprouting from broken fragments (USDA-APHIS, 2012).

    Pathway Causes

    Top of page
    CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
    Crop productionWeed in tea plantations Yes Yes Tjitrosemito and Jaya (1990)
    DisturbanceFound in disturbed areas in Hawaii Yes Yes Wagner et al. (1999)
    Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes Yes USDA-APHIS (2012)
    Garden waste disposalseeds, stem fragments Yes Yes USDA-APHIS (2012)

    Pathway Vectors

    Top of page
    VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
    Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds and stem fragments Yes Yes USDA-APHIS (2012)

    Impact Summary

    Top of page
    CategoryImpact
    Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
    Environment (generally) Positive and negative

    Economic Impact

    Top of page

    P. chinensis is an important weed in tea production in its native distribution range (Tjitrosemito and Jaya, 1990), covering tea bushes and blocking drainage systems (USDA-APHIS, 2012).. 

    Environmental Impact

    Top of page

    P. chinensis is a fast-growing weed that may disrupt regeneration and successional processes and outcompete native vegetation. This species is an environmental and agricultural weed that grows forming dense mats which suppress other plant species. P. chinensis also has the ability to smother native plants, potentially affecting plant community structure and composition (USDA-APHIS, 2012). 

    Risk and Impact Factors

    Top of page
    Invasiveness
    • Proved invasive outside its native range
    • Has a broad native range
    • Abundant in its native range
    • Highly adaptable to different environments
    • Is a habitat generalist
    • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
    • Pioneering in disturbed areas
    • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
    • Long lived
    • Fast growing
    Impact outcomes
    • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
    • Modification of successional patterns
    • Negatively impacts agriculture
    • Reduced native biodiversity
    Impact mechanisms
    • Competition - monopolizing resources
    • Competition - smothering
    • Rapid growth
    • Rooting
    Likelihood of entry/control
    • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
    • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

    Uses

    Top of page

    P. chinensis is used in traditional Asian medicine. In Malaysia it is used as a herbal medicine  to treat stomach-ache, eczema, and eye disease, and as a depurative herb (USDA-ARS, 2014). 

    Uses List

    Top of page

    Medicinal, pharmaceutical

    • Traditional/folklore

    Prevention and Control

    Top of page

    Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

    In West Java, one study showed that Haltica sp. (Coleoptera: Halticidae) is a promising candidate as a biological control agent. However, the authors suggest that further studies are needed especially on the Haltica host range before deciding to recommend it as a biological control agent of P. chinensis (Tjitrosemito and Jaya, 1990). USDA-APHIS (2012) found no evidence for control activities for this plant in natural areas.

    References

    Top of page

    Chong KY; Tan HTW; Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/pdf/PUBLICATION/LKCNH%20Museum%20Books/LKCNHM%20Books/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

    Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

    Flora of Pakistan, 2014. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

    Galloway DJ; Lepper VE, 2010. Persicaria chinensis - a new alien Asian invader? In: 17th Australasian weeds conference. New frontiers in New Zealand: together we can beat the weeds. Christchurch, New Zealand, 26-30 September, 2010 [ed. by Zydenbos, S. M.]. Hastings, New Zealand: New Zealand Plant Protection Society, 174-175.

    Imada CT; James SA; Kennedy BH, 2008. New plant records from Herbarium Pacificum for 2007. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 100, 100:12-16. [Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2007.] http://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/pubs-online/pdf/op100.pdf

    India Biodiversity, 2014. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

    Kairo M; Ali B; Cheesman O; Haysom K; Murphy S, 2003. Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Report to the Nature Conservancy. Curepe, Trinidad and Tobago: CAB International, 132 pp. http://www.issg.org/database/species/reference_files/Kairo%20et%20al,%202003.pdf

    Maharajan M; Rajendran A, 2014. Taxonomic studies on selected species of the genus Polygonum L. (Polygonaceae) in South India. Journal of Science, 4:144-148. http://www.journalofscience.net/File_Folder/144-148.pdf

    PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

    Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

    Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

    Subramanian D, 1980. Cyto-taxonomical studies in South Indian Polygonaceae. Proceedings of the Indian Science Congress Association, 67:50-51.

    Tjitrosemito S; Jaya S, 1990. The role of Haltica sp (Coleoptera: Halticidae) as biological control agent of Polygonum chinense. Biotropia, 4: 41-48.http://journal.biotrop.org/index.

    USDA-APHIS, 2012. Weed Risk Assessment for Persicaria chinensis (L. Gross (Polygonaceae) - Chinese knotweed. Raleigh, NC, USA: USDA-APHIS, 18 pp.

    USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

    USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

    Wagner WL; Herbst DR; Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press/Bishop Museum Press, 1919 pp.

    Distribution References

    CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

    CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

    Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species., Singapore, Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp. http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/pdf/PUBLICATION/LKCNH%20Museum%20Books/LKCNHM%20Books/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

    Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

    Galloway D J, Lepper V E, 2010. Persicaria chinensis - a new alien Asian invader? In: 17th Australasian weeds conference. New frontiers in New Zealand: together we can beat the weeds. Christchurch, New Zealand, 26-30 September, 2010 [17th Australasian weeds conference. New frontiers in New Zealand: together we can beat the weeds. Christchurch, New Zealand, 26-30 September, 2010.], [ed. by Zydenbos S M]. Hastings, New Zealand: New Zealand Plant Protection Society. 174-175.

    Imada CT, James SA, Kennedy BH, 2008. New plant records from Herbarium Pacificum for 2007. In: Bishop Museum Occasional Papers, 100 (100) 12-16. http://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/pubs-online/pdf/op100.pdf

    India Biodiversity, 2014. Online Portal of India Biodiversity., http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

    Kairo M, Ali B, Cheesman O, Haysom K, Murphy S, 2003. Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Report to the Nature Conservancy. In: Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Report to the Nature Conservancy. Curepe, Trinidad and Tobago: CAB International. 132 pp. http://www.issg.org/database/species/reference_files/Kairo%20et%20al,%202003.pdf

    Kasno, Tjitrosemito S, Sunjaya, 1990. The role of Haltica sp. (Coleoptera: Halticidae) as biological control agent of Polygonum chinense. Biotropia. 41-48.

    PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

    USDA-APHIS, 2012. Plant Health., USA: United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/ourfocus/planthealth

    USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

    USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

    Links to Websites

    Top of page
    WebsiteURLComment
    GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

    Contributors

    Top of page

    01/12/14 Original text by:

    Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

    Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

    Distribution Maps

    Top of page
    You can pan and zoom the map
    Save map
    Select a dataset
    Map Legends
    • CABI Summary Records
    Map Filters
    Extent
    Invasive
    Origin
    Third party data sources: