Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Persicaria chinensis
(Chinese knotweed)

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Datasheet

Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Persicaria chinensis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Chinese knotweed
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • P. chinensis is closely related to other important invasive Persicaria species such as P. orientalis, P. capitata, and P. perfoliata, all species included in the Global Compendium of...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); habit.
TitleHabit
CaptionPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); habit.
Copyright©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); habit.
HabitPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); habit.©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); habit. June, 2011.
TitleHabit
CaptionPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); habit. June, 2011.
Copyright©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); habit. June, 2011.
HabitPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); habit. June, 2011.©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); habit, showing leaves.
TitleHabit
CaptionPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); habit, showing leaves.
Copyright©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); habit, showing leaves.
HabitPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); habit, showing leaves.©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); single leaf. July, 2011.
TitleLeaf
CaptionPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); single leaf. July, 2011.
Copyright©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); single leaf. July, 2011.
Leaf Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); single leaf. July, 2011.©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); vegetative shoot, showing leaves and stems. July, 2011.
TitleVegetative shoot
CaptionPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); vegetative shoot, showing leaves and stems. July, 2011.
Copyright©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); vegetative shoot, showing leaves and stems. July, 2011.
Vegetative shootPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); vegetative shoot, showing leaves and stems. July, 2011.©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); stem and leaf node.
TitleStem and leaf node
CaptionPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); stem and leaf node.
Copyright©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); stem and leaf node.
Stem and leaf nodePersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); stem and leaf node.©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); stem and leaf node.
TitleStem and leaf node
CaptionPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); stem and leaf node.
Copyright©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); stem and leaf node.
Stem and leaf nodePersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); stem and leaf node.©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); flowering stem.
TitleFlowering stem
CaptionPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); flowering stem.
Copyright©Trevor James-2013/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); flowering stem.
Flowering stemPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); flowering stem.©Trevor James-2013/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); flower heads.
TitleFlower heads
CaptionPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); flower heads.
Copyright©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); flower heads.
Flower headsPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); flower heads.©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); flowers. New Zealand. June, 2013.
TitleFlower heads
CaptionPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); flowers. New Zealand. June, 2013.
Copyright©Trevor James-2013/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); flowers. New Zealand. June, 2013.
Flower headsPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); flowers. New Zealand. June, 2013.©Trevor James-2013/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); extreme close-up of flowers. New Zealand. June, 2013.
TitleFlowers
CaptionPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); extreme close-up of flowers. New Zealand. June, 2013.
Copyright©Trevor James-2013/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); extreme close-up of flowers. New Zealand. June, 2013.
FlowersPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); extreme close-up of flowers. New Zealand. June, 2013.©Trevor James-2013/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); new shoots. July, 2011.
TitleNew shoots
CaptionPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); new shoots. July, 2011.
Copyright©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand
Persicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); new shoots. July, 2011.
New shootsPersicaria chinensis (Chinese knotweed); new shoots. July, 2011.©Trevor James/Hamilton, New Zealand

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Persicaria chinensis (L.) H. Gross

Preferred Common Name

  • Chinese knotweed

Other Scientific Names

  • Polygonum chinense L.

International Common Names

  • English: red bush
  • French: empreinte-la-vierge; liane rouge; persicaire de Chine
  • Chinese: huo tan mu

Local Common Names

  • India: mudanthi; mukkala; oduthan; poovallikod; thiruthanni; thondi
  • Thailand: phayaadong

Summary of Invasiveness

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P. chinensis is closely related to other important invasive Persicaria species such as P. orientalis, P. capitata, and P. perfoliata, all species included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012). P. chinensis is a fast-growing herb that forms dense mats and tolerates diverse environmental conditions (Galloway and Lepper, 2010). It spreads by seed and by resprouting from broken fragments. Its high growth rates and spread potential provides this species the ability to smother other plants affecting plant community structure and composition (USDA-APHIS, 2012). Biosecurity New Zealand described the species in a risk assessment as “a highly invasive plant that quickly smothers available surfaces including other plants and trees,” and PIER (2014) lists it as invasive in several territories, including Hawaii.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Polygonales
  •                         Family: Polygonaceae
  •                             Genus: Persicaria
  •                                 Species: Persicaria chinensis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Polygonaceae is a well-defined family of flowering plants including 43 genera and 1110 species. Members of the Polygonaceae are diverse in habit ranging from annual and perennial herbs, shrubs to lianas and some trees. The most distinctive feature of the family is the presence of a membranous or hyaline sheath uniting the stipules (Maharajan and Rajendran, 2014). The genus Persicaria was segregated from the genus Polygonum and at present includes approximately 150 species of annual and perennial herbs with taproots or fibrous root systems, and sometimes rhizomes or stolons (Stevens, 2012). 

Description

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P. chinensis is a perennial herb. Rhizomes stout. Stems erect, 70-100 cm tall, ligneous at base, much branched, striate, glabrous or retrorsely hispid. Petiole 1-2 cm, usually auriculate at base, upper leaves subsessile; leaf blade ovate, elliptic, or lanceolate, 4-16 × 1.5-8 cm, both surfaces glabrous or hispid, abaxially sometimes pubescent along veins, base truncate or broadly cordate, margin entire, apex shortly acuminate; ocrea tubular, 1.5-2.5 cm, membranous, glabrous, much veined, apex oblique, not ciliate. Inflorescence terminal or axillary, capitate, 3-5 mm, usually several capitula aggregated and panicle-like; peduncle densely glandular hairy; bracts broadly ovate, each 1-3-flowered. Perianth white or pinkish, 5-parted; tepals ovate, accrescent in fruit, becoming blue-black, fleshy. Stamens 8, included. Styles 3, connate to below middle. Achenes included in persistent perianth, black, opaque, broadly ovoid, trigonous, 3-4 mm (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). 

Plant Type

Top of page Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated

Distribution

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P. chinensis is native to much of Asia (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; Maharajan and Rajendran, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014), but it has been introduced to other geographic areas including Pakistan, Hawaii, Jamaica, La Réunion, and Singapore (Wagner et al., 1999; Kairo et al., 2003; USDA-APHIS, 2012; PIER, 2014). In New Zealand, this species was recently eradicated (Galloway and Lepper, 2010).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BhutanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AnhuiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-FujianPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-GansuPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-GuangdongPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-GuangxiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-GuizhouPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-HainanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-HubeiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-HunanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-JiangsuPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-JiangxiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-ShaanxiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-SichuanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-TibetPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-YunnanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-ZhejiangPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
IndiaPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-KarnatakaPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity, 2014
-KeralaPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity, 2014
-SikkimPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-Tamil NaduPresentNativeIndia Biodiversity, 2014
IndonesiaPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-JavaPresentTjitrosemito and Jaya, 1990Weed
JapanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
-HonshuPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
-KyushuPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
-ShikokuPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
Korea, DPRPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
Korea, Republic ofPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
MalaysiaPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
MyanmarPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
NepalPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
PakistanPresentIntroducedUSDA-APHIS, 2012
PhilippinesPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
SingaporePresentIntroduced Invasive Chong et al., 2009
Sri LankaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
TaiwanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
ThailandPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
VietnamPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014

Africa

RéunionPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2014

North America

USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive Imada et al., 2008
-MarylandAbsent, formerly presentIntroducedUSDA-APHIS, 2012; USDA-NRCS, 2014
-MassachusettsAbsent, formerly presentIntroducedUSDA-APHIS, 2012; USDA-NRCS, 2014
-New JerseyAbsent, formerly presentIntroducedUSDA-APHIS, 2012; USDA-NRCS, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

JamaicaPresentIntroduced Invasive Kairo et al., 2003

Oceania

New ZealandEradicatedIntroducedGalloway and Lepper, 2010; USDA-APHIS, 2012
Papua New GuineaPresentUSDA-APHIS, 2012; PIER, 2014

History of Introduction and Spread

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P. chinensis behaves as an environmental and agricultural weed and thus it was probably introduced into new habitats accidentally. In Jamaica, this species appears in herbarium collections made in 1905 (US National Herbarium). In the USA, it has previously been reported as introduced in Maryland, Massachusetts, and New Jersey (USDA-APHIS, 2012) and it appears in collections made in those states in the 1990s, but is unclear if it is truly established in those areas and the current USDA-NRCS (2014) database does not list it as present in the USA other than in Hawaii.
 

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of P. chinensis is moderate. Even when this species is not used in cultivation or in commercial trade (horticultural, ornamental, or other), it might be introduced and/or dispersed by people for use as a medicinal herb (USDA-ARS, 2014). In addition, P. chinensis is a fast-growing herb that behaves as a weed and has the capability to tolerate diverse environmental conditions. Therefore, it has the potential and the traits necessary to spread into new habitats (USDA-APHIS, 2012; PIER, 2014). 

Habitat

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Within its native distribution range, P. chinensis grows in wet valleys, grassy slopes, mixed forests, thickets in valleys, and mountain slopes from sea level to 3000 m (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). Outside its native distribution range, it can be found growing in disturbed open areas, home gardens, abandoned gardens, riverbanks, and roadsides (Galloway and Lepper, 2010). It also grows as a weed in agricultural lands and tea plantations (Tjitrosemito and Jaya, 1990; Wagner et al., 1999). The species can tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions including shade, high temperatures, high salinity and drought.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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P. chinensis is a common weed requiring control in tea plantations where it covers tea bushes and blocks drainage systems (Tjitrosemito and Jaya, 1990). 

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Camellia sinensis (tea)TheaceaeMain

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for P. chinensis varies from 2n = 22 to 2n = 32 depending of the location (Subramanian, 1980; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014).

Reproductive Biology and Phenology

In China, P. chinensis has been recorded flowering from July to November and fruiting from July to December (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). In Pakistan, this species flowers from September to November (Flora of Pakistan, 2014) and in India from September to December (India Biodiversity, 2014). 

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Haltica Herbivore not specific Tjitrosemito and Jaya, 1990

Notes on Natural Enemies

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In West Java, larvae and adults of Haltica sp. (Coleoptera: Halticidae) cause considerable damage to plants of P. chinensis. Biological control using this beetle species has been proposed for the control of P. chinenses when it grows as a weed in tea plantations (Tjitrosemito and Jaya, 1990). 

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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P. chinensis spreads by seeds. Seeds are dispersed by birds and accidentally and/or intentionally by people. It is also able to spread vegetatively by resprouting from broken fragments (USDA-APHIS, 2012).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionWeed in tea plantations Yes Yes Tjitrosemito and Jaya, 1990
DisturbanceFound in disturbed areas in Hawaii Yes Yes Wagner et al., 1999
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes Yes USDA-APHIS, 2012
Garden waste disposalseeds, stem fragments Yes Yes USDA-APHIS, 2012

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds and stem fragments Yes Yes USDA-APHIS, 2012

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Economic Impact

Top of page

P. chinensis is an important weed in tea production in its native distribution range (Tjitrosemito and Jaya, 1990), covering tea bushes and blocking drainage systems (USDA-APHIS, 2012).. 

Environmental Impact

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P. chinensis is a fast-growing weed that may disrupt regeneration and successional processes and outcompete native vegetation. This species is an environmental and agricultural weed that grows forming dense mats which suppress other plant species. P. chinensis also has the ability to smother native plants, potentially affecting plant community structure and composition (USDA-APHIS, 2012). 

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Reduced native biodiversity
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

Uses

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P. chinensis is used in traditional Asian medicine. In Malaysia it is used as a herbal medicine  to treat stomach-ache, eczema, and eye disease, and as a depurative herb (USDA-ARS, 2014). 

Uses List

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Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

In West Java, one study showed that Haltica sp. (Coleoptera: Halticidae) is a promising candidate as a biological control agent. However, the authors suggest that further studies are needed especially on the Haltica host range before deciding to recommend it as a biological control agent of P. chinensis (Tjitrosemito and Jaya, 1990). USDA-APHIS (2012) found no evidence for control activities for this plant in natural areas.

References

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Chong KY; Tan HTW; Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/pdf/PUBLICATION/LKCNH%20Museum%20Books/LKCNHM%20Books/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Pakistan, 2014. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

Galloway DJ; Lepper VE, 2010. Persicaria chinensis - a new alien Asian invader? In: 17th Australasian weeds conference. New frontiers in New Zealand: together we can beat the weeds. Christchurch, New Zealand, 26-30 September, 2010 [ed. by Zydenbos, S. M.]. Hastings, New Zealand: New Zealand Plant Protection Society, 174-175.

Imada CT; James SA; Kennedy BH, 2008. New plant records from Herbarium Pacificum for 2007. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 100, 100:12-16. [Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2007.] http://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/pubs-online/pdf/op100.pdf

India Biodiversity, 2014. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Kairo M; Ali B; Cheesman O; Haysom K; Murphy S, 2003. Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Report to the Nature Conservancy. Curepe, Trinidad and Tobago: CAB International, 132 pp. http://www.issg.org/database/species/reference_files/Kairo%20et%20al,%202003.pdf

Maharajan M; Rajendran A, 2014. Taxonomic studies on selected species of the genus Polygonum L. (Polygonaceae) in South India. Journal of Science, 4:144-148. http://www.journalofscience.net/File_Folder/144-148.pdf

PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Subramanian D, 1980. Cyto-taxonomical studies in South Indian Polygonaceae. Proceedings of the Indian Science Congress Association, 67:50-51.

Tjitrosemito S; Jaya S, 1990. The role of Haltica sp (Coleoptera: Halticidae) as biological control agent of Polygonum chinense. Biotropia, 4: 41-48.http://journal.biotrop.org/index.

USDA-APHIS, 2012. Weed Risk Assessment for Persicaria chinensis (L. Gross (Polygonaceae) - Chinese knotweed. Raleigh, NC, USA: USDA-APHIS, 18 pp.

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Wagner WL; Herbst DR; Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press/Bishop Museum Press, 1919 pp.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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01/12/14 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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