Strawberry necrotic shock virus (Strawberry necrotic shock virus)
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IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Strawberry necrotic shock virus
Preferred Common Name
- Strawberry necrotic shock virus
Other Scientific Names
- Black raspberry latent virus
- Tobacco streak virus
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
Strawberry necrotic shock virus (SNSV) was first established as a distinct species in 2004 and its incidence in areas around the world is ambiguous. There are several reports of Tobacco streak virus (TSV) infection of strawberry and Rubus before the classification of SNSV as a distinct species and at this point it is unclear whether those refer to TSV or SNSV. Of the more than 100 small fruit 'TSV' isolates tested, all but two strawberries were found to be infected with SNSV (Tzanetakis and Martin, unpublished) indicating that TSV is rather rare in berry crops; it is still to be verified in natural infections of Rubus. It should be assumed that the majority of TSV reports in strawberry and Rubus are actually reports of SNSV and therefore the virus should be considered to have a cosmopolitan distribution.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Virus
- Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
- Unknown: "RNA viruses"
- Family: Bromoviridae
- Genus: Ilarvirus
- Species: Strawberry necrotic shock virus
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|China||Present||Li and Yang, 2011|
|-Heilongjiang||Present||Li and Yang, 2011|
|Japan||Present||Tzanetakis et al., 2004|
|Canada||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-British Columbia||Widespread||Native||Martin and Tzanetakis, 2013|
|USA||Widespread||Tzanetakis et al., 2004|
|-California||Present||Tzanetakis et al., 2004|
|-Florida||Widespread||Moyer et al., 2010|
|-Maryland||Widespread||Tzanetakis et al., 2004|
|-Massachusetts||Present||Martin and Tzanetakis, 2013|
|-Mississippi||Present||Tzanetakis et al., 2004|
|-North Carolina||Present||Tzanetakis et al., 2004|
|-Oregon||Widespread||Native||Tzanetakis et al., 2004|
|-Washington||Widespread||Native||Tzanetakis et al., 2004|
|Australia||Present||Sharman et al., 2011||Probably introduced from North America.|
|-Queensland||Present||Sharman et al., 2011|
|-Victoria||Present||Sharman et al., 2011|
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial – Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production)||Present, no further details||Natural|
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Growing point / dieback|
|Stems / dieback|
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Fruits (inc. pods)||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Leaves||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Roots||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Seedlings/Micropropagated plants||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|True seeds (inc. grain)||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
Vectors and Intermediate HostsTop of page
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Abundant in its native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Highly mobile locally
- Has high genetic variability
- Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
- Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
- Difficult to identify/detect in the field
- Difficult/costly to control
ReferencesTop of page
Adams MJ; Carstens EB, 2012. Ratification vote on taxonomic proposals to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (2012). Archives of Virology, 157:1411-1422.
Converse RH, 1979. Transmission of Tobacco streak virus in Rubus. Acta Horticulturae, 95:53-61.
Converse RH; Lister RM, 1969. The occurrence and some properties of black raspberry latent virus. Phytopathology, 59:325-333.
Fulton RW, 1967. Purification and some properties of Tobacco streak and Tulare apple mosaic viruses. Virology, 32:153-162.
Klose MJ; Sdoodee R; Teakle DS; Milne JR; Greber RS; Walter GH, 1996. Transmission of three strains of tobacco streak ilarvirus by different thrips species using virus-infected pollen. Journal of Phytopathology, 144(6):281-284; 21 ref.
Martin RR; Tzanetakis IE, 2006. Characterization, detection and management of strawberry viruses. Plant Disease, 90:384-396.
Martin RR; Tzanetakis IE, 2013. High risk strawberry viruses by region in the United States and Canada: implications for certification, nurseries, and fruit production. Plant Disease, 97(10):1358-1362. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis
Moyer C; Whitaker VN; Peres NA, 2010. Viral Diseases of Strawberries. Gainesville, USA: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/PP/PP27300.pdf
Sharman M; Constable F; Perera R; Thomas JE, 2011. First report of Strawberry necrotic shock virus infecting strawberry (Fragaria vesca) from Australia. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 6(1):54-56. http://www.springerlink.com/content/w58267380154 g182/fulltext.html
Stace-Smith R; Converse RH; Johnson HA, 1987. Tobacco streak virus in strawberry. In: Virus diseases of small fruit. USDA ARS Agriculture Handbook, No 631 [ed. by Converse, R. H.]. Washington DC, USA: USDA-ARS, 57-60.
Tzanetakis IE; Martin RR; Scott SW, 2010. Genomic sequences of blackberry chlorotic ringspot virus and strawberry necrotic shock virus and the phylogeny of viruses in subgroup 1 of the genus Ilarvirus. Archives of Virology, 155(4):557-561. http://springerlink.metapress.com/content/x17l5g840m1t2411/?p=f61cf614de164de0be5cb1db079a93a5&pi=13
Distribution MapsTop of page
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