Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Cortaderia selloana
(pampas grass)

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Datasheet

Cortaderia selloana (pampas grass)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 06 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cortaderia selloana
  • Preferred Common Name
  • pampas grass
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. selloana (pampas grass) is an erect perennial, tussock grass, up to 2-4 m tall and 1-2 m wide. It has large (1-3 m), glaucous-green leaves with serrulate margins. Inflorescences consist of several large plumos...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Cortaderia selloana (pampas grass); habit, growing alongside roads. Aveiro, Portugal. September, 2014.
TitleHabit
CaptionCortaderia selloana (pampas grass); habit, growing alongside roads. Aveiro, Portugal. September, 2014.
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway-2014
Cortaderia selloana (pampas grass); habit, growing alongside roads. Aveiro, Portugal. September, 2014.
HabitCortaderia selloana (pampas grass); habit, growing alongside roads. Aveiro, Portugal. September, 2014.©A.R. Pittaway-2014
Cortaderia selloana (pampas grass); habit, dense roadside stand. Aveiro, Portugal. September, 2014.
TitleHabit
CaptionCortaderia selloana (pampas grass); habit, dense roadside stand. Aveiro, Portugal. September, 2014.
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway-2014
Cortaderia selloana (pampas grass); habit, dense roadside stand. Aveiro, Portugal. September, 2014.
HabitCortaderia selloana (pampas grass); habit, dense roadside stand. Aveiro, Portugal. September, 2014.©A.R. Pittaway-2014
Ornamental stand in Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK. 21 October 2010.
TitleHabit
CaptionOrnamental stand in Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK. 21 October 2010.
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway-2010
Ornamental stand in Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK. 21 October 2010.
HabitOrnamental stand in Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK. 21 October 2010.©A.R. Pittaway-2010
Close view of ornamental stand in Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK. 21 October 2010.
TitleHabit
CaptionClose view of ornamental stand in Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK. 21 October 2010.
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway-2010
Close view of ornamental stand in Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK. 21 October 2010.
HabitClose view of ornamental stand in Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK. 21 October 2010.©A.R. Pittaway-2010

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cortaderia selloana (Schult. & Schult.f.) Asch & Graebn., 1900

Preferred Common Name

  • pampas grass

Other Scientific Names

  • Arundo selloana Schult. & Schult. F., 1827
  • Cortaderia argentea (Nees) Stapf, 1897
  • Cortaderia dioica Speg., 1902
  • Gynerium argenteum Nees, 1829

International Common Names

  • English: silver pampas grass; Uruguayan pampas grass
  • Spanish: cortadera; ginerio plumacho; hierba da las pampas; penacho
  • French: gynerion argente; herbe des pampas; roseau a plumes

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: bardeira; capim-do-pampas; paina; pluma
  • Germany: Silberweisses Pampasgras
  • Portugal: paina; plumas capim-das-pampas; ponacho-blanco erva-das-pampas
  • Spain: carrizo de la pampa

EPPO code

  • CDTSE (Cortaderia selloana)

Summary of Invasiveness

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C. selloana (pampas grass) is an erect perennial, tussock grass, up to 2-4 m tall and 1-2 m wide. It has large (1-3 m), glaucous-green leaves with serrulate margins. Inflorescences consist of several large plumose light-violet to silver-white panicles producing thousands of tiny wind-dispersed seeds. This South American grass has been introduced in temperate and subtropical areas mainly as an ornamental. It has also been introduced for erosion control and as a barrier or windbreak. It is listed as one of the worst invader taxa in Europe (DAISIE, 2009) and as a noxious species in Western Australia (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001).

It forms dense, often impenetrable, stands that can damage grazing lands and affect visibility on roads. Pampas grass increases its density and colonizes semi-natural areas in a short period of time, being a threat to native plant diversity. Due to low decomposition rates of standing dead leaves and senescing panicles, it increases fire risk. The sharp leaves can produce superficial cuts and flowers may provoke allergies in summer.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Cortaderia
  •                                 Species: Cortaderia selloana

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Cortaderia selloana (Schult. & Schult.f.) Asch & Graebn. is the preferred scientific name with the following synonyms: Cortaderia argentea;Arundo selloana;Cortaderia dioica; and Gynerium argenteum Nees, and others listed by Missouri Botanic Garden (2010). It can be confounded with the congener Cortaderia jubata (see Similarity to other species/conditions text section).
 
It is known as pampas grass, and silver/Uruguayan pampas grass in English; carrizo de la pampa in Spanish; and erva-das-pampas, paina, plumas, capim-das-pampas and ponacho-blanco in Portuguese.
 
There are many varieties available for use in the landscape. There are dwarf varieties (C. selloana cv. 'Pumila'), those with pinkish flowers (‘Rosea’), and others that provide an assortment of leaf variegations (e.g. ‘Silver Stripe’, 'Gold Band').

Description

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C. selloana is an erect perennial, tussock grass, up to 2-4 m tall and 1-2 m wide. The leaves are 1-3 m long and 3-8 cm wide, glaucous-green, with serrulate margins and a V-shaped cross-section. The leaves are contained in groups in an auricle-like sheath often glabrous at the base. Inflorescences consist of several large plumose light-violet to silver-white (30-130 cm) long, stiff panicles. It is a gynodioecious species (i.e. it has hermaphrodite plants and female plants). It forms numerous 1.5 cm spikelets, containing six florets in female plants and three in hermaphrodite plants. Florets are less than 1 cm long, glumes are white or membranous, the lemma is long and hairy, awns are less than half a centimeter long and the stigmas are exerted. Seeds are not easily separated from the racilla (DiTomaso, 2000) and they weigh, on average, 2.74 x 10-4 g (Lambrinos, 2002).

Plant Type

Top of page Grass / sedge
Perennial
Seed propagated

Distribution

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C. selloana is a native of temperate South America (Argentina, Chile, Brazil and Uruguay) where it can be found from sea level to 1900 m.a.s.l. (Zuloaga et al., 2008). However, in its introduced range, at least in Europe, it is mainly found at low altitudes. According to the DAISIE database (DAISIE, 2009), it is present in Ireland and the UK, France, Italy, Spain and Portugal. It also occurs in many Micronesian islands, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Hawaiian islands and the Pacific coast of the USA.
 
It is one of the emerging invasive species with the greatest potential range in South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland, especially in grasslands (Mgidi et al., 2007).
 
According to ISSG (2009), it is also native to Paraguay. However, its presence is not confirmed according to the most up-to-date flora publication of southern America (Zuloaga et al., 2008).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

TurkeyPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2009; EPPO, 2014

Africa

South AfricaPresentIntroduced Invasive Robinson, 1984
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroducedSanz-Elorza et al., 2004; EPPO, 2014
SwazilandPresentIntroducedSwaziland's Alien Plants database, 2009

North America

MexicoPresentIntroducedCONABIO, 2009
USAUnconfirmed recordCAB Abstracts
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2009
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedmid 1800s Invasive Lambrinos, 2001
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2009
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Not invasive PIER, 2008
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2009
-New JerseyPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2009
-OregonPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2009
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2009
-TennesseePresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2009
-TexasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2009
-UtahPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2009
-VirginiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2009

South America

ArgentinaPresentNativeZuloaga et al., 2008; EPPO, 2014
BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-ParanaPresentNativeZuloaga et al., 2008
-Rio Grande do SulPresentNativeZuloaga et al., 2008
-Santa CatarinaPresentNativeZuloaga et al., 2008
ChilePresentNativeZuloaga et al., 2008
UruguayPresentNativeZuloaga et al., 2008

Europe

FrancePresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-CorsicaPresentEPPO, 2014
IrelandPresentIntroduced Not invasive Reynolds, 2002
ItalyPresentIntroduced Invasive DAISIE, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-SardiniaPresentEPPO, 2014
PortugalPresentIntroduced Invasive Marchante and Marchante, 2005; DAISIE, 2009; EPPO, 2014
-AzoresPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced Not invasive Schafer, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-MadeiraPresent, few occurrencesIntroducedSilva, 2002; EPPO, 2014
SpainPresentIntroduced<1969 Invasive Sanz-Elorza et al., 2004; EPPO, 2014
-Balearic IslandsPresentIntroduced Not invasive Moragues and Rita, 2005
UKPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2009; EPPO, 2014

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresentIntroduced Invasive Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001
-South AustraliaPresentIntroduced Invasive Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001
-TasmaniaPresentIntroduced Invasive Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001
-VictoriaPresentIntroduced Invasive Australian Government, 2009
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroduced Invasive Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001
French PolynesiaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFlorence et al., 2007
New ZealandPresentIntroduced Invasive Gosling et al., 2000

History of Introduction and Spread

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Its expansion history is well-known for California, USA, where it was first introduced in the mid-1800s by a pioneering nurseryman, Joseph Sexton. The panicles were grown and marketed in the area near Santa Barbara. It was first recognized as naturalized in California in 1929 when a specimen was collected near Los Angeles. Herbarium records indicate that it has expanded since then at approximately 218 km2 per year. Currently, it is present in at least 19 Californian counties, where it has colonized relatively undisturbed native plant communities (Lambrinos, 2001). Generic analysis of invasive plants indicates that the expansion originated from multiple cultivated gene pools as well as landscape plantings (Okada et al., 2007).

In New Zealand, it was introduced in the late-1800s and by 1970 it was considered a serious weed in the North Island, covering 12,500 ha in six state forests in the Auckland Conservancy by 1984 (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001).
 
In Europe, it was first introduced in the UK from 1775-1862 (DiTomaso, 2000). During the last century, introduction as an ornamental and via landscaping has also occurred in Ireland, Portugal, Spain, France and Italy (Basnou, 2009).

Risk of Introduction

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Its continuous use as an ornamental and in landscaping can increase its spread in non-invaded areas.

Habitat

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In its native range, pampas grass is common in moist soils in grassland plains, dunes, sparse shrublands and riverine habitats. In its introduced range, the main invaded habitats are damp places in general. It occurs in coastal dune and sand habitats, grassland and tall forb habitats, lines of trees, recently-felled woodland, early-stage woodland and coppice, transport and pipeline networks and other constructed hard-surface areas, waste deposits, mangrove margins, estuaries, swamps and wetlands (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001; DAISIE, 2009).

Compared to other monocotyledons present in wetlands and coastal areas it has the widest niche breadth (Campos et al., 2004; Pino et al., 2009). In general, it is very common in anthropogenically disturbed areas such as ruderal habitats (Domènech and Vilà, 2007) or where disturbance has been common in the past (Domènech et al., 2005; Pino et al., 2009).
 
Modeling analysis has predicted that the extent and frequency of the disturbance are highly important for its persistence and expansion; aggregated disturbances randomly distributed in space tend to increase its abundance more than scattered disturbances at repeatedly fixed locations (Pausas et al., 2006).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Industrial / intensive livestock production systems Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Buildings Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal dunes Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

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In New Zealand and Australia it affects pine plantations (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Pinus (pines)PinaceaeMain

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

2n = 72 (Lambrinos, 2002).
 
Mean total gene diversity (Ht) for 10 microsatellite loci in 650 invasive individuals, averaged over 29 populations sampled in California, USA, is 0.590 compared to 0.622 from 275 cultivated plants of different varieties (Okada et al., 2007).
 
It does not hybridize with related taxa.
 
Reproductive Biology
 
It is a gynodioecious species, that is, some plants produce hermaphrodite flowers and others produce only female flowers (Connor, 1973). Functionally, hermaphrodite plants act only as pollen donors and therefore seed production on hermaphrodite plants is very low. A panicle from a female plant can produce more than 50,000 seeds; whereas seed production in hermaphrodite plants is one order of magnitude lower (Domènech, 2005). A female plant can produce more than one million viable wind-dispersed seeds. Seeds lack dormancy (Costas-Lippmann, 1976). Seed viability between the two sexes is also different; it is five times greater in seeds from female plants than from hermaphrodites.
 
Seeds germinate under a wide range of environmental conditions, yet germination rate can be improved under shading, in sandy soils and with high water availability (Domènech and Vilà, 2008a).
 
Vegetative reproduction can occur when tillers are fragmented and receive adequate moisture. However, it hardly occurs in nature, but plant propagation through the division of mature plants has traditionally been used for ornamental purposes (DiTomaso, 2000).
 
Physiology and Phenology
 
It flowers in late summer, and hermaphrodite panicles appear 1 or 2 weeks before female panicles (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001). Seed dispersal occurs in the autumn and seeds germinate in the early spring.
 
In Mediterranean areas where this species has been introduced, summer drought and mammal herbivory are the major causes of seedling mortality (Lambrinos, 2002). Seedlings seem to be more resistant to water stress than similar coexisting perennial grasses because as water become scarce, C. selloana maximizes water uptake by increasing the R/S ratio and minimizes water loss by reducing specific leaf area (Domènech and Vilà, 2008b).
 
Optimal temperature for seedling growth is 20ºC (Stanton and DiTomaso, 2004). Seedling survival and growth is enhanced by protection from direct light exposure, and soil disturbance at any seral stage and in any habitat type (Lambrinos, 2002; Domènech and Vilà, 2006).
 
Associations
 
In Argentina, wet grasslands dominated by C. selloana are refuges for small mammals such as the rare sigmodontine rodent Deltamys kempi (Teta et al., 2007).
 
In New Zealand, the rare hyphomycete (Zygosporium bioblitzi) has been found on dead, attached leaves (McKenzie et al., 2007).
 
Environmental Requirements
 
In its introduced range, C. selloana can be found from sea level to around altitudes of 400 m. An analysis of soil characteristics across 27 populations along a 300 km area, found soil N ranging from 0.03-0.3 %, organic C from 0.09-4.6 % and pH 7.4-8.5. Plant population density and the proportion of juvenile plants were positively correlated to percentage bare ground. Plant density was also negatively correlated with pH and richness of plant functional groups (Domènech and Vilà, 2007).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
30-57 30-40 0 0

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 8 18
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 6 34
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 3 19

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration04number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall4001100mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • alkaline

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Seeds are very light and wind dispersed. Seed drop time is on average 0.22 m/sec (Lambrinos, 2002). Seeds can disperse to at least 40 m away from mother plants, and local wind direction determines the spatial distribution of seedlings (Saura-Mas and Lloret, 2005).

Intentional Introduction

In cultural landscapes its spread is very much related to time because of pasture or agricultural field abandonment and distance to urban areas where it is planted as an ornamental (Domènech et al., 2005). Plant density in old fields can increase three fold in less than 5 years (Domènech et al., 2005). In northern, humid areas of Spain, population size can increase two fold in a year (Herrera and Campos, 2006).

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activities Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive and negative
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Human health Negative

Economic Impact

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It is a very invasive plant, forming dense, often impenetrable, stands that can damage grazing lands, interfere with afforested areas, affect visibility on roads and hinder access to certain natural areas (e.g. stream margins). In New Zealand, seed clinging to kiwifruit [Actinidia deliciosa] are rejected for export (ISSG, 2009). The costs of control are significant in New Zealand (DiTomaso, 2000) and Spain (Andreu et al., 2009).

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Habitat

Low decomposition of litter and standing dead leaves reduce the total soil N and increase C:N ratios (Domènech et al., 2006). The build-up of dry leaves and senescing, flowering stalks produce large amounts of flammable material and increase fire hazards (DiTomaso, 2000).

Impact on Biodiversity

The pampas grass increases its density and colonizes semi-natural areas in a short period of time, changing the vertical structure of the vegetation and competing with native plants. Invasion reduces plant species, life form richness and native species cover; similarity of native species composition with non-invaded areas can decrease by more than 50% (Domènech et al., 2006). It slows down secondary succession from abandoned agricultural or pasture lands.

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Streptanthus glandulosus subsp. niger (Tiburon jewelflower)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaCompetition - stranglingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010a
Verbesina dissita (big-leaved crownbeard)National list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010b

Social Impact

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The sharp leaves can cause superficial cuts and flowers may provoke allergies in the summer, reducing the recreational value of invaded areas.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of fire regime
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts cultural/traditional practices
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - strangling
  • Competition
  • Induces hypersensitivity
  • Rapid growth
  • Produces spines, thorns or burrs
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

Uses

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Economic value

C. selloana has been planted as an ornamental and in landscaping, both for aesthetic purposes (large inflorescences forming plumes) and also as a windbreak and for erosion control (DiTomaso, 2000).

Social benefit

Research on the genetics and culture in-vitro of pampas grass ornamental cultivars is quite active (Robacker and Corley, 1992; Ahmad et al., 2006).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity
  • Boundary, barrier or support
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Land reclamation
  • Landscape improvement

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo
  • Ornamental
  • Sociocultural value
  • Souvenirs

Ornamental

  • Cut flower
  • Potted plant
  • Propagation material
  • Seed trade

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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It can be confused with the congener Cortaderia jubata. C. selloana is taller, more erect and fountain-like than C. jubata, which has bright deep-green leaves, with shorter blades that are not curled at the tip and less V-shaped in cross-section. Inflorescences are also slightly different, C. jubata panicles are shorter, more flexuous, and from pinkish to violet when immature, turning creamy or tawny when mature. Finally, C. jubata spikelets are smaller, with purple glumes, and contain a few less florets than C. selloana (DiTomaso, 2000). In its introduced range, C. jubata has only female flowers and reproduces by apomixis (Connor, 1973).

Prevention and Control

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Early Warning Systems

 A risk assessment of the species by the Australian risk assessment system (Pheloung et al., 1999) has resulted in a score of 24 for Australia and of 26 for Spain (Gassó et al., 2009). Therefore the recommendation would be to reject the introduction of the species in these countries where it is already present.
 
Control
 
Physical/mechanical control
 
Smaller plants and seedlings can be hand-pulled with protective gloves due to the serrated edges of the leaves. Larger plants can also be removed mechanically. It is often necessary to remove some of the drooping foliage surrounding the plant, utilizing a machete. For large-scale infestations, other mechanical methods could involve the use of heavy equipment (i.e. bulldozers). Burning and foliage clipping is not effective because the plant re-sprouts very vigorously. To prevent re-sprouting it is important to remove the entire crown and top section of roots, and not to leave any detached plant lying on the soil surface (DiTomaso, 2000). To avoid seed dispersal, removals should be conducted before flowering and old panicles should be placed in disposal bags immediately after removal. 
 
Movement control
 
The movement of unprotected panicles across natural areas should be avoided.
 
Biological control
 
Neither invertebrates or fungi have been investigated for the biological control of this species.
 
Grazing by cattle at an early stage of its introduction proved successful in New Zealand (DiTomaso, 2000).
 
Chemical control
 
Sometimes, the effectiveness of control can be improved if mechanical removal of the foliage is combined with herbicide application. Roundup and Rodeo, with the active ingredient glyphosate, have been the most widely and successfully used herbicides. The addition of non-ionic or silicone-based surfactant may enhance foliar penetration of the herbicide (DiTomaso, 2000).
 
The pre-emergent herbicides metolachlor, oryzalin and napropamide are effective, but not pendimethalin, prodiamine, trifluralin, MON 15151, isoxaben, oxyfluorfen plus pendimethalin or benefin plus trifluralin (Neal and Senesac, 1991).
 
Reduced seed propagation
 
Due to its out-crossing, gynodioecious reproductive system, it is possible to significantly reduce fecundity if commercialization of the species is by fragmentation or regeneration from single sex parent plants rather than by seeds. The species can be propagated from immature inflorescences cultured with growth regulators (Robacker and Corley, 1992).
 

References

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Ahmad R, Okada M, Firestone JL, Mallek CR, Jasieniuk M, 2006. Isolation, characterization, and evaluation of microsatellite loci for cultivar identification in the orn pampas grass Cortaderia selloana. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 131:499-505.

Andreu J, Vila M, Hulme PE, 2009. An assessment of stakeholder perceptions and management of alien plants in Spain. Environmental Management, 43:1244-1255.

Australian Government, 2009. Weeds in Australia. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government. http://www.weeds.org.au/

Basnou C, 2009. Cortaderia selloana (Schult. & Schult.) Asch & Graebn., pampas grass (Poaceae, Magnoliophyta). In: DAISIE: Handbook of alien species in Europe Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer, 346.

Campos JA, Herrera M, Biurrun I, Loidi J, 2004. The role of alien plants in the natural coastal vegetation in central-northern Spain. Biodiversity and Conservation, 13:2275-2293.

CONABIO, 2009. The National Commission for the Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity. Mexico: Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad. http://www.conabio.gob.mx/

Connor HE, 1973. Breeding systems in Cortaderia (Gramineae). Evolution, 27:663-678.

Costas-Lippmann M, 1976. Ecology and reproductive biology of the genus Cortaderia in California. Berkeley, USA: University of California.

DAISIE, 2009. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. http://www.europe-aliens.org/index.jsp

DiTomaso J, 2000. Cortaderia selloana. In: Invasive plants of California wildlands [ed. by Bossard CC, Randall JM, Hoshovsky MC] Berkeley, USA: University of California Press, 128-133.

Domènech R, 2005. Cortaderia selloana invasion in the Mediterranean region: invasiveness and ecosystem invasibility. Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain: Autonomous University of Barcelona.

Domènech R, Vila M, 2006. The role of successional stage, vegetation type and soil disturbance on Cortaderia selloana invasion. Journal of Vegetation Science, 17:591-598.

Domènech R, Vila M, 2007. Cortaderia selloana invasion across a Mediterranean coastal strip. Acta Oecologia, 32:255-261.

Domènech R, Vila M, 2008. Response of the invader Cortaderia selloana and two coexisting natives to competition and water stress. Biological Invasions, 10:903-912.

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
DAISIE Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europehttp://www.europe-aliens.org/index.jsp
Global Invasive Species Databasehttp://www.issg.org/database/speciesThe GISD aims to increase awareness about invasive alien species and to facilitate effective prevention and management. It is managed by the Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) of the Species Surviva
USDA NRCS Conservation practice standards and guide sheetshttp://www.nrcs.usda.gov/

Contributors

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15/07/09 Original text by:

Vila Montserrat, Estacion Biologica de Donana-Centro Superior de Investigacio, Avda/Maria Luisa s/n, Pabellon del Peru, 41013 Sevilla, Spain

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