Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Codiaeum variegatum
(garden croton)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Codiaeum variegatum (garden croton)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 12 May 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Codiaeum variegatum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • garden croton
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Codiaeum variegatum is a shrub or small tree that is widely grown as an ornamental garden or pot plant. A large number of varieties that differ in leave size, shape and colour have been developed and introduced...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Codiaeum variegatum (garden croton); habit, growing wild. Nr. Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. July 2007.
TitleHabit
CaptionCodiaeum variegatum (garden croton); habit, growing wild. Nr. Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. July 2007.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY SA 2.0
Codiaeum variegatum (garden croton); habit, growing wild. Nr. Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. July 2007.
HabitCodiaeum variegatum (garden croton); habit, growing wild. Nr. Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. July 2007.©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY SA 2.0
Codiaeum variegatum (garden croton); habit, with yellow-spotted leaves, planted as an ornamental. Northern Buton Island, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. September 2017.
TitleHabit
CaptionCodiaeum variegatum (garden croton); habit, with yellow-spotted leaves, planted as an ornamental. Northern Buton Island, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. September 2017.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by David E. Mead/via wikipedia - CC0 1.0
Codiaeum variegatum (garden croton); habit, with yellow-spotted leaves, planted as an ornamental. Northern Buton Island, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. September 2017.
HabitCodiaeum variegatum (garden croton); habit, with yellow-spotted leaves, planted as an ornamental. Northern Buton Island, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. September 2017.Public Domain - Released by David E. Mead/via wikipedia - CC0 1.0
Codiaeum variegatum (garden croton); habit. Note Laysan Albatross chicks (Phoebastria immutabilis). Town Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
TitleHabit
CaptionCodiaeum variegatum (garden croton); habit. Note Laysan Albatross chicks (Phoebastria immutabilis). Town Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Codiaeum variegatum (garden croton); habit. Note Laysan Albatross chicks (Phoebastria immutabilis). Town Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
HabitCodiaeum variegatum (garden croton); habit. Note Laysan Albatross chicks (Phoebastria immutabilis). Town Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Codiaeum variegatum (garden croton); habit, and leaves. Town Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
TitleHabit
CaptionCodiaeum variegatum (garden croton); habit, and leaves. Town Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Codiaeum variegatum (garden croton); habit, and leaves. Town Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
HabitCodiaeum variegatum (garden croton); habit, and leaves. Town Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Codiaeum variegatum (garden croton); habit, showing foliage. Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.
TitleHabit
CaptionCodiaeum variegatum (garden croton); habit, showing foliage. Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Codiaeum variegatum (garden croton); habit, showing foliage. Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.
HabitCodiaeum variegatum (garden croton); habit, showing foliage. Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. June 2008.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Codiaeum variegatum (garden croton); variegated leaves. County Nursery Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September 2006.
TitleFoliage
CaptionCodiaeum variegatum (garden croton); variegated leaves. County Nursery Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September 2006.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Codiaeum variegatum (garden croton); variegated leaves. County Nursery Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September 2006.
FoliageCodiaeum variegatum (garden croton); variegated leaves. County Nursery Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September 2006.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Codiaeum variegatum (garden croton); variegated leaves. County Nursery, Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September 2006.
TitleFoliage
CaptionCodiaeum variegatum (garden croton); variegated leaves. County Nursery, Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September 2006.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Codiaeum variegatum (garden croton); variegated leaves. County Nursery, Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September 2006.
FoliageCodiaeum variegatum (garden croton); variegated leaves. County Nursery, Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. September 2006.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Codiaeum variegatum (garden croton); male flowers. India. July 2007.
TitleFlowers
CaptionCodiaeum variegatum (garden croton); male flowers. India. July 2007.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 3.0
Codiaeum variegatum (garden croton); male flowers. India. July 2007.
FlowersCodiaeum variegatum (garden croton); male flowers. India. July 2007.©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 3.0
Codiaeum variegatum (garden croton); male flowers. Stutensee, Germany. April 2009.
TitleFlowers
CaptionCodiaeum variegatum (garden croton); male flowers. Stutensee, Germany. April 2009.
Copyright©H. Zell/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Codiaeum variegatum (garden croton); male flowers. Stutensee, Germany. April 2009.
FlowersCodiaeum variegatum (garden croton); male flowers. Stutensee, Germany. April 2009.©H. Zell/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Codiaeum variegatum (garden croton); female flowers. India. July 2007.
TitleFlowers
CaptionCodiaeum variegatum (garden croton); female flowers. India. July 2007.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 3.0
Codiaeum variegatum (garden croton); female flowers. India. July 2007.
FlowersCodiaeum variegatum (garden croton); female flowers. India. July 2007.©Dinesh Valke/via flickr - CC BY-SA 3.0
Codiaeum variegatum (garden croton); female flowers. Northern Buton Island, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. October 2017.
TitleFlowers
CaptionCodiaeum variegatum (garden croton); female flowers. Northern Buton Island, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. October 2017.
Copyright©David E. Mead/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Codiaeum variegatum (garden croton); female flowers. Northern Buton Island, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. October 2017.
FlowersCodiaeum variegatum (garden croton); female flowers. Northern Buton Island, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. October 2017.©David E. Mead/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Codiaeum variegatum (garden croton); fruits. Northern Buton Island, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. October 2017.
TitleFruit
CaptionCodiaeum variegatum (garden croton); fruits. Northern Buton Island, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. October 2017.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by David E. Mead/via wikipedia - CC0 1.0
Codiaeum variegatum (garden croton); fruits. Northern Buton Island, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. October 2017.
FruitCodiaeum variegatum (garden croton); fruits. Northern Buton Island, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. October 2017.Public Domain - Released by David E. Mead/via wikipedia - CC0 1.0

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Rumph. ex A.Juss.

Preferred Common Name

  • garden croton

Other Scientific Names

  • Codiaeum chrysosticton Rumph. ex Spreng.
  • Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Blume var. pictum (Lodd.) Müll. Arg
  • Croton variegatus (Lodd.) Müll. Arg
  • Croton variegatus L.
  • Crozophyla variegata (L.) Raf.
  • Oxydectes variegate (L.) Kuntze
  • Phyllaurea codiaeum Lour.
  • Phyllaurea variegata (L.) W. Wight

International Common Names

  • English: Bombay laurel; croton; Joseph's coat; San Francisco
  • Spanish: buena vista; gallego

Local Common Names

  • Bangladesh: patabahar
  • Brazil: folha imperial
  • China: bian ye mu
  • Dominican Republic: carácter de hombre; cola de paloma; croto; tirabuzón
  • Fiji: sacasaca
  • Germany: indischer lorbeer; kroton
  • Guam: leston puyitos
  • Haiti: pirulí
  • Indonesia: abam; ai haru; baleya sumangga; dahendgaro; dahendgora; dahendora; daliho; daun garida; demung; dendiki; dolok; dudi; fute; goliho; kajondom; kalabumbang; kama; karoton; katomas; kelet; kendeng disik; leleme; mendem; nasalou; nunukobalaano; pudieng; purineg; salubota; salusalu; silastrom; siri-siri; sisinte; susurite; tarimas; uhung
  • Japan: henyo-boku
  • Malaysia: pokok puding; puding mas
  • Palau: kesuk; kesuk ra oreomel
  • Papua New Guinea: baba’a; babaka; kai; marmar; simpika; tubuloko
  • Philippines: kalipayan; kalipayang; kila; kilala-puti
  • Puerto Rico: croton de jardín; periquito; tirabuzón
  • Sweden: kroton
  • Thailand: Kohson
  • Vietnam: ku kieng

EPPO code

  • CDIVA (Codiaeum variegatum)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

Codiaeum variegatum is a shrub or small tree that is widely grown as an ornamental garden or pot plant. A large number of varieties that differ in leave size, shape and colour have been developed and introduced worldwide. Its invasive potential comes from its strong mutation tendencies, resilience to fairly harsh weather and ease of propagation.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Euphorbiales
  •                         Family: Euphorbiaceae
  •                             Genus: Codiaeum
  •                                 Species: Codiaeum variegatum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

Codiaeum variegatum is a member of the Euphorbiaceae family (El-Quesni et al., 2016), one of the largest families of flowering plants, with about 7,000 described species (Macoboy, 1974; Magdalita et al., 2014). There are 17 accepted species names in the genus Codiaeum (The Plant List, 2013) from which all other cultivars arose as mutants or hybrids (Ogunwenmo et al., 2007). More than 200 cultivars of C. variegatum exist across the globe, with different leaf sizes, shapes and colour patterns (Sana et al., 2012). Leaf parameters have been traditionally used for identification and classification of C. variegatum cultivars. Brown (1995) categorized the cultivars into nine groups based on leaf types: broad leaf, oak leaf, semi-oak leaf, spiral leaf, narrow leaf, very narrow leaf, small leaf, interrupted leaf and recurved leaf (Mollick et al., 2011).

Description

Top of page

A much-branched shrub or small tree up to 6 m tall, but often much less. Twigs pale brownish-grey (Radcliffe-Smith, 1996). A wide range of phenotypic variation was observed among cultivars for all the quantitative parameters. Leaf length varies 2-fold; width, 4.9-fold; leaf index, 3.7-fold; leaf middle width, 70-fold; leaf upper quarter width, 5.2-fold; leaf down quarter width, 3.5-fold; leaf base angle, 2.6-fold; leaf tip angle, 3.4-fold; petiole length, 8.7-fold; leaf area, 6.8-fold; leaf perimeter, 2.9-fold; and leaf area/perimeter, 4-fold (Mollick et al., 2011, Shimoji et al., 2006). Young growth sparingly pubescent to sub-glabrous. Stipules minute or absent. Petioles 1–1.5 cm long. Leaf blades c. 10–45 × 1.5–10 cm, very variable in shape, simple, entire or 3-lobed, occasionally the lamina contorted or interrupted along the midrib, obtuse to acute or sometimes aristate at the apex, rounded-cuneate to attenuate at the base, coriaceous, glabrous on both surfaces, shiny and variously marked and pigmented but occasionally concolourous above, duller and paler beneath; lateral nerves in c. 20–40 pairs, often indistinct except when of a different colour from the rest of the blade, (Radcliffe-Smith, 1996). Colouration and colour pattern on the leaves is also a prominent characteristic to distinguish each cultivar. There are two colour types of cultivars: green leaves with variegation and multiple-coloured leaves ranging from green, yellow, pink, red, dark brown.

Male inflorescences 10–25 cm long; axis glabrous; bracts 1–2 mm long: pedicels 0.5–1.5 cm long; sepals 3 × 2.5 mm, ovate-suborbicular, strongly concave, glabrous; petals 1 × 2 mm, transversely elliptic, shortly 2-lobed, white; disk glands 5, 1 mm long, turbinate, truncate; stamens 20–25, filaments 3–4 mm long, white, anthers 0.5 mm long, yellow. Female inflorescences 5–20 cm long, otherwise as in the male: pedicels 1–2 mm long, not extending in fruit; sepals 1 × 1 mm, ovate-suborbicular, often ciliolate; disk 1.25 mm in diameter; ovary 2 × 1.5 mm, ovoid-conical, glabrous; styles 2–3.5 mm long, simple, recurved, spreading or contorted. Fruit 5–7 × 6–9 mm, rounded to 3-lobed, ± smooth, glabrous, grey-green. Seeds 6 × 4 × 3.5 mm, ovoid-ellipsoid, ± smooth, slightly shiny, greyish, dark brown-mottled (Radcliffe-Smith, 1996).

Plant Type

Top of page Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Tree
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

Top of page

Codiaeum variegatum is native to Malaysia, the Philippines, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Queensland in Australia, Fiji and Vanuatu (Magdalita et al., 2014; USDA-ARS, 2016). They are popular potted plants that are found worldwide and are now widespread all over the tropics (Magdalita et al., 2014).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 28 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

CameroonPresentRoyal Botanic Gardens, Kew (2016); Moundipa et al. (2005)Herbarium specimens of Codiaeum variegatum cv. weismanii and Codiaeum variegatum cv. Luteomaculatum
MozambiquePresentRadcliffe-Smith (1996)Codiaeum variegatum var. variegatum
NigeriaPresentFapohunda et al. (2005)
ZambiaPresentRadcliffe-Smith (1996)Codiaeum variegatum var. variegatum
ZimbabwePresentRadcliffe-Smith (1996)Codiaeum variegatum var. variegatum

Asia

BangladeshPresentSaffoon et al. (2014)
British Indian Ocean TerritoryPresentSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)Diego Garcia Atoll
ChinaPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)Widely cultivated as a house plant
-FujianPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
-GuangxiPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
-HainanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
-YunnanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
Hong KongPresentSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)
IndiaPresentMiller (1998); Barguil et al. (2008); Magdalita et al. (2014)Widely grown. Reported as native and introduced in India
IndonesiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016); Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)
-Irian JayaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
-JavaPresentNativeMagdalita et al. (2014); USDA-ARS (2016)Widely grown
-Lesser Sunda IslandsPresentNativeMiller (1998); Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (2016); USDA-ARS (2016)Codiaeum variegatum and Codiaeum variegatum var. moluccanum
-Maluku IslandsPresentNativeSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016); WBN Flora Database (2014); USDA-ARS (2016)
-SulawesiPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016)
-SumatraPresentNativeSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)Aceh
JapanPresentSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)
-HonshuPresentSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentMollick et al. (2011); Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)Croton cultivars are favored in Okinawa as garden plants, landscape plants and indoor pot plants.
MalaysiaPresentNativeBarguil et al. (2008); Miller (1998); Magdalita et al. (2014)
MaldivesPresentSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)Herbarium specimens collected at Seenu Atoll and Kaafu Atoll
PakistanPresentFlora of Pakistan (2016)
PhilippinesPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016); Magdalita et al. (2014); Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)Widely grown
Sri LankaPresentMagdalita et al. (2014); Miller (1998); Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)Widely grown
ThailandPresentIntroducedMagdalita et al. (2014)Widely grown
VietnamPresentSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)

Europe

BelgiumPresentIntroducedDeng et al. (2010)Introduced from Indonesia in the 1800s
FrancePresentIntroducedDeng et al. (2010)Introduced from Indonesia in the 1800s
United KingdomPresentIntroduced1804Deng et al. (2010)First introduction in the UK from Indonesia to England in 1804
-EnglandPresentIntroduced1804Deng et al. (2010); Griffin (1953)Introduced from Indonesia in 1804

North America

BahamasPresentSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)Bimini
BelizePresentFlora Mesoamericana (2016); New York Botanical Garden (2016); Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)
BermudaPresentNew York Botanical Garden (2016)
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Costa RicaPresentSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016); Flora Mesoamericana (2016)Limon, Rio Hondo
CubaPresentNew York Botanical Garden (2016)
DominicaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); New York Botanical Garden (2016); Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)
El SalvadorPresentSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)San Salvador
GuatemalaPresentSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (2016)
HondurasPresentSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016); Flora Mesoamericana (2016)
JamaicaPresentNew York Botanical Garden (2016); Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (2016)
MexicoPresentSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)
MontserratPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Netherlands AntillesPresentMori et al. (2007)Saba Island
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedFlora of Nicaragua (2016); Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)
PanamaPresentSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016); Flora Mesoamericana (2016); Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (2016)Bocas del Toro, Colon, Chiriqui, Guna, Yala, Balboa, Barro Colorado Island, Taboga Island
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2016); Liogier (1990); Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); Flora Mesoamericana (2016); New York Botanical Garden (2016)
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); New York Botanical Garden (2016)
United StatesPresentSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)
-District of ColumbiaPresentSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)Codiaeum variegatum var. pictum
-FloridaPresentIntroducedGriffin (1953); Miller (1998); Black (2003); Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)Central and South
-HawaiiPresentNew York Botanical Garden (2016); Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)Kauai and O'ahu
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroducedGriffin (1953)
-TennesseePresentSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)

Oceania

American SamoaPresentSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)
AustraliaPresentMagdalita et al. (2014)
-QueenslandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016); Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (2016); Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)
-ChuukPresentSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)
-KosraePresentSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)
-PohnpeiPresentSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016); New York Botanical Garden (2016)
-YapPresentSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)
FijiPresentNativeSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016); USDA-ARS (2016)Viti Levu, Ovalau, Vanua Levu, Taveuni
French PolynesiaPresentSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)Nuku Hiva, Hiva Oa, Ua Huka, Fatu HIva, Raiatea, Rurutu, Society Island.
-Marquesas IslandsPresentSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)
GuamPresentSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)
NauruPresentSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)
New CaledoniaPresentSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)
NiuePresentSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)
PalauPresentNew York Botanical Garden (2016)
Papua New GuineaPresentNativeWorld Health Organization (2009); Magdalita et al. (2014); Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (2016); Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016); USDA-ARS (2016)Widely grown. Manus Island, Koulupu, Central Province, Madine, New Ireland, Vanapa, Kieta, North Solomons Province, Alotau, Milne Bay, Madang, Morobe, East New Britain
SamoaPresentSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)Codiaeum variegatum var. pictum
Timor-LestePresentNativeCouncil of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (2016)
TongaPresentSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)
United States Minor Outlying Islands
-Wake IslandPresentSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)
VanuatuPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2016); Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (2016)

South America

BoliviaPresentNew York Botanical Garden (2016); Jørgensen et al. (2014)
BrazilPresentSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)
-BahiaPresentNew York Botanical Garden (2016)
-Minas GeraisPresentBarguil et al. (2008)
-Rio Grande do NortePresentSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)
-Santa CatarinaPresentSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)
ColombiaPresentSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016); Taborda et al. (2007)
EcuadorPresentIntroducedVascular Plants of Ecuador (2016); Smithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedVascular Plants of Ecuador (2016)
ParaguayPresentIntroducedParaguay Checklist (2016)
PeruPresentSmithsonian Museum of Natural History (2016)

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

Codiaeum variegatum was first introduced to Europe when it was brought to England from Indonesia in 1804, but the majority of hybrids were developed in Belgium and France in the 1800s (Deng et al., 2010). Between 1863 and 1880 a further 69 varieties were introduced into England. These varieties were brought from India, the South Sea Islands, the New Hebrides, and New Guinea. The original introduction of the plant to these lands is thought to have been the work or early missionaries in an effort at beautifying native villages and the surrounding landscape. As far as can be determined, the first cultivars of C. variegatum were brought to North America during the second half of the 19th century by Henry A. Dreer of Philadelphia, and from there several were introduced to Florida. More C. variegatum hybrids have originated in southern Florida, particularly in the Miami area, than in any other region of the United States and probably of the world (Griffin, 1953). At least 70 hybrids, commonly known as Florida hybrids, were developed in south Florida during the 1920s and 1930s (Deng et al., 2010)

Introductions

Top of page
Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
France Indonesia 1800s Ornamental purposes (pathway cause) No No Deng et al. (2010)
Belgium Indonesia 1800s Ornamental purposes (pathway cause) No No Deng et al. (2010)
UK Indonesia 1804 Landscape improvement (pathway cause) No No Deng et al. (2010)
UK India 1863-1880 Landscape improvement (pathway cause) No No Griffin (1953)
USA Indonesia 1871 Landscape improvement (pathway cause) No No Deng et al. (2010)
Europe Sri Lanka Breeding and propagation (pathway cause) No No Hettiarachchi et al. (2003)

Habitat

Top of page

Codiaeum variegatum is an understory plant in lowland and upland forests at elevations up to 800 m, and prefers drier rainforests (Useful Tropical Plants, 2016). It needs a warm, humid and bright environment with some shade. Overwintering in cultivation outside of its native range is quite challenging and it may be best grown in a green-house (El-Quesni et al., 2016). C. variegatum var. moluccanum is common in the wild throughout Melanesia (Sangeetha et al., 2011).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details
Industrial / intensive livestock production systems Present, no further details
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Genetics

Chromosome counts of 2n = 24-72, 48, 54, 58, 60-64, 72, 80, 82, 96, 100, 106, 108, 112, 116, 120 and 124 have been reported for different varieties of Codiaeum from India and the Philippines (Ogunwenmo et al., 2007). High rates of genetic mutation and chromosome instability could account for the wide variation within the plant species.

The phenotypic diversity observed in C. variegatum leaves is of interest in plant science because virtually all types of leaf morphology can be seen in one species (Mollick et al., 2011, Shimoji et al., 2006). C. variegatum often has different leaf phenotypes occurring in the same plant. It appears that genetic instability is associated with the leaf phenotypic diversity. Brown (1995) suggested that somatic mutations and cross pollination by ants may be involved in the mechanism for creating such high diversity. Ogunwenmo et al. (2007) reported that chromosomal variability could account for the wide range morphological variation in C. variegatum.

Reproductive Biology

Flowers of C. variegatum plants are racemose. Male and female flowers are borne on different stalks and mature at different times. Most garden C. variegatum cultivars produce both male and female inflorescences from the same stem, but most times the female inflorescence is developed earlier and fruits are formed before the males are produced (Ogunwenmo et al., 2007). The fruit is a sub-globose, 3-lobed schizocarp (Sangeetha et al., 2011).

Codiaeum variegatum is monoecious with poor seed set, and seed propagation results in plants with different phenotypes (Sharma and Bal, 1958). In commercial production, once a hybrid selection is made, it is propagated asexually through stem cuttings (Deng et al., 2010)  and air layering (Jena, 2016)

Physiology and Phenology

Flowers and fruit may not develop on some forms, whereas others may bear flowers and fruit throughout the year (Sangeetha et al., 2011). Flowering season is April-August (Mahbubur Rahman and Akter, 2013)

Environmental Requirements

Codiaeum variegatum grows in part shade, has a tolerance for acidic, alkaline, sand, loam and clay soils and a high drought tolerance (Black, 2003). Codiaeum variegatum has a flexible response to various levels of light intensity. In different light intensity it shows different leaf colours. The shaded leaves are greener than the leaves exposed to sun. The mosaic pattern on the leaves may also be influenced by light intensity (Jena, 2016)

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 18 27

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • saline

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Pathogen Leaves
Dysmicoccus brevipes Parasite
Dysmicoccus grassii Parasite
Dysmicoccus texensis Parasite
Ferrisia virgata Parasite
Fusarium Pathogen
Glomerella cingulata Pathogen
Paracoccus marginatus Parasite
Planococcus citri Parasite
Planococcus minor Parasite
Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. poinsettiicola Pathogen Leaves

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page

In 1984 a bacterium was consistently isolated from the diseased leaves of C. variegatum in Central Florida and was identified as Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. poinsettiicola (Chase, 1985Miller 1998).

Lesions were found on leaves of C. variegatum plants located in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The spots were circular, with well-defined edges, gray at the center, approximately 0.8 cm in diameter, and acervuli could be observed on the center of the lesion. The lesions evolved into necrotic tissues, which eventually may be detached. The lesions were surrounded by a highly pigmented concentric dark reddish-brown ring, suggesting a plant defense response. The fungus was identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Barguil et al., 2008)

The teleomorph, Glomerella cingulata, has been recorded as causing leaf blotch on this host in Great Britain (Barguil et al., 2008).

Fusarium species are major phytopathogens of C. variegatum (Awoyinka et al., 2012). The mealybug species sometimes found infesting C. variegatum are Dysmicoccus bispinosus, D. brevipes, D. grassii, Ferrisia virgata, Planococcus citri, P. minor and P. marginatus (Martínez et al., 2008)

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

Intentional Introduction

Codiaeum variegatum is mainly exported to Europe as cut stems or rooted stems. The variety of colours and the ability to transport them in a dry state makes C. variegatum a desirable commodity

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Positive
Human health Positive

Social Impact

Top of page

Social Impact

The cut stems bleed a sap that is poisonous. The bark, roots, latex and leaves are poisonous, containing the toxin called 5-deoxyingenol. The latex has been found to cause eczema after repeated exposure. (Useful Tropical Plants, 2016).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Reproduces asexually
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact mechanisms
  • Causes allergic responses
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

Top of page

Economic Value

Codiaeum variegatum is one of the most popular ornamental tropical shrubs (Mollick et al., 2011). It can be used in hedges or to border landscape and it can be also grown as a house plant in bright places with moderate humidity (El-Quesni et al., 2016).

Social Benefit

Codiaeum variegatum is grown as an ornamental or for fencing around dwellings, and the branches are used decoratively.

Codiaeum variegatum is used in folklore medicine for topical treatment of wounds, infections, skin conditions, gonorrhoea, syphilis, tooth ache and fever, using sap from the leaves or bark (Robert et al., 1988; Ogunwenmo et al., 2007; World Health Organization, 2009; Sangeetha et al., 2011). A study into the wound healing properties of C. variegatum root extract demonstrated that topical application accelerated the healing process for cuts and burns (Sangeetha et al., 2011).

As well as a topical treatment, Codiaeum variagatum is also consumed in traditional medicine. Snakebites are treated by giving the victim a drink of leaf sap and rubbing it into the bite after cutting the affected flesh with a sharp knife. A drink produced from the entire plant is used as an abortifacient. Leaves are chewed and swallowed by women as a contraceptive. Crushed root is mixed with volcanic sulphur and the mixture is chewed once with betel nut to induce sterility in a woman. Barks of the croton and Albizzia falcataria are scraped and mixed using water and solution drunk by patients suffering from prolapse of the rectum (World Health Organization, 2009). Root decoction is taken for the treatment of gastric ulcers and the leaves are consumed to treat diarrhoea.

Codiaeum variegatum has been investigated for compounds of pharmaceutical interest. C. variegatum extracts have been found to be active against influenza virus and a bioactive cyanoglucoside was isolated as the active component. (Saffoon et al., 2014). Both aqueous and alcoholic extracts of C. variegatum cv. ovalifolium possess bioactive metabolites with anti-clotting, anti-coagulating and antimicrobial properties (Anyasor et al., 2010).

Extract of C. variegatum reduced the size of calcium oxalate crystals in synthetic urine, suggesting C. variegatum extract could be used in the treatment of kidney stones (Urmilesh et al., 2016). Incubation of Entamoeba histolytica, the parasite that causes amoebiasis, with C. variegatum extract was found to kill 75% of the parasites in 48 h and 100% in 96 h, out-performing metronidazole, a drug currently used for treating amoebiasis (Moundipa et al., 2005).

Uses List

Top of page

General

  • Sociocultural value

Genetic importance

  • Test organisms (for pests and diseases)

Human food and beverage

  • Leaves (for beverage)
  • Root crop

Materials

  • Pesticide

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Potted plant
  • Propagation material
  • Seed trade

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

Top of page

Codiaeum variegatum has been widely introduced, but its potential to become naturalized outside its native range and the impact it may have on native populations is not well understood.

References

Top of page

Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Anyasor GN, Esiaba IO, Ogunwenmo KO, Esan EB, Olajuyigbe OO, Ikpeoha NS, Onyishi CC, Bright OC, 2010. Biochemical and antimicrobial effects of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Blume cv. ovalifolium (Euphorbiaceae). In: Proceedings of the 3rd International e-Conference on Agricultural BioSciences 2010 [3rd International e-Conference on Agricultural BioSciences], 35-36.

Awoyinka OA, Ezekiel CN, Esan EB, Afolabi CG, Ikokide OZ, Bankole A, Bada OS, Ogheneovo OE, 2012. The Spectrum of Infections by Fusarium Species on Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Blume Cultivars as Influenced by Fructose Specific Lectin. International Journal Of Modern Botany, 2(5), 145-153.

Barguil, B. M., Beserra Júnior, J. E. A., Oliveira, S. M. A. de, 2008. Leaf spots on Codiaeum variegatum caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Summa Phytopathologica, 34(3), 289. doi: 10.1590/S0100-54052008000300021

Black, RJ, 2003. (Salt tolerant plants for Florida). Florida, USA: University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences.

Brown BF, 1995. A Codiaeum Encyclopedia: Crotons of the World, Florida, USA: Valkaria Tropical Garden.136 pp.

CABI, 2020. CABI Distribution Database: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI.

Chase, A. R., 1985. Bacterial leaf spot of Codiaeum variegatum cultivars caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. poinsettiicola. Plant Pathology, 34(3), 446-448. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.1985.tb01388.x

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2016. Australia's virtual herbarium. In: Australia's Virtual Herbarium , Australia: Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria.http://avh.ala.org.au

Deng, M., Chen, J. J., Henny, R. J., Li, Q. S., 2010. Genetic relationships of Codiaeum variegatum cultivars analyzed by amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. HortScience, 45(6), 868-874. http://hortsci.ashspublications.org/

El-Quesni FEM, Kandil MM, Mazhar AAM, 2016. Response of vegetative growth of Codiaeum variegatum L. for potassium forms. International Journal of PharmTech Research, 9(4), 174-178.

Fapohunda, SO, Esan, EB, Ogunwenmo, KO, Adedayo, A, 2005. Report of Fusarium oxysporum on Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Blume (Euphorbiaceae) cultivars in Nigeria. Journal of Life & Physical Sciences, acta SATECH, 2(1), 40-41.

Flora Mesoamericana, 2016. Flora Mesoamericana. (Flora Mesoamericana). In: Flora Mesoamericana St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org/Project/fm

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Nicaragua, 2016. Flora of Nicaragua. (Flora de Nicaragua). In: Flora de Nicaragua St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://tropicos.org/Project/FN

Flora of Pakistan, 2016. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website. In: Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

Gilman EF, 1999. Codiaeum variegatum – Croton. Fact Sheet FPS-134. Florida, USA: University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Extension.3 pp.

Griffin, J. F., Jr., 1953. New hybrid crotons. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 1953, 314-18 pp.

Hettiarachchi, M. P., Balas, J., 2003. Effects of hydration solutions on postharvest quality of croton (Codiaeum variegatum (L.) A. Juss. 'Excellent') after shipment. Tropical Agricultural Research, 15, 327-330.

Jena TK, 2016. Effect of higher CO2 concentration on photosynthesis in Codiaeum variegatum under different sky conditions. International Journal of Engineering Research, 5(2), 107-109.

JSTOR, 2016. JSTOR Global Plants Database. In: JSTOR Global Plants Database Ann Arbor, MI and New York, NY, USA: JSTOR.http://plants.jstor.org/

Jørgensen, P. M., Nee, M. H., Beck, S. G., 2014. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia, St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press.1741 pp.

Liogier, H. A., 1990. Descriptive flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands. Spermatophyta, 2, 481.

Macoboy S, 1974. Tropical flowers and plants, Sydney, Australia: Hamlyn.

Magdalita, PM, Torreta, NK, Sotto, RC, 2014. Characterization of Phenotypic Variation in Selected Croton [Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Rhumph. ex A. Juss.] Varieties and Natural Mutants. Journal of Nature Studies, 13(2), 41-55.

Mahbubur Rahman AHM, Akter M, 2013. Taxonomy and Medicinal Uses of Euphorbiaceae (Spurge) Family of Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Research in Plant Sciences, 1(3), 74-80.

Martínez MA, Blanco E, Suris M, 2008. (Fauna de Chinches Harinosas (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Asociadas a Plantas de Interés: IV Plantas Ornamentales). Revista de Protección Vegetal, 23(1), 48-53.

Mazher, A. A. M., Zaghloul, S. M., Mahmoud, S. A., Siam, H. S., 2011. Stimulatory effect of kinetin, ascorbic acid and glutamic acid on growth and chemical constituents of Codiaeum variegatum L. plants. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences, 10(3), 318-323. http://www.idosi.org/aejaes/jaes10(3)/4.pdf

Miller, J. W., 1998. Xanthomonas leaf spot of croton. In: Plant Pathology Circular (Gainesville) , (No. 391) . Gainesville; Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, USA: Division of Plant Industry.1-2.

Mollick, A. S., Shimoji, H., Denda, T., Yokota, M., Yamasaki, H., 2011. Croton Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Blume cultivars characterized by leaf phenotypic parameters. Scientia Horticulturae, 132, 71-79. doi: 10.1016/j.scienta.2011.09.038

Mori, SA, Buck, WR, Gracie, CA, Tulig, M, 2007. Plants and Lichens of Saba. In: Virtual Herbarium of The New York Botanical Garden . http://sweetgum.nybg.org/saba/

Moundipa, P. F., Flore, K. G. M., Bilong, C. F. B., Bruchhau, I., 2005. In vitro amoebicidal activity of some medicinal plants of the Bamun Region (Cameroon). African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 2(2), 113-121. http://www.bioline.org.br/abstract?id=tc05013&lang=en

New York Botanical Garden, 2016. The C. Starr Virtual Herbarium. In: The C. Starr Virtual Herbarium New York, USA: New York Botanical Garden.http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/vh/

Ogunwenmo, K. O., Idowu, O. A., Innocent, C., Esan, E. B., Oyelana, O. A., 2007. Cultivars of Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Blume (Euphorbiaceae) show variability in phytochemical and cytological characteristics. African Journal of Biotechnology, 6(20), 2400-2405. http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB/PDF/pdf2007/18Oct/Ogunwenmo%20et%20al.pdf

Paraguay Checklist, 2016. Paraguay Checklist, Tropicos website. In: Paraguay Checklist, Tropicos website St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://tropicos.org/Project/Paraguay

Pérez-León, G., Chavaría-Pérez, L., Araya-Quesada, J., Gómez-Alpízar, L., 2013. Identification of the agent causing anthracnose on Sansevieria spp., in Costa Rica. (Identificación del agente causal de la antracnosis de Sansevieria spp. en Costa Rica). Agronomía Costarricense, 37(1), 39-50. http://www.mag.go.cr/rev_agr/index.html

Radcliffe-Smith, A, 1996. Euphorbiaceae. Flora Zambesiaca, 9(4), 272-273.

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 2016. The Herbarium Catalogue. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.http://www.kew.org/herbcat

Saffoon, N, Uddin R, Subhan N, Hossain H, Reza HM, Alam MA, 2014. In vitro Anti-oxidant Activity and HPLC-DAD System Based Phenolic Content Analysis of Codiaeum variegatum Found in Bangladesh. Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 4(2), 533-541.

Sana S, Shiju M, Krishnapriya RS, 2012. Organogenesis and Somatic Embryogenesis in Various Cultivars of Codiaeum variegatum (L.). Global Advanced Research Journal of Biotechnology, 1(3), 40-47.

Sangeetha G, Mohan KL, Aruna G, Sekar BM, Balammal G, 2011. Study on wound healing activity of root of Codiaeum variegatum. International Journal of Innovative Drug Discovery, 1(1), 19-23.

Sharma AK, Bal AK, 1958. A cytological study on the different varieties of Codieaum variegatum Blume as a means of finding out the mechanism of their evolution. The Nucleus, 1, 223-266.

Shimoji, H., Tokuda, G., Tanaka, Y., Moshiri, B., Yamasaki, H., 2006. A simple method for two-dimensional color analyses of plant leaves. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 53(1), 126-133. doi: 10.1134/S102144370601016X

Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, 2016. Smithsonian Museum of Natural History Botany Collections. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Museum of Natural History.http://collections.nmnh.si.edu/search/botany/

Taborda, N. A., Acevedo, L. Y., Patiño, C. P., Forero, J. E., López-Herrera, A., 2007. In vitro antiviral activity of extracts from Hura crepitans and Codiaeum variegatum on bovine herpes virus type-1 and vesicular stomatitis virus replication. (Actividad antiviral in vitro de extractos de Hura crepitans y Codiaeum variegatum en la replicación de herpes virus bovino tipo-1 y virus de estomatitis vesicular). Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias, 20(3), 241-249.

The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. In: The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1 Richmond, London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.http://www.theplantlist.org

Urmilesh J, Singh A, Oswal RJ, 2016. In-Vitro Antilithiatic Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Blume. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Technology & Innovation, 4(17), 95-102.

USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2016. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team.https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Useful Tropical Plants, 2016. Useful tropical plants database. In: Useful tropical plants database : K Fern.http://tropical.theferns.info/

Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2016. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://tropicos.org/Project/CE

WBN Flora Database, 2014. WBN Flora Database. St Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Weda%20Bay

World Health Organization, 2009. Medicinal plants in Papua New Guinea: information on 126 commonly used medicinal plants in Papua New Guinea, Manila, Philippines: WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific.313 pp.

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Barguil B M, Beserra Júnior J E A, Oliveira S M A de, 2008. Leaf spots on Codiaeum variegatum caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Summa Phytopathologica. 34 (3), 289. DOI:10.1590/S0100-54052008000300021

Black RJ, 2003. (Salt tolerant plants for Florida)., Florida, USA: University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences.

CABI, 2020. CABI Distribution Database: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2016. Australia's virtual herbarium. In: Australia's Virtual Herbarium, Australia: Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria. http://avh.ala.org.au

Deng M, Chen J J, Henny R J, Li Q S, 2010. Genetic relationships of Codiaeum variegatum cultivars analyzed by amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. HortScience. 45 (6), 868-874. http://hortsci.ashspublications.org/

Fapohunda SO, Esan EB, Ogunwenmo KO, Adedayo A, 2005. Report of Fusarium oxysporum on Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Blume (Euphorbiaceae) cultivars in Nigeria. Journal of Life & Physical Sciences, acta SATECH. 2 (1), 40-41.

Flora Mesoamericana, 2016. Flora Mesoamericana. (Flora Mesoamericana.). In: Flora Mesoamericana. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/fm

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Nicaragua, 2016. Flora of Nicaragua. (Flora de Nicaragua.). In: Flora de Nicaragua. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/FN

Flora of Pakistan, 2016. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website. In: Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

Griffin J F Jr, 1953. New hybrid crotons. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 1953. 314-18 pp.

Jørgensen P M, Nee M H, Beck S G, 2014. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press. 1741 pp.

Liogier H A, 1990. Descriptive flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands. Spermatophyta. 481.

Magdalita PM, Torreta NK, Sotto RC, 2014. Characterization of Phenotypic Variation in Selected Croton [Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Rhumph. ex A. Juss.] Varieties and Natural Mutants. Journal of Nature Studies. 13 (2), 41-55.

Miller J W, 1998. Xanthomonas leaf spot of croton. In: Plant Pathology Circular (Gainesville), Gainesville; Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, USA: Division of Plant Industry. 1-2.

Mollick A S, Shimoji H, Denda T, Yokota M, Yamasaki H, 2011. Croton Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Blume cultivars characterized by leaf phenotypic parameters. Scientia Horticulturae. 71-79. DOI:10.1016/j.scienta.2011.09.038

Mori SA, Buck WR, Gracie CA, Tulig M, 2007. Plants and Lichens of Saba. In: Virtual Herbarium of The New York Botanical Garden, http://sweetgum.nybg.org/saba/

Moundipa P F, Flore K G M, Bilong C F B, Bruchhau I, 2005. In vitro amoebicidal activity of some medicinal plants of the Bamun Region (Cameroon). African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. 2 (2), 113-121. http://www.bioline.org.br/abstract?id=tc05013&lang=en

New York Botanical Garden, 2016. The C. Starr Virtual Herbarium. In: The C. Starr Virtual Herbarium. New York, USA: New York Botanical Garden. http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/vh/

Paraguay Checklist, 2016. Paraguay Checklist, Tropicos website. In: Paraguay Checklist, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/Paraguay

Radcliffe-Smith A, 1996. Euphorbiaceae. Flora Zambesiaca. 9 (4), 272-273.

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 2016. The Herbarium Catalogue. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.kew.org/herbcat

Saffoon N, Uddin R, Subhan N, Hossain H, Reza HM, Alam MA, 2014. In vitro Anti-oxidant Activity and HPLC-DAD System Based Phenolic Content Analysis of Codiaeum variegatum Found in Bangladesh. Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 4 (2), 533-541.

Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, 2016. Smithsonian Museum of Natural History Botany Collections., Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Museum of Natural History. http://collections.nmnh.si.edu/search/botany/

Taborda N A, Acevedo L Y, Patiño C P, Forero J E, López-Herrera A, 2007. In vitro antiviral activity of extracts from Hura crepitans and Codiaeum variegatum on bovine herpes virus type-1 and vesicular stomatitis virus replication. (Actividad antiviral in vitro de extractos de Hura crepitans y Codiaeum variegatum en la replicación de herpes virus bovino tipo-1 y virus de estomatitis vesicular.). Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias. 20 (3), 241-249.

USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2016. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2016. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador., St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/CE

WBN Flora Database, 2014. WBN Flora Database., St Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Weda%20Bay

World Health Organization, 2009. Medicinal plants in Papua New Guinea: information on 126 commonly used medicinal plants in Papua New Guinea. Manila, Philippines: WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific. 313 pp.

Links to Websites

Top of page
WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

Top of page

22/03/17 Original text by:

Eduardo A. Ventosa-Febles, Consultant, Puerto Rico

Nicole Cordero-Ramos, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map