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Datasheet

Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus
(Tomato New Delhi virus)

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Datasheet

Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 01 April 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Tomato New Delhi virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "ssDNA viruses"
  •     Group: "DNA viruses"
  •       Family: Geminiviridae
  •         Genus: Begomovirus
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) is a bipartite, single-stranded DNA virus transmitted by the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. The virus was first identified in India in 1995 affecting solanaceous crops (...

  • Principal Source
  • Draft datasheet under review

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing greenhouse cultivated Zucchini plants . Note the yellowing leaves and curling fruit.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing greenhouse cultivated Zucchini plants . Note the yellowing leaves and curling fruit.
Copyright©Miguel Juårez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing greenhouse cultivated Zucchini plants . Note the yellowing leaves and curling fruit.
SymptomsTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing greenhouse cultivated Zucchini plants . Note the yellowing leaves and curling fruit.©Miguel Juårez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing greenhouse cultivated Zucchini plants . Note the yellowing and severe curling in leaves.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing greenhouse cultivated Zucchini plants . Note the yellowing and severe curling in leaves.
Copyright©Miguel Juårez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing greenhouse cultivated Zucchini plants . Note the yellowing and severe curling in leaves.
SymptomsTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing greenhouse cultivated Zucchini plants . Note the yellowing and severe curling in leaves.©Miguel Juårez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, Zucchini fruits showing the distortion, skin roughness and Iongitudinal cracking.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, Zucchini fruits showing the distortion, skin roughness and Iongitudinal cracking.
Copyright©Miguel Juårez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, Zucchini fruits showing the distortion, skin roughness and Iongitudinal cracking.
SymptomsTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, Zucchini fruits showing the distortion, skin roughness and Iongitudinal cracking.©Miguel Juårez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing young Zucchini  plants cultivated in an open-field. Note the dwarfing and yellowing, with severe rolled leaves.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing young Zucchini plants cultivated in an open-field. Note the dwarfing and yellowing, with severe rolled leaves.
Copyright©Miguel Juårez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing young Zucchini  plants cultivated in an open-field. Note the dwarfing and yellowing, with severe rolled leaves.
SymptomsTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing young Zucchini plants cultivated in an open-field. Note the dwarfing and yellowing, with severe rolled leaves.©Miguel Juårez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); melon plants, cultivated in open-field, showing the mosaic and blistering of leaves.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); melon plants, cultivated in open-field, showing the mosaic and blistering of leaves.
Copyright©Miguel Juårez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); melon plants, cultivated in open-field, showing the mosaic and blistering of leaves.
SymptomsTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); melon plants, cultivated in open-field, showing the mosaic and blistering of leaves.©Miguel Juårez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); melon plants, cultivated in open-field, showing yellowing and downward curling of leaves.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); melon plants, cultivated in open-field, showing yellowing and downward curling of leaves.
Copyright©Miguel Juårez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); melon plants, cultivated in open-field, showing yellowing and downward curling of leaves.
SymptomsTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); melon plants, cultivated in open-field, showing yellowing and downward curling of leaves.©Miguel Juårez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); melon plants, cultivated in open-field, showing yellowing and downward curling of leaves.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); melon plants, cultivated in open-field, showing yellowing and downward curling of leaves.
Copyright©Miguel Juårez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); melon plants, cultivated in open-field, showing yellowing and downward curling of leaves.
SymptomsTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); melon plants, cultivated in open-field, showing yellowing and downward curling of leaves.©Miguel Juårez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); melon fruit, with longitudinal cracking.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); melon fruit, with longitudinal cracking.
Copyright©Miguel Juårez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); melon fruit, with longitudinal cracking.
SymptomsTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); melon fruit, with longitudinal cracking.©Miguel Juårez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing cucumber plant leaves, with interveinal chlorosis and downward curling.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing cucumber plant leaves, with interveinal chlorosis and downward curling.
Copyright©Miguel Juårez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing cucumber plant leaves, with interveinal chlorosis and downward curling.
SymptomsTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing cucumber plant leaves, with interveinal chlorosis and downward curling.©Miguel Juårez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing cucumber plant leaves, with interveinal chlorosis and stunting.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing cucumber plant leaves, with interveinal chlorosis and stunting.
Copyright©Miguel Juårez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing cucumber plant leaves, with interveinal chlorosis and stunting.
SymptomsTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing cucumber plant leaves, with interveinal chlorosis and stunting.©Miguel Juårez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Solanum plant leaves with yellow spots.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Solanum plant leaves with yellow spots.
Copyright©Miguel Juårez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Solanum plant leaves with yellow spots.
SymptomsTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Solanum plant leaves with yellow spots.©Miguel Juårez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Solanum plant leaves with yellow spots.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Solanum plant leaves with yellow spots.
Copyright©Miguel Juårez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Solanum plant leaves with yellow spots.
SymptomsTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Solanum plant leaves with yellow spots.©Miguel Juårez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Sonchus plants with chlorosis and downward curling.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Sonchus plants with chlorosis and downward curling.
Copyright©Miguel Juårez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Sonchus plants with chlorosis and downward curling.
SymptomsTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Sonchus plants with chlorosis and downward curling.©Miguel Juårez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Sonchus plants with chlorosis and downward curling.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Sonchus plants with chlorosis and downward curling.
Copyright©Miguel Juårez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Sonchus plants with chlorosis and downward curling.
SymptomsTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Sonchus plants with chlorosis and downward curling.©Miguel Juårez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing squash plant with mosaic and upward curling on leaves.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing squash plant with mosaic and upward curling on leaves.
Copyright©Miguel Juårez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing squash plant with mosaic and upward curling on leaves.
SymptomsTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing squash plant with mosaic and upward curling on leaves.©Miguel Juårez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing squash plant with yellow mottle on young leaves.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing squash plant with yellow mottle on young leaves.
Copyright©Miguel Juårez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing squash plant with yellow mottle on young leaves.
SymptomsTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing squash plant with yellow mottle on young leaves.©Miguel Juårez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Ecbalium plants with interveinal yellowing and stunting.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Ecbalium plants with interveinal yellowing and stunting.
Copyright©Miguel Juårez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Ecbalium plants with interveinal yellowing and stunting.
SymptomsTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Ecbalium plants with interveinal yellowing and stunting.©Miguel Juårez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Ecbalium plants with interveinal yellowing.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Ecbalium plants with interveinal yellowing.
Copyright©Miguel Juårez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Ecbalium plants with interveinal yellowing.
SymptomsTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Ecbalium plants with interveinal yellowing.©Miguel Juårez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Datura plants with chlorosis and distortion of foliage.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Datura plants with chlorosis and distortion of foliage.
Copyright©Miguel Juårez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Datura plants with chlorosis and distortion of foliage.
SymptomsTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Datura plants with chlorosis and distortion of foliage.©Miguel Juårez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Datura plants with chlorosis and distortion of foliage.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Datura plants with chlorosis and distortion of foliage.
Copyright©Miguel Juårez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Datura plants with chlorosis and distortion of foliage.
SymptomsTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Datura plants with chlorosis and distortion of foliage.©Miguel Juårez

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus

Preferred Common Name

  • Tomato New Delhi virus

Other Scientific Names

  • Tomato leaf curl New Delhi begomovirus

International Common Names

  • English: Bitter gourd yellow vein virus; Tomato New Delhi virus

English acronym

  • ToLCNDV

EPPO code

  • TOLCND

Summary of Invasiveness

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Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) is a bipartite, single-stranded DNA virus transmitted by the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. The virus was first identified in India in 1995 affecting solanaceous crops (Padidam et al., 1995) and thereafter, causing major damage to cucurbit crops on the Indian subcontinent (Zaidi et al., 2017). ToLCNDV was first detected in Europe in 2012, affecting zucchini squash crops in Spain (Juárez et al., 2014), with subsequent detections in Tunisia (Mnari-Hattab et al., 2015), Italy (Panno et al., 2016) and Morocco (Sifres et al., 2018). ToLCNDV is responsible for severe outbreaks of disease in cucurbit crops in the Mediterranean basin (Juárez et al., 2019; Panno et al., 2019) and represents a serious threat to economically important solanaceous crops in the region (Moriones et al., 2017). ToLCNDV appears to be spreading rapidly and is listed as a quarantine pest by EPPO (EPPO, 2019a). There are quarantine measures to control its whitefly vector (Bertin et al., 2018).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "ssDNA viruses"
  •         Group: "DNA viruses"
  •             Family: Geminiviridae
  •                 Genus: Begomovirus
  •                     Species: Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus

Description

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ToLCNDV is a bipartite begomovirus with two circular, single-stranded DNA genome components (DNA-A and DNA-B) of approximately 2.5-2.7 kb. The DNA-A component can replicate autonomously, although the DNA-B component is needed for plant systemic infection (Padidam et al., 1995; Brown et al., 2015; Zaidi et al., 2017).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentEPPO (2020)
MoroccoPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveSifres et al. (2018); EPPO (2020)
SeychellesPresentIntroducedInvasiveScussel et al. (2018); EPPO (2020)
TunisiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveMnari-Hattab et al. (2015); CABI and EPPO (2016); EPPO (2020)

Asia

BangladeshPresentNativeMaruthi et al. (2005); Punam Kumari et al. (2010); CABI and EPPO (2016); EPPO (2020)
IndiaPresentSivalingam et al. (2011); Khan et al. (2014); EPPO (2020)
-Andhra PradeshPresentNativeReddy et al. (2010); Jyothsna et al. (2013); CABI and EPPO (2016); EPPO (2020)
-DelhiPresentNativeReddy et al. (2010); Sohrab et al. (2010); Sivalingam et al. (2011); Jyothsna et al. (2013); CABI and EPPO (2016); EPPO (2020)
-GujaratPresentNativeReddy et al. (2010); Jyothsna et al. (2013); CABI and EPPO (2016); EPPO (2020)
-HaryanaPresentNativeReddy et al. (2010); Sohrab et al. (2010); Sivalingam et al. (2011); Jyothsna et al. (2013); CABI and EPPO (2016); EPPO (2020)
-KarnatakaPresentNativeReddy et al. (2010); CABI and EPPO (2016); EPPO (2020)
-Madhya PradeshPresentEPPO (2020)
-MaharashtraPresentNativeReddy et al. (2010); Jyothsna et al. (2013); CABI and EPPO (2016); EPPO (2020)
-PunjabPresentNativeReddy et al. (2010); Sivalingam et al. (2011); Jyothsna et al. (2013); CABI and EPPO (2016); EPPO (2020)
-Tamil NaduPresentNativeReddy et al. (2010); Nagendran et al. (2014); CABI and EPPO (2016); EPPO (2020)
-Uttar PradeshPresent, WidespreadNativeVenkataravanappa Venkataravanappa et al. (2018); Reddy et al. (2010); Sivalingam et al. (2011); Jyothsna et al. (2013); CABI and EPPO (2016); EPPO (2020)
-West BengalPresent, LocalizedNativeBuddhadeb Roy and Sherpa (2018); CABI and EPPO (2016); EPPO (2020)
IndonesiaPresentNativeWilisiani et al. (2019); CABI and EPPO (2016); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-JavaPresentNativeWilisiani et al. (2019); Mizutani et al. (2011); CABI and EPPO (2016); EPPO (2020)
IranPresent, LocalizedNativeYazdani-Khameneh et al. (2013); CABI and EPPO (2016); Yazdani-Khameneh et al. (2016); EPPO (2020)
PakistanPresentNativeZaidi et al. (2016); Tahir and Haider (2005); CABI and EPPO (2016); EPPO (2020)
PhilippinesPresentCABI and EPPO (2016); EPPO (2020)
Sri LankaPresentNativeBandaranayake et al. (2014); CABI and EPPO (2016); EPPO (2020)
TaiwanPresentNativeChang HoHsiung et al. (2010); CABI and EPPO (2016); EPPO (2020)
ThailandPresentNativeIto et al. (2008); CABI and EPPO (2016); EPPO (2020)

Europe

EstoniaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
GreecePresent, LocalizedOrfanidou et al. (2019); EPPO (2020)
ItalyPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveParrella et al. (2018); CABI and EPPO (2016); Panno et al. (2016); EPPO (2020)
-SardiniaPresentEPPO (2020)
-SicilyPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2016); EPPO (2020)
LithuaniaAbsent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2020)
PortugalPresent, Few occurrencesEPPO (2020)
-AzoresPresent, Few occurrencesEPPO (2020)
SloveniaAbsent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2020)
SpainPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveRuiz et al. (2017); Juárez et al. (2014); CABI and EPPO (2016); EPPO (2020)
-Balearic IslandsPresentEPPO (2020)
-Canary IslandsPresentEPPO (2020)

History of Introduction and Spread

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Since 1995, ToLCNDV has spread widely in Asia into plant species of the Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae. It has recently emerged in the Mediterranean basin, first detected in Spain in 2012 (Juárez et al., 2014) and in subsequent years in other countries such as Italy, Tunisia, Morocco and Greece (Mnari‐Hattab et al., 2015; Panno et al., 2016; Sifres et al., 2018; Orfanidou et al., 2019). Nucleotide sequence comparisons of ToLCNDV populations has displayed a geographical structure between the ToLCNDV isolates that are currently circulating in Asian and Mediterranean countries (Zaidi et al., 2017). The genetic structure of ToLCNDV populations in the Mediterranean basin appears to be genetically homogeneous, with isolates belonging to the named ToLCNDV-ES genotype (Moriones et al., 2017) and quite differentiated from ToLCNDV isolates reported from the Indian subcontinent (Fortes et al., 2016; Juárez et al., 2019). Due to the high nucleotide similarity among ToLCNDV isolates from the Mediterranean area, it is possible that this viral population came from a single introduction, and a common origin can be assumed (Moriones et al., 2017). It is possible that this invading virus population results in a genetically stable population with reduced genetic diversity. However, the same path that resulted in this long-range dispersal of the ToLCNDV-ES strain could also be responsible for the introduction of other new variants that could even establish recombination processes, and hence, generate variants with selective advantage that shape the evolutionary dynamics and epidemiology of this viral disease (Lefeuvre and Moriones, 2015).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Spain Asia 2012 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No Juárez et al.; 2014
Italy Asia 2015 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No Luigi et al.; 2016
Tunisia Asia 2015 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No Mnari-Hattab et al.; 2015
Morocco Asia 2017 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No Sifres et al.; 2018
Seychelles Asia 2017 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No Scussel et al.; 2018
Greece Asia 2018 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No Orfanidou et al.; 2019
Estonia Asia 2019 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No EPPO; 2019
Portugal Asia 2019 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No EPPO; 2019

Risk of Introduction

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The invasion of intensively and widely-cultivated cucurbit crops by whitefly populations in temperate climatic conditions such as open fields and greenhouses may have led to the rapid spread of ToLCNDV (Fortes et al., 2016). Host plant studies show that wild plant species and other solanaceous crop plants such as aubergine, potato and pepper can be infected (Bhatnagar et al., 2017; Juárez et al., 2019Luigi et al., 2019). ToLCNDV is spreading rapidly in economically important crops, and is included as a quarantine pest in the EPPO alert list (EPPO, 2019a). In addition, there are quarantine measures to control its whitefly vector (Bertin et al., 2018).

Habitat

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The principal habitat for ToLCNDV is cultivated crops and wild plants. Epidemics and outbreaks of ToLCNDV disease are associated with vegetable-producing regions where environmental conditions are suitable for Bemisia tabaci, such as greenhouses and open fields with temperate or mild climates.  

Hosts/Species Affected

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ToLCNDV affects a wide spectrum of plant species, and the number of new hosts may increase (EPPO, 2019).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Abelmoschus esculentus (okra)MalvaceaeMain
Benincasa hispida (wax gourd)CucurbitaceaeMain
Calotropis procera (apple of sodom)ApocynaceaeWild host
Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)SolanaceaeMain
Carica papaya (pawpaw)CaricaceaeOther
Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle)ApocynaceaeWild host
Cestrum nocturnum (night jessamine)SolanaceaeWild host
Chenopodium album (fat hen)ChenopodiaceaeWild host
Citrullus lanatus (watermelon)CucurbitaceaeOther
Coccinia grandis (scarlet-fruited ivy gourd)CucurbitaceaeOther
Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed)ConvolvulaceaeOther
Cucumis melo (melon)CucurbitaceaeMain
Cucumis sativus (cucumber)CucurbitaceaeMain
Cucurbita ficifolia (black seed squash)CucurbitaceaeOther
Cucurbita maxima (giant pumpkin)CucurbitaceaeMain
Cucurbita moschata (pumpkin)CucurbitaceaeMain
Cucurbita pepo (marrow)CucurbitaceaeMain
Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (guar)FabaceaeMain
Datura stramonium (jimsonweed)SolanaceaeWild host
Daucus carota (carrot)ApiaceaeOther
Ecballium elateriumCucurbitaceaeWild host
Eclipta prostrata (eclipta)AsteraceaeWild host
Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeOther
Gossypium hirsutum (Bourbon cotton)MalvaceaeOther
Hibiscus cannabinus (kenaf)MalvaceaeWild host
Jasminum multiflorum (star jasmine)OleaceaeWild host
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd)CucurbitaceaeMain
Luffa aegyptiaca (loofah)CucurbitaceaeMain
Momordica charantia (bitter gourd)CucurbitaceaeMain
Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)SolanaceaeOther
Papaver somniferum (Opium poppy)PapaveraceaeWild host
Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed)AsteraceaeWild host
Rumex dentatusPolygonaceaeWild host
Saccharum edulePoaceaeOther
Sauropus androgynusEuphorbiaceaeOther
Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeMain
Solanum melongena (aubergine)SolanaceaeMain
Solanum nigrum (black nightshade)SolanaceaeWild host
Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeMain
Sonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle)AsteraceaeWild host
Trichosanthes cucumerina (snake gourd)CucurbitaceaeMain

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

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ToLCNDV symptoms are dependent on the host plant species and growing conditions, although common symptoms may include curling and yellowing in young leaves of zucchini and melon plants, vein swelling in cucumber plants, and severe mosaic in melon plants, negatively affecting food productivity and quality. It is likely that the severity of symptoms may depend on plant species, the environment, growing conditions, and potential mixed infections with other plant viruses, and even the presence of betasatellites associated with ToLCNDV (Jyothsna et al., 2013), although no betasatellites have been yet found in cucurbit crops in the Mediterranean basin (Juárez et al., 2019)..

ToLCNDV disease is easily recognized when cucurbit plants are infected at the seedling stage. The symptoms associated with ToLCNDV infection are leaf distortion, yellow mosaic, vein clearing and leaf curl (Juárez et al., 2019).

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal shape
Fruit / discoloration
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / abnormal patterns
Leaves / leaves rolled or folded
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / discoloration
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Whole plant / discoloration
Whole plant / distortion; rosetting
Whole plant / dwarfing

Biology and Ecology

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ToLCNDV is transmitted naturally by the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, in a circulative, persistent manner. This whitefly is commonly found in tropical and subtropical countries and has a very wide host range (Bertin et al., 2018). The virus can be transmitted by several species associated with the B. tabaci complex. For instance, the Asia 1, Asia II 1/5/7 and MEAM1 (Middle East-Asia Minor 1) species are vectors of ToLCNDV in different regions of South Asia (De Barro et al., 2010). The Mediterranean species Q1, with its seven different haplotypes is responsible for the transmission of ToLCNDV in tomato, zucchini and melon crops in Spain (Janssen et al., 2017). Further studies have shown that the transmission of ToLCNDV requires a minimum acquisition period about 30 min and the inoculation access period is about 10 minutes, similar to studies carried out on other begomoviruses, such as TYLCV (Ghanim et al., 2001).  

Epidemiology

ToLCNDV disease can be observed in cucurbit crops throughout the affected regions. The virus is transmitted to cucurbit plants after vector feeding on infected plants or alternative hosts. Disease incidence can vary between seasons, and appears to be directly correlated with the pressure of the whitefly population.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Tolerated Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
40 20

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 12
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 22 40
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 22 45
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 16 18

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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ToLCNDV is transmitted by the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, in a circulative, persistent manner (Fondong, 2013Zaidi et al., 2017). The dispersal of ToLCNDV is associated with the movement of the whitefly vector (Fortes et al., 2016; Zaidi et al., 2017; Bertin et al., 2018). Whiteflies seldom move locally from one to plant to another, and long-distance dispersal may be facilitated by winds and human activities through propagating plant material. It is possible that whitefly populations move from one crop to another, particularly when a crop is harvested or abandoned. ToLCNDV dispersal might be also facilitated through contaminated seed, as seed transmission of TYLCV has recently been reported to occur in tomato plants (Kil et al., 2016), and close isolates have been shown to be seed transmissible (Sangeetha et al., 2018).

The virus is limited to the plant phloem. Experimental host plants can be infected by mechanical inoculation (Sayed et al., 2013Lopez et al., 2015).

Seedborne Aspects

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Seed transmission of ToLCNDV has not been reported

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionSeasonal crop rotation Yes Yes
HorticultureWhitefly host switch during harvest and vegetable trade Yes Yes
Nursery tradeTrade of seedlings Yes Yes
Ornamental purposesTrade of ornamental plant material Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Host and vector organisms Yes Yes
Wind Yes Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Leaves
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
Wood

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Bemisia tabaciPolyphagous insect that occurs in subtropical and tropical climates around the worldEFSA Panel on Plant Health, 2013. InsectWorld

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Economic Impact

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ToLCNDV was first described from India in 1995, and was known as a problem confined to solanaceous and cucurbit crops in Asian countries. However, in 2012, ToLCNDV was identified in zucchini crops in Spain and since then ToLCNDV has spread to  several countries in the Mediterranean basin affecting cucurbit crops. ToLCNDV causes serious economic losses wherever it occurs as it negatively affects the quality and yield of the vegetable crops.

ToLCNDV is a threat to solanaceous and cucurbit species, which include economically important crops such as tomato, aubergine, pepper, potato and cucurbits. These crops yield vegetables and fruits that constitute important dietary components for the population, and are commercially important in many regions. ToLCNDV disease is a major limitation to production, as it significantly affects yield and quality. The virus could potentially have a significant impact. 

Environmental Impact

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In addition to the impact of ToLCNDV disease, the whitefly vector, Bemisia tabaci, is also a crop pest. Populations of the vector are usually controlled by chemicals, which could have a negative impact on the environment and biodiversity by affecting the vegetable crops and beneficial organisms.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Host damage
  • Increases vulnerability to invasions
  • Loss of medicinal resources
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
  • Negatively impacts trade/international relations
Impact mechanisms
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Interaction with other invasive species
  • Pathogenic
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Diagnosis

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ToLCNDV diagnosis can be achieved using PCR and non-radioactive nucleic acids spot hybridization (NASH) techniques (Alfaro-Fernández et al., 2016). These methods allow specific detection of ToLCNDV in infected plant material. ToLCNDV may also be detected by the ELISA-DAS technique with commercially available polyclonal antibodies.

Total DNA can be extracted from each plant using commercial kits or the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-based procedure. (i) The PCR diagnosis is usually performed with specific primers designed to amplify the coat protein (DNA-A component). (ii)  Molecular hybridization can be carried out from plant leaf petioles, which must be cut transversely and then printed twice onto a positively-charged nylon membrane, or from total DNA extraction. Then, the membrane is DNA:DNA hybridized using a specific DNA probe, which is usually corresponding to conserved segments of the coat protein gene (DNA-A). (iii) Total DNA can also be used to amplify the full genome by rolling circle amplification (RCA) using ϕ29 DNA polymerase. The generated amplification products must be digested by the restriction enzymes (for example, Noc I and Bstx I) that cut at a unique restriction site for DNA-A and DNA-B, respectively, confirming that all the products were linearized to similar size fragments by electrophoresis in a 1% agarose gel (Juárez et al., 2014, 2019).

Detection and Inspection

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ToLCNDV disease is clearly recognized when plants are infected at the seedling stage. The severity of symptoms may depend on the cultivar, plant crop stage and whitefly pressure. Typical symptoms include leaf curling and distortion, yellowing mosaic, vein clearing and severe stunting (Juárez et al., 2019). ToLCNDV and variants can be identified by ELISA-DAS, dot-blot hybridization with a virus-specific DNA probe, PCR of amplified full-length and enzyme digestion or even genomic DNA fragments using specific primers, and thereafter sequencing either clones or fragments.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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ToLCNDV has similarities to other begomoviruses, among them, the well-known viruses associated with yellow curly tomato disease (Tomato yellow leaf curl disease, TYLCD). Although, these begomoviruses are DNA monopartites, the ecology of the viral disease might be similar. TYLCD was first described in Israel associated with an increase in the population of its whitefly vector and the disease spread to epidemic levels in tomato crops over a short time (Moriones and Navas-Castillo, 2000; Díaz-Pendón et al., 2010; Lefeuvre et al., 2010).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

The use of genetic resistance appears to be the most promising strategy for control of plant viral diseases, often conferring effective protection without additional costs or labour during the growing season, and without damaging the environment (Gómez et al., 2009). However, no cultivars resistant to ToLCNDV infection have yet been identified. To date, only four accessions of Cucurbita moschata have been found to be symptomless or to display mild symptoms after ToLCNDV infection, appearing to be potential candidates as sources of ToLCNDV resistance in cucurbits (Sáez et al., 2016), and 13 accessions of tomato containing Ty genes (Akhtar et al., 2019). In the short term, an integrated disease management programme is required to efficiently reduce the source of virus inoculum, and it must be implemented (EPPO, 2019a) in addition to the quarantine measures to control its whitefly vector (Bertin et al., 2018).

References

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Distribution References

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Links to Websites

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Organizations

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India: International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, New Delhi, https://www.icgeb.org

Pakistan: National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faisalabad, http://www.nibge.org

Italy: Università degli Studi di Palermo, Palermo, http://www.unipa.it

Spain: Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura, Murcia, https://www.juntadeandalucia.es/agriculturaypesca/ifapa

Spain: Instituto de Investigación y Formación Agraria y Pesquera, Almería, https://www.juntadeandalucia.es/agriculturaypesca/ifapa

Spain (mainland): Instituto de Hortofruticultura Subtropical y Meditarránea, Málaga, www.eelm.csic.es

Principal Source

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Draft datasheet under review

Contributors

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28/11/19 Original text by:

Pedro Gómez, Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura (CEBAS)- CSIC, Departamento de Biología del Estrés y Patología Vegetal, PO Box 164, 30100 Espinardo, Murcia, Spain.

Miguel Juárez, Escuela Politécnica Superior de Orihuela, Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche, Orihuela 03312, Alicante, Spain.

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