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Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus
(Tomato New Delhi virus)

Gómez P and Juárez M, 2019. Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.118179.20210199890

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Datasheet

Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 13 May 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Tomato New Delhi virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "ssDNA viruses"
  •     Group: "DNA viruses"
  •       Family: Geminiviridae
  •         Genus: Begomovirus
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) is a bipartite, single-stranded DNA virus transmitted by the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. The virus was first identified in India in 1995 affecting solanaceous crops (...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing greenhouse cultivated Zucchini plants . Note the yellowing leaves and curling fruit.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing greenhouse cultivated Zucchini plants . Note the yellowing leaves and curling fruit.
Copyright©Miguel JuÃ¥rez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing greenhouse cultivated Zucchini plants . Note the yellowing leaves and curling fruit.
SymptomsTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing greenhouse cultivated Zucchini plants . Note the yellowing leaves and curling fruit.©Miguel JuÃ¥rez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing greenhouse cultivated Zucchini plants . Note the yellowing and severe curling in leaves.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing greenhouse cultivated Zucchini plants . Note the yellowing and severe curling in leaves.
Copyright©Miguel JuÃ¥rez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing greenhouse cultivated Zucchini plants . Note the yellowing and severe curling in leaves.
SymptomsTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing greenhouse cultivated Zucchini plants . Note the yellowing and severe curling in leaves.©Miguel JuÃ¥rez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, Zucchini fruits showing the distortion, skin roughness and Iongitudinal cracking.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, Zucchini fruits showing the distortion, skin roughness and Iongitudinal cracking.
Copyright©Miguel JuÃ¥rez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, Zucchini fruits showing the distortion, skin roughness and Iongitudinal cracking.
SymptomsTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, Zucchini fruits showing the distortion, skin roughness and Iongitudinal cracking.©Miguel JuÃ¥rez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing young Zucchini  plants cultivated in an open-field. Note the dwarfing and yellowing, with severe rolled leaves.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing young Zucchini plants cultivated in an open-field. Note the dwarfing and yellowing, with severe rolled leaves.
Copyright©Miguel JuÃ¥rez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing young Zucchini  plants cultivated in an open-field. Note the dwarfing and yellowing, with severe rolled leaves.
SymptomsTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing young Zucchini plants cultivated in an open-field. Note the dwarfing and yellowing, with severe rolled leaves.©Miguel JuÃ¥rez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); melon plants, cultivated in open-field, showing the mosaic and blistering of leaves.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); melon plants, cultivated in open-field, showing the mosaic and blistering of leaves.
Copyright©Miguel JuÃ¥rez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); melon plants, cultivated in open-field, showing the mosaic and blistering of leaves.
SymptomsTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); melon plants, cultivated in open-field, showing the mosaic and blistering of leaves.©Miguel JuÃ¥rez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); melon plants, cultivated in open-field, showing yellowing and downward curling of leaves.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); melon plants, cultivated in open-field, showing yellowing and downward curling of leaves.
Copyright©Miguel JuÃ¥rez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); melon plants, cultivated in open-field, showing yellowing and downward curling of leaves.
SymptomsTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); melon plants, cultivated in open-field, showing yellowing and downward curling of leaves.©Miguel JuÃ¥rez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); melon plants, cultivated in open-field, showing yellowing and downward curling of leaves.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); melon plants, cultivated in open-field, showing yellowing and downward curling of leaves.
Copyright©Miguel JuÃ¥rez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); melon plants, cultivated in open-field, showing yellowing and downward curling of leaves.
SymptomsTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); melon plants, cultivated in open-field, showing yellowing and downward curling of leaves.©Miguel JuÃ¥rez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); melon fruit, with longitudinal cracking.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); melon fruit, with longitudinal cracking.
Copyright©Miguel JuÃ¥rez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); melon fruit, with longitudinal cracking.
SymptomsTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); melon fruit, with longitudinal cracking.©Miguel JuÃ¥rez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing cucumber plant leaves, with interveinal chlorosis and downward curling.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing cucumber plant leaves, with interveinal chlorosis and downward curling.
Copyright©Miguel JuÃ¥rez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing cucumber plant leaves, with interveinal chlorosis and downward curling.
SymptomsTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing cucumber plant leaves, with interveinal chlorosis and downward curling.©Miguel JuÃ¥rez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing cucumber plant leaves, with interveinal chlorosis and stunting.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing cucumber plant leaves, with interveinal chlorosis and stunting.
Copyright©Miguel JuÃ¥rez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing cucumber plant leaves, with interveinal chlorosis and stunting.
SymptomsTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing cucumber plant leaves, with interveinal chlorosis and stunting.©Miguel JuÃ¥rez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Solanum plant leaves with yellow spots.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Solanum plant leaves with yellow spots.
Copyright©Miguel JuÃ¥rez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Solanum plant leaves with yellow spots.
SymptomsTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Solanum plant leaves with yellow spots.©Miguel JuÃ¥rez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Solanum plant leaves with yellow spots.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Solanum plant leaves with yellow spots.
Copyright©Miguel JuÃ¥rez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Solanum plant leaves with yellow spots.
SymptomsTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Solanum plant leaves with yellow spots.©Miguel JuÃ¥rez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Sonchus plants with chlorosis and downward curling.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Sonchus plants with chlorosis and downward curling.
Copyright©Miguel JuÃ¥rez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Sonchus plants with chlorosis and downward curling.
SymptomsTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Sonchus plants with chlorosis and downward curling.©Miguel JuÃ¥rez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Sonchus plants with chlorosis and downward curling.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Sonchus plants with chlorosis and downward curling.
Copyright©Miguel JuÃ¥rez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Sonchus plants with chlorosis and downward curling.
SymptomsTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Sonchus plants with chlorosis and downward curling.©Miguel JuÃ¥rez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing squash plant with mosaic and upward curling on leaves.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing squash plant with mosaic and upward curling on leaves.
Copyright©Miguel JuÃ¥rez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing squash plant with mosaic and upward curling on leaves.
SymptomsTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing squash plant with mosaic and upward curling on leaves.©Miguel JuÃ¥rez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing squash plant with yellow mottle on young leaves.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing squash plant with yellow mottle on young leaves.
Copyright©Miguel JuÃ¥rez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing squash plant with yellow mottle on young leaves.
SymptomsTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing squash plant with yellow mottle on young leaves.©Miguel JuÃ¥rez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Ecbalium plants with interveinal yellowing and stunting.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Ecbalium plants with interveinal yellowing and stunting.
Copyright©Miguel JuÃ¥rez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Ecbalium plants with interveinal yellowing and stunting.
SymptomsTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Ecbalium plants with interveinal yellowing and stunting.©Miguel JuÃ¥rez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Ecbalium plants with interveinal yellowing.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Ecbalium plants with interveinal yellowing.
Copyright©Miguel JuÃ¥rez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Ecbalium plants with interveinal yellowing.
SymptomsTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Ecbalium plants with interveinal yellowing.©Miguel JuÃ¥rez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Datura plants with chlorosis and distortion of foliage.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Datura plants with chlorosis and distortion of foliage.
Copyright©Miguel JuÃ¥rez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Datura plants with chlorosis and distortion of foliage.
SymptomsTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Datura plants with chlorosis and distortion of foliage.©Miguel JuÃ¥rez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Datura plants with chlorosis and distortion of foliage.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Datura plants with chlorosis and distortion of foliage.
Copyright©Miguel JuÃ¥rez
Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Datura plants with chlorosis and distortion of foliage.
SymptomsTomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (Tomato New Delhi virus); symptoms, showing Datura plants with chlorosis and distortion of foliage.©Miguel JuÃ¥rez

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus

Preferred Common Name

  • Tomato New Delhi virus

Other Scientific Names

  • Tomato leaf curl New Delhi begomovirus

International Common Names

  • English: Bitter gourd yellow vein virus; Tomato New Delhi virus

English acronym

  • ToLCNDV

EPPO code

  • TOLCND

Summary of Invasiveness

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Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) is a bipartite, single-stranded DNA virus transmitted by the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. The virus was first identified in India in 1995 affecting solanaceous crops (Padidam et al., 1995) and thereafter, causing major damage to cucurbit crops on the Indian subcontinent (Zaidi et al., 2017). ToLCNDV was first detected in Europe in 2012, affecting zucchini squash crops in Spain (Juárez et al., 2014), with subsequent detections in Tunisia (Mnari-Hattab et al., 2015), Italy (Panno et al., 2016) and Morocco (Sifres et al., 2018). ToLCNDV is responsible for severe outbreaks of disease in cucurbit crops in the Mediterranean basin (Juárez et al., 2019; Panno et al., 2019) and represents a serious threat to economically important solanaceous crops in the region (Moriones et al., 2017). ToLCNDV appears to be spreading rapidly and is listed as a quarantine pest by EPPO (EPPO, 2019). There are quarantine measures to control its whitefly vector (Bertin et al., 2018).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "ssDNA viruses"
  •         Group: "DNA viruses"
  •             Family: Geminiviridae
  •                 Genus: Begomovirus
  •                     Species: Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus

Description

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ToLCNDV is a bipartite begomovirus with two circular, single-stranded DNA genome components (DNA-A and DNA-B) of approximately 2.5-2.7 kb. The DNA-A component can replicate autonomously, although the DNA-B component is needed for plant systemic infection (Padidam et al., 1995; Brown et al., 2015; Zaidi et al., 2017).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Mar 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent, Localized
MoroccoPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
SeychellesPresentIntroducedInvasive
TunisiaPresentIntroducedInvasive

Asia

BangladeshPresentNative
IndiaPresent
-Andhra PradeshPresentNative
-BiharPresent
-DelhiPresentNative
-GujaratPresentNative
-HaryanaPresentNative
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
-KarnatakaPresentNative
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-MaharashtraPresentNative
-PunjabPresentNative
-Tamil NaduPresentNative
-TelanganaPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent, WidespreadNative
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresentNative
-JavaPresentNative
-SumatraPresent
IranPresent, LocalizedNative
PakistanPresentNative
PhilippinesPresent
Sri LankaPresentNative
TaiwanPresentNative
ThailandPresentNative

Europe

EstoniaPresent, Localized
FrancePresent, Transient under eradicationNPPO of France, 2020.
GreecePresent, Localized
ItalyPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
-SardiniaPresent
-SicilyPresent, Localized
LithuaniaAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
PortugalPresent, Few occurrences
-AzoresPresent, Few occurrencesNPPO of Portugal, 2019.
SloveniaAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
SpainPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
-Balearic IslandsPresent
-Canary IslandsPresent

History of Introduction and Spread

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Since 1995, ToLCNDV has spread widely in Asia into plant species of the Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae. It has recently emerged in the Mediterranean basin, first detected in Spain in 2012 (Juárez et al., 2014) and in subsequent years in other countries such as Italy, Tunisia, Morocco and Greece (Mnari‐Hattab et al., 2015; Panno et al., 2016; Sifres et al., 2018; Orfanidou et al., 2019). Nucleotide sequence comparisons of ToLCNDV populations has displayed a geographical structure between the ToLCNDV isolates that are currently circulating in Asian and Mediterranean countries (Zaidi et al., 2017). The genetic structure of ToLCNDV populations in the Mediterranean basin appears to be genetically homogeneous, with isolates belonging to the named ToLCNDV-ES genotype (Moriones et al., 2017) and quite differentiated from ToLCNDV isolates reported from the Indian subcontinent (Fortes et al., 2016; Juárez et al., 2019). Due to the high nucleotide similarity among ToLCNDV isolates from the Mediterranean area, it is possible that this viral population came from a single introduction, and a common origin can be assumed (Moriones et al., 2017). It is possible that this invading virus population results in a genetically stable population with reduced genetic diversity. However, the same path that resulted in this long-range dispersal of the ToLCNDV-ES strain could also be responsible for the introduction of other new variants that could even establish recombination processes, and hence, generate variants with selective advantage that shape the evolutionary dynamics and epidemiology of this viral disease (Lefeuvre and Moriones, 2015).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Spain Asia 2012 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No Juárez et al.; 2014
Italy Asia 2015 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No Luigi et al.; 2016
Tunisia Asia 2015 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No Mnari-Hattab et al.; 2015
Morocco Asia 2017 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No Sifres et al.; 2018
Seychelles Asia 2017 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No Scussel et al.; 2018
Greece Asia 2018 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No Orfanidou et al.; 2019
Estonia Asia 2019 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No EPPO; 2019
Portugal Asia 2019 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No EPPO; 2019

Risk of Introduction

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The invasion of intensively and widely-cultivated cucurbit crops by whitefly populations in temperate climatic conditions such as open fields and greenhouses may have led to the rapid spread of ToLCNDV (Fortes et al., 2016). Host plant studies show that wild plant species and other solanaceous crop plants such as aubergine, potato and pepper can be infected (Bhatnagar et al., 2017; Juárez et al., 2019Luigi et al., 2019). ToLCNDV is spreading rapidly in economically important crops, and is included as a quarantine pest in the EPPO alert list (EPPO, 2019a). In addition, there are quarantine measures to control its whitefly vector (Bertin et al., 2018).

Habitat

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The principal habitat for ToLCNDV is cultivated crops and wild plants. Epidemics and outbreaks of ToLCNDV disease are associated with vegetable-producing regions where environmental conditions are suitable for Bemisia tabaci, such as greenhouses and open fields with temperate or mild climates.  

Hosts/Species Affected

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ToLCNDV affects a wide spectrum of plant species, and the number of new hosts may increase (EPPO, 2019).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Abelmoschus esculentus (okra)MalvaceaeMain
    Benincasa hispida (wax gourd)CucurbitaceaeMain
      Calotropis procera (apple of sodom)ApocynaceaeWild host
        Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)SolanaceaeMain
          Carica papaya (pawpaw)CaricaceaeOther
            Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle)ApocynaceaeWild host
              Cestrum nocturnum (night jessamine)SolanaceaeWild host
                Chenopodium album (fat hen)ChenopodiaceaeWild host
                  Citrullus lanatus (watermelon)CucurbitaceaeOther
                    Coccinia grandis (scarlet-fruited ivy gourd)CucurbitaceaeOther
                      Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed)ConvolvulaceaeOther
                        Crossandra undulifoliaAcanthaceaeOther
                          Cucumis melo (melon)CucurbitaceaeMain
                            Cucumis sativus (cucumber)CucurbitaceaeMain
                              Cucurbita ficifolia (black seed squash)CucurbitaceaeOther
                                Cucurbita maxima (giant pumpkin)CucurbitaceaeMain
                                  Cucurbita moschata (pumpkin)CucurbitaceaeMain
                                    Cucurbita pepo (marrow)CucurbitaceaeMain
                                      Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (guar)FabaceaeMain
                                        Datura stramonium (jimsonweed)SolanaceaeWild host
                                          Daucus carota (carrot)ApiaceaeOther
                                            Ecballium elateriumCucurbitaceaeWild host
                                              Eclipta prostrata (eclipta)AsteraceaeWild host
                                                Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeOther
                                                  Gossypium hirsutum (Bourbon cotton)MalvaceaeOther
                                                    Hibiscus cannabinus (kenaf)MalvaceaeWild host
                                                      Jasminum multiflorum (star jasmine)OleaceaeWild host
                                                        Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd)CucurbitaceaeMain
                                                          Luffa aegyptiaca (loofah)CucurbitaceaeMain
                                                            Momordica charantia (bitter gourd)CucurbitaceaeMain
                                                              Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)SolanaceaeOther
                                                                Papaver somniferum (Opium poppy)PapaveraceaeWild host
                                                                  Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed)AsteraceaeWild host
                                                                    Rumex dentatusPolygonaceaeWild host
                                                                      Saccharum edulePoaceaeOther
                                                                        Sauropus androgynusEuphorbiaceaeOther
                                                                          Sechium edule (chayote)CucurbitaceaeOther
                                                                            Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeMain
                                                                              Solanum melongena (aubergine)SolanaceaeMain
                                                                                Solanum nigrum (black nightshade)SolanaceaeWild host
                                                                                  Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeMain
                                                                                    Sonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle)AsteraceaeWild host
                                                                                      Trichosanthes cucumerina (snake gourd)CucurbitaceaeMain

                                                                                        Growth Stages

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                                                                                        Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

                                                                                        Symptoms

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                                                                                        ToLCNDV symptoms are dependent on the host plant species and growing conditions, although common symptoms may include curling and yellowing in young leaves of zucchini and melon plants, vein swelling in cucumber plants, and severe mosaic in melon plants, negatively affecting food productivity and quality. It is likely that the severity of symptoms may depend on plant species, the environment, growing conditions, and potential mixed infections with other plant viruses, and even the presence of betasatellites associated with ToLCNDV (Jyothsna et al., 2013), although no betasatellites have been yet found in cucurbit crops in the Mediterranean basin (Juárez et al., 2019).

                                                                                        ToLCNDV disease is easily recognized when cucurbit plants are infected at the seedling stage. The symptoms associated with ToLCNDV infection are leaf distortion, yellow mosaic, vein clearing and leaf curl (Juárez et al., 2019).

                                                                                        List of Symptoms/Signs

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                                                                                        SignLife StagesType
                                                                                        Fruit / abnormal shape
                                                                                        Fruit / discoloration
                                                                                        Fruit / lesions: black or brown
                                                                                        Leaves / abnormal colours
                                                                                        Leaves / abnormal forms
                                                                                        Leaves / abnormal patterns
                                                                                        Leaves / leaves rolled or folded
                                                                                        Leaves / yellowed or dead
                                                                                        Stems / discoloration
                                                                                        Stems / stunting or rosetting
                                                                                        Whole plant / discoloration
                                                                                        Whole plant / distortion; rosetting
                                                                                        Whole plant / dwarfing

                                                                                        Biology and Ecology

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                                                                                        ToLCNDV is transmitted naturally by the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, in a circulative, persistent manner. This whitefly is commonly found in tropical and subtropical countries and has a very wide host range (Bertin et al., 2018). The virus can be transmitted by several species associated with the B. tabaci complex. For instance, the Asia 1, Asia II 1/5/7 and MEAM1 (Middle East-Asia Minor 1) species are vectors of ToLCNDV in different regions of South Asia (De Barro et al., 2010). The Mediterranean species Q1, with its seven different haplotypes is responsible for the transmission of ToLCNDV in tomato, zucchini and melon crops in Spain (Janssen et al., 2017). Further studies have shown that the transmission of ToLCNDV requires a minimum acquisition period about 30 min and the inoculation access period is about 10 minutes, similar to studies carried out on other begomoviruses, such as TYLCV (Ghanim et al., 2001).  

                                                                                        Epidemiology

                                                                                        ToLCNDV disease can be observed in cucurbit crops throughout the affected regions. The virus is transmitted to cucurbit plants after vector feeding on infected plants or alternative hosts. Disease incidence can vary between seasons, and appears to be directly correlated with the pressure of the whitefly population.

                                                                                        Climate

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                                                                                        ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
                                                                                        Am - Tropical monsoon climate Tolerated Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
                                                                                        Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
                                                                                        BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
                                                                                        Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
                                                                                        Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

                                                                                        Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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                                                                                        Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
                                                                                        40 20

                                                                                        Air Temperature

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                                                                                        Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
                                                                                        Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 12
                                                                                        Mean annual temperature (ºC) 22 40
                                                                                        Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 22 45
                                                                                        Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 16 18

                                                                                        Means of Movement and Dispersal

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                                                                                        ToLCNDV is transmitted by the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, in a circulative, persistent manner (Fondong, 2013Zaidi et al., 2017). The dispersal of ToLCNDV is associated with the movement of the whitefly vector (Fortes et al., 2016; Zaidi et al., 2017; Bertin et al., 2018). Whiteflies seldom move locally from one to plant to another, and long-distance dispersal may be facilitated by winds and human activities through propagating plant material. It is possible that whitefly populations move from one crop to another, particularly when a crop is harvested or abandoned. ToLCNDV dispersal might be also facilitated through contaminated seed, as seed transmission of TYLCV has recently been reported to occur in tomato plants (Kil et al., 2016), and close isolates have been shown to be seed transmissible (Sangeetha et al., 2018).

                                                                                        The virus is limited to the plant phloem. Experimental host plants can be infected by mechanical inoculation (Sayed et al., 2013Lopez et al., 2015).

                                                                                        Seedborne Aspects

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                                                                                        Seed transmission of ToLCNDV has not been reported

                                                                                        Pathway Causes

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                                                                                        CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
                                                                                        Crop productionSeasonal crop rotation Yes Yes
                                                                                        HorticultureWhitefly host switch during harvest and vegetable trade Yes Yes
                                                                                        Nursery tradeTrade of seedlings Yes Yes
                                                                                        Ornamental purposesTrade of ornamental plant material Yes Yes

                                                                                        Pathway Vectors

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                                                                                        VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
                                                                                        Host and vector organisms Yes Yes
                                                                                        Wind Yes Yes

                                                                                        Plant Trade

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                                                                                        Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
                                                                                        Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
                                                                                        Leaves
                                                                                        Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
                                                                                        Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
                                                                                        Bark
                                                                                        Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
                                                                                        Fruits (inc. pods)
                                                                                        Growing medium accompanying plants
                                                                                        Roots
                                                                                        Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
                                                                                        Wood

                                                                                        Wood Packaging

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                                                                                        Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
                                                                                        Loose wood packing material
                                                                                        Processed or treated wood
                                                                                        Solid wood packing material with bark
                                                                                        Solid wood packing material without bark

                                                                                        Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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                                                                                        VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
                                                                                        Bemisia tabaciPolyphagous insect that occurs in subtropical and tropical climates around the worldEFSA Panel on Plant Health (2013)InsectWorld

                                                                                        Impact Summary

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                                                                                        CategoryImpact
                                                                                        Economic/livelihood Negative
                                                                                        Environment (generally) Negative

                                                                                        Economic Impact

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                                                                                        ToLCNDV was first described from India in 1995, and was known as a problem confined to solanaceous and cucurbit crops in Asian countries. However, in 2012, ToLCNDV was identified in zucchini crops in Spain and since then ToLCNDV has spread to several countries in the Mediterranean basin affecting cucurbit crops. ToLCNDV causes serious economic losses wherever it occurs as it negatively affects the quality and yield of the vegetable crops.

                                                                                        ToLCNDV is a threat to solanaceous and cucurbit species, which include economically important crops such as tomato, aubergine, pepper, potato and cucurbits. These crops yield vegetables and fruits that constitute important dietary components for the population, and are commercially important in many regions. ToLCNDV disease is a major limitation to production, as it significantly affects yield and quality. The virus could potentially have a significant impact. 

                                                                                        Environmental Impact

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                                                                                        In addition to the impact of ToLCNDV disease, the whitefly vector, Bemisia tabaci, is also a crop pest. Populations of the vector are usually controlled by chemicals, which could have a negative impact on the environment and biodiversity by affecting the vegetable crops and beneficial organisms.

                                                                                        Risk and Impact Factors

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                                                                                        Invasiveness
                                                                                        • Invasive in its native range
                                                                                        • Proved invasive outside its native range
                                                                                        • Has a broad native range
                                                                                        • Abundant in its native range
                                                                                        • Highly adaptable to different environments
                                                                                        • Is a habitat generalist
                                                                                        • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
                                                                                        • Highly mobile locally
                                                                                        • Has high genetic variability
                                                                                        Impact outcomes
                                                                                        • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
                                                                                        • Host damage
                                                                                        • Increases vulnerability to invasions
                                                                                        • Loss of medicinal resources
                                                                                        • Negatively impacts agriculture
                                                                                        • Negatively impacts livelihoods
                                                                                        • Reduced native biodiversity
                                                                                        • Threat to/ loss of native species
                                                                                        • Negatively impacts trade/international relations
                                                                                        Impact mechanisms
                                                                                        • Pest and disease transmission
                                                                                        • Interaction with other invasive species
                                                                                        • Pathogenic
                                                                                        Likelihood of entry/control
                                                                                        • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
                                                                                        • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
                                                                                        • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
                                                                                        • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
                                                                                        • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
                                                                                        • Difficult/costly to control

                                                                                        Diagnosis

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                                                                                        ToLCNDV diagnosis can be achieved using PCR and non-radioactive nucleic acids spot hybridization (NASH) techniques (Alfaro-Fernández et al., 2016). These methods allow specific detection of ToLCNDV in infected plant material. ToLCNDV may also be detected by the ELISA-DAS technique with commercially available polyclonal antibodies.

                                                                                        Total DNA can be extracted from each plant using commercial kits or the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-based procedure. (i) The PCR diagnosis is usually performed with specific primers designed to amplify the coat protein (DNA-A component). (ii)  Molecular hybridization can be carried out from plant leaf petioles, which must be cut transversely and then printed twice onto a positively-charged nylon membrane, or from total DNA extraction. Then, the membrane is DNA:DNA hybridized using a specific DNA probe, which is usually corresponding to conserved segments of the coat protein gene (DNA-A). (iii) Total DNA can also be used to amplify the full genome by rolling circle amplification (RCA) using ϕ29 DNA polymerase. The generated amplification products must be digested by the restriction enzymes (for example, Noc I and Bstx I) that cut at a unique restriction site for DNA-A and DNA-B, respectively, confirming that all the products were linearized to similar size fragments by electrophoresis in a 1% agarose gel (Juárez et al., 2014, 2019).

                                                                                        Detection and Inspection

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                                                                                        ToLCNDV disease is clearly recognized when plants are infected at the seedling stage. The severity of symptoms may depend on the cultivar, plant crop stage and whitefly pressure. Typical symptoms include leaf curling and distortion, yellowing mosaic, vein clearing and severe stunting (Juárez et al., 2019). ToLCNDV and variants can be identified by ELISA-DAS, dot-blot hybridization with a virus-specific DNA probe, PCR of amplified full-length and enzyme digestion or even genomic DNA fragments using specific primers, and thereafter sequencing either clones or fragments.

                                                                                        Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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                                                                                        ToLCNDV has similarities to other begomoviruses, among them, the well-known viruses associated with yellow curly tomato disease (Tomato yellow leaf curl disease, TYLCD). Although, these begomoviruses are DNA monopartites, the ecology of the viral disease might be similar. TYLCD was first described in Israel associated with an increase in the population of its whitefly vector and the disease spread to epidemic levels in tomato crops over a short time (Moriones and Navas-Castillo, 2000; Díaz-Pendón et al., 2010; Lefeuvre et al., 2010).

                                                                                        Prevention and Control

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                                                                                        Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

                                                                                        The use of genetic resistance appears to be the most promising strategy for control of plant viral diseases, often conferring effective protection without additional costs or labour during the growing season, and without damaging the environment (Gómez et al., 2009). However, no cultivars resistant to ToLCNDV infection have yet been identified. To date, only four accessions of Cucurbita moschata have been found to be symptomless or to display mild symptoms after ToLCNDV infection, appearing to be potential candidates as sources of ToLCNDV resistance in cucurbits (Sáez et al., 2016), and 13 accessions of tomato containing Ty genes (Akhtar et al., 2019). In the short term, an integrated disease management programme is required to efficiently reduce the source of virus inoculum, and it must be implemented (EPPO, 2019a) in addition to the quarantine measures to control its whitefly vector (Bertin et al., 2018). Specific control of ToLCNDV has been reported using IPM (Rodríguez et al., 2019) and biological control (Tellez et al., 2017). The predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii reduced colonization and development of the vector Bemisia tabaci in zucchini and controlled secondary, but not the primary spread of ToLCNDV (Tellez et al., 2017).

                                                                                        References

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                                                                                        Yazdani-Khameneh S, Golnaraghi AR, Rakhshandehroo F, 2013. Report of a new begomovirus on melon in Iran. New Disease Reports, 28:17. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/pdfs/028/NDR_028017.pdf

                                                                                        Zaidi, S. S. A., Muhammad Shafiq, Imran Amin, Scheffler, B. E., Scheffler, J. A., Briddon, R. W., Shahid Mansoor, 2016. Frequent occurrence of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus in cotton leaf curl disease affected cotton in Pakistan. PLoS ONE, 11(5), e0155520. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0155520

                                                                                        Zaidi, S. S., Martin, D. P., Imran Amin, Muhammad Farooq, Shahid Mansoor, 2017. Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus: a widespread bipartite begomovirus in the territory of monopartite begomoviruses. Molecular Plant Pathology, 18(7), 901-911. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1364-3703

                                                                                        Zaidi, S. S., Shakir, S., Malik, H. J., Farooq, M., Amin, I., Mansoor, S., 2017. First report of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus on Calotropis procera, a weed as potential reservoir Begomovirus host in Pakistan. Plant Disease, 101(6), 1071-1072. doi: 10.1094/pdis-10-16-1539-pdn

                                                                                        Zammouri, S., Zaagueri, T., Eddouzi, J., Belkhadhi, M. S., Hajlaoui, M. R., Mnari-Hattab, M., 2017. First report of tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus on tomato crop in Tunisia. Journal of Plant Pathology, 99(3), 813. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3975/2619

                                                                                        Distribution References

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                                                                                        CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

                                                                                        Chang HoHsiung, Ku HsinMei, Tsai WenShi, Chien RuiChe, Jan FuhJyh, 2010. Identification and characterization of a mechanical transmissible begomovirus causing leaf curl on oriental melon. European Journal of Plant Pathology. 127 (2), 219-228. DOI:10.1007/s10658-010-9586-0

                                                                                        Chigurupati Phaneendra, Rao K R S S, Jain R K, Mandal B, 2012. Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus is associated with pumpkin leaf curl: a new disease in northern India. Indian Journal of Virology. 23 (1), 42-45. http://www.springerlink.com/content/4444t2j76321617k/ DOI:10.1007/s13337-011-0054-z

                                                                                        Dhillon N P S, Masud M A T, Pruangwitayakun S, Natheung M, Lertlam S, Jarret R L, 2020. Evaluation of loofah lines for resistance to Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus and downy mildew, as well as key horticultural traits. Agriculture. 10 (7), DOI:10.3390/agriculture10070298

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                                                                                        Espino de Paz A I, Botella-Guillén M, Otazo-González H C , Alfaro-Fernández A, Font-San-Ambrosio I, Galipienso L, Rubio L, 2019. First report of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus infecting cucurbits in the Canary Islands. Plant Disease. 103 (7), 1798.

                                                                                        Hameed A, Tahir M N, Amin I, Mansoor S, 2017. First report of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus and a Tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand betasatellite causing severe leaf curl disease of potato in Pakistan. Plant Disease. 101 (6), 1065. DOI:10.1094/pdis-09-16-1335-pdn

                                                                                        Ito T, Sharma P, Kittipakorn K, Ikegami M, 2008. Complete nucleotide sequence of a new isolate of tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus infecting cucumber, bottle gourd and muskmelon in Thailand. Archives of Virology. 153 (3), 611-613. DOI:10.1007/s00705-007-0029-y

                                                                                        Juárez M, Tovar R, Fiallo-Olivé E, Aranda M A, Gosálvez B, Castillo P, Moriones E, Navas-Castillo J, 2014. First detection of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus infecting zucchini in Spain. Plant Disease. 98 (6), 857-858. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-13-1050-PDN

                                                                                        Jyothsna P, Haq Q M I, Priyanka Singh, Sumiya K V, Shelly Praveen, Ramaveer Rawat, Briddon R W, Malathi V G, 2013. Infection of tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV), a bipartite begomovirus with betasatellites, results in enhanced level of helper virus components and antagonistic interaction between DNA B and betasatellites. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 97 (12), 5457-5471. DOI:10.1007/s00253-012-4685-9

                                                                                        Kesumawati E, Okabe S, Khalil M, Alfan G, Bahagia P, Pohan N, Zakaria S, Koeda S, 2020. Molecular characterization of begomoviruses associated with yellow leaf curl disease in Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae crops from Northern Sumatra, Indonesia. The Horticulture Journal. 89 (4), 410-416. DOI:10.2503/hortj.UTD-175

                                                                                        Khan M S, Raj S K, Singh R, 2006. First report of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus infecting chilli in India. Plant Pathology. 55 (2), 289. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2006.01324.x

                                                                                        Khan M S, Tiwari A K, Raj S K, Ashish Srivastava, Ji SangHye, Chun SeChul, 2014. Molecular epidemiology of begomoviruses occurring on some vegetables, grain legume and weed species in the Terai belt of north India. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection. 121 (2), 53-57. http://www.jpdp-online.com

                                                                                        Kheireddine A, Sáez C, Sifres A, Picó B, López C, 2020. First report of cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus infecting cucumber and zucchini in Algeria. Plant Disease. 104 (4), 1264-1264. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-19-2091-PDN

                                                                                        Kheireddine A, Sifres A, Sáez C, Picó B, López C, 2019. First report of Tomato Leaf Curl New Delhi virus infecting cucurbit plants in Algeria. Plant Disease. 103 (12), 3291.

                                                                                        Luigi M, Manglli A, Valdes M, Sitzia M, Davino S, Tomassoli L, 2016. Occurrence of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus infecting Zucchini in Sardinia (Italy). Journal of Plant Pathology. 98 (3), 695. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3760/2401

                                                                                        Maruthi M N, Rekha A R, Cork A, Colvin J, Alam S N, Kader K A, 2005. First report of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus infecting tomato in Bangladesh. Plant Disease. 89 (9), 1011. DOI:10.1094/PD-89-1011C

                                                                                        Mizutani T, Daryono B S, Ikegami M, Natsuaki K T, 2011. First report of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus infecting cucumber in Central Java, Indonesia. Plant Disease. 95 (11), 1485. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-03-11-0196

                                                                                        Mnari-Hattab M, Zammouri S, Belkadhi M S, Doña D B, Ben Nahia E, Hajlaoui M R, 2015. First report of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus infecting cucurbits in Tunisia. New Disease Reports. 21. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=031021 DOI:10.5197/j.2044-0588.2015.031.021

                                                                                        Monika Karn, Upasna Priya, Mohammad Ansar, 2020. Molecular detection and prevalence of tomato leaf curl disease in tomato. International Journal of Plant Sciences (Muzaffarnagar). 15 (1), 37-41. DOI:10.15740/HAS/IJPS/15.1/37-41

                                                                                        Nagendran K, Kumar S M, Manoranjitham S K, Karthikeyan G, 2014. Molecular detection and characterization of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus causing mosaic disease on bitter gourd in Tamil Nadu, India. Trends in Biosciences. 7 (23), 3925-3931. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:tbs&volume=7&issue=23&article=031

                                                                                        Orfanidou CG, Malandraki I, Beris D, Kektsidou O, Vassilakos N, Varveri C, 2019. First report of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus in zucchini crops in Greece. Journal of Plant Pathology. https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs42161-019-00265-y.pdf DOI:10.1007/s42161-019-00265-y.

                                                                                        Panno S, Caruso A G, Troiano E, Luigi M, Manglli A, Vatrano T, Iacono G, Marchione S, Bertin S, Tomassoli L, Parrella G, Davino S, 2019. Emergence of tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus in Italy: estimation of incidence and genetic diversity. Plant Pathology. 68 (3), 601-608. DOI:10.1111/ppa.12978

                                                                                        Panno S, Iacono G, Davino M, Marchione S, Zappardo V, Bella P, Tomassoli L, Accotto G P, Davino S, 2016. First report of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus affecting zucchini squash in an important horticultural area of southern Italy. New Disease Reports. 6. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/pdfs/033/NDR_033006.pdf

                                                                                        Parrella G, Troiano E, Formisano G, Accotto G P, Giorgini M, 2018. First report of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus associated with severe mosaic of pumpkin in Italy. Plant Disease. 102 (2), 459-460. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-17-0940-PDN

                                                                                        Patil C V, Ramdas S V, Premchand U, Shankarappa K S, 2017. Survey, symptomatology, transmission, host range and characterization of begomovirus associated with yellow mosaic disease of ridge gourd in southern India. VirusDisease. 28 (2), 146-155. DOI:10.1007/s13337-017-0376-6

                                                                                        Punam Kumari, Singh A K, Brotati Chattopadhyay, Supriya Chakraborty, 2010. Molecular characterization of a new species of Begomovirus and betasatellite causing leaf curl disease of tomato in India. Virus Research. 152 (1/2), 19-29. DOI:10.1016/j.virusres.2010.05.015

                                                                                        Radouane N, Tahiri A, El-Ghadraoui L, Al-Figuigui J, Lahlali R, 2018. First report of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus in Morocco. New Disease Reports. 2. DOI:10.5197/j.2044-0588.2018.037.002

                                                                                        Raj S K, Khan M S, Singh R, 2005. Natural occurrence of a begomovirus on pigeonpea in India. Plant Pathology. 54 (6), 809. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2005.01219.x

                                                                                        Rakesh Kumar, Ramchandran Esakky, Santanu Acharya, 2019. Molecular evidence of occurrence of Tomato Leaf Curl New Delhi Virus infecting cucurbits in several states in India. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 52 (9/10), 895-905. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/gapp20

                                                                                        Ranbir Singh, Deepika Sharma, Dechan Choskit, Sachin Gupta, Singh S K, 2018. Molecular identification of Tomato Leaf Curl Virus from temperate region of Jammu and Kashmir. Journal of Mycopathological Research. 56 (1), 29-33. http://www.imskolkata.org/

                                                                                        Reddy M K, Venkataravanappa V, Madhuvanthi B, Jalali S, 2010. Molecular characterization of begomoviruses associated with papaya leaf curl disease in India. Acta Horticulturae. 465-472. http://www.actahort.org/books/851/851_72.htm

                                                                                        Ruiz L, Simon A, Velasco L, Janssen D, 2017. Biological characterization of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus from Spain. Plant Pathology. 66 (3), 376-382. DOI:10.1111/ppa.12587

                                                                                        Ruiz M L, Simón A, Velasco L, García M C, Janssen D, 2015. First report of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus infecting tomato in Spain. Plant Disease. 99 (6), 894. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

                                                                                        Saha A, Saha B, Saha D, 2014. Molecular detection and partial characterization of a begomovirus causing leaf curl disease of potato in sub-himalayan West Bengal, India. Journal of Environmental Biology. 35 (3), 601-606. http://www.jeb.co.in/journal_issues/201405_may14/paper_22.pdf

                                                                                        Scussel S, Claverie S, Hoareau M, Simiand C, Reynaud B, Moustache R, Lefeuvre P, Delatte H, Lett J M, 2018. First report of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus and the whitefly Bemisia tabaci Asia1 species on tomato in the Seychelles. New Disease Reports. 2. DOI:10.5197/j.2044-0588.2018.038.002

                                                                                        Sharma S, Kang S S, Sharma A, 2015. First report of mixed infection of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus and Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus in bittergourd in India. Journal of Plant Pathology. 97 (2), 397. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3362/2032

                                                                                        Sifres A, Sáez C, Ferriol M, Selmani E A, Riado J, Picó B, López C, 2018. First report of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus infecting zucchini in Morocco. Plant Disease. 102 (5), 1045. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-17-1600-PDN

                                                                                        Sivalingam P N, Sumiya K V, Malathi V G, 2011. Carrot as a new host for a begomovirus: yellow mosaic disease of carrot reported in India. New Disease Reports. Article 34. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/pdfs/023/NDR_023034.pdf DOI:10.5197/j.2044-0588.2011.023.034

                                                                                        Snehi S K, Parihar S S, Govind Gupta, Vinod Singh, Purvia A S, 2016. Molecular detection and identification of begomovirus isolate on tomato from central region of India. Journal of Plant Pathology and Microbiology. 7 (12), 389. DOI:10.4172/2157-7471.1000389

                                                                                        Sohrab S S, Mandal B, Ali A, Varma A, 2010. Chlorotic curly stunt: a severe begomovirus disease of bottle gourd in northern India. Indian Journal of Virology. 21 (1), 56-63. http://www.springerlink.com/content/l117168021241318/ DOI:10.1007/s13337-010-0002-3

                                                                                        Srivastava A, Kumar S, Jaidi M, Raj S K, Shukla S K, 2016. First report of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus on opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) in India. Plant Disease. 100 (1), 232-233. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

                                                                                        Swarnalatha P, Reddy M K, 2014. Duplex PCR for simultaneous detection of Begomovirus and phytoplasma from naturally infected tomato. Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems. 20 (1), 59-68. http://aapmhe.in/index.php/pmhe/article/view/232/217

                                                                                        Tahir M, Haider M S, 2005. First report of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus infecting bitter gourd in Pakistan. Plant Pathology. 54 (6), 807. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2005.01215.x

                                                                                        Venkataravanappa Venkataravanappa, Reddy L R C N, Sujoy Saha, Subbanna S K, Manem K R, 2018. Detection and characterization of tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus association with mosaic disease of ivy gourd (Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt) in North India. Archives of Biological Sciences. 70 (2), 339-347. DOI:10.2298/ABS170616051V

                                                                                        Wilisiani F, Neriya Y, Tagami M, Kaneko M, Hartono S, Nishigawa H, Natsuaki T, 2019a. Complete genome sequence of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus from luffa in Indonesia. Microbiology Resource Announcements. 8 (15), e01605-18. DOI:10.1128/mra.01605-18

                                                                                        Wilisiani F, Tomiyama A, Katoh H, Hartono S, Neriya Y, Nishigawa H, Natsuaki T, 2019. Development of a LAMP assay with a portable device for real-time detection of begomoviruses under field conditions. Journal of Virological Methods. 71-76. DOI:10.1016/j.jviromet.2018.10.005

                                                                                        Yazdani-Khameneh S, Aboutorabi S, Shoori M, Aghazadeh A, Jahanshahi P, Golnaraghi A, et al, 2016. Natural Occurrence of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus in Iranian Cucurbit Crops. PLANT Pathol. J. 201-208.

                                                                                        Yazdani-Khameneh S, Golnaraghi A R, Rakhshandehroo F, 2013. Report of a new begomovirus on melon in Iran. New Disease Reports. 17. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/pdfs/028/NDR_028017.pdf DOI:10.5197/j.2044-0588.2013.028.017

                                                                                        Zaidi S S A, Muhammad Shafiq, Imran Amin, Scheffler B E, Scheffler J A, Briddon R W, Shahid Mansoor, 2016. Frequent occurrence of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus in cotton leaf curl disease affected cotton in Pakistan. PLoS ONE. 11 (5), e0155520. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0155520

                                                                                        Zaidi S S, Shakir S, Malik H J, Farooq M, Amin I, Mansoor S, 2017. First report of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus on Calotropis procera, a weed as potential reservoir Begomovirus host in Pakistan. Plant Disease. 101 (6), 1071-1072. DOI:10.1094/pdis-10-16-1539-pdn

                                                                                        Zammouri S, Zaagueri T, Eddouzi J, Belkhadhi M S, Hajlaoui M R, Mnari-Hattab M, 2017. First report of tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus on tomato crop in Tunisia. Journal of Plant Pathology. 99 (3), 813. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3975/2619

                                                                                        Links to Websites

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                                                                                        Organizations

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                                                                                        India: International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, New Delhi, https://www.icgeb.org

                                                                                        Pakistan: National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faisalabad, http://www.nibge.org

                                                                                        Italy: Università degli Studi di Palermo, Palermo, http://www.unipa.it

                                                                                        Spain: Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura, Murcia, https://www.juntadeandalucia.es/agriculturaypesca/ifapa

                                                                                        Spain: Instituto de Investigación y Formación Agraria y Pesquera, Almería, https://www.juntadeandalucia.es/agriculturaypesca/ifapa

                                                                                        Spain (mainland): Instituto de Hortofruticultura Subtropical y Meditarránea, Málaga, www.eelm.csic.es

                                                                                        Contributors

                                                                                        Top of page

                                                                                        28/11/19 Original text by:

                                                                                        Pedro Gómez, Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura (CEBAS)- CSIC, Departamento de Biología del Estrés y Patología Vegetal, PO Box 164, 30100 Espinardo, Murcia, Spain.

                                                                                        Miguel Juárez, Escuela Politécnica Superior de Orihuela, Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche, Orihuela 03312, Alicante, Spain.

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