Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Cosmos caudatus
(wild cosmos)

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Datasheet

Cosmos caudatus (wild cosmos)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cosmos caudatus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • wild cosmos
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. caudatus is a prolific seed-producing annual that grow to 2.5 metres tall sporting very attractive heads of flowers. There are many cultivars of C. caudatus and some of these have become popular in...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cosmos caudatus Kunth

Preferred Common Name

  • wild cosmos

Other Scientific Names

  • Bidens artemisiifilia ssp. caudata (Kunth) Kuntze
  • Bidens berteroana Spreng.
  • Bidens carnea Heer
  • Bidens caudata (Kunth) Sch.Bip.
  • Cosmea caudata Spreng.
  • Cosmos caudatus var. exaristatus Sherff

Local Common Names

  • Cuba: romerillo
  • Dominican Republic: yema de huervo
  • Germany: Cosmee; Schmuckblume
  • Indonesia: kenikir
  • Malaysia: ulam raja
  • Puerto Rico: clavellillo; margarita; piquete
  • Russian Federation: kosmos chvostaty

Summary of Invasiveness

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C. caudatus is a prolific seed-producing annual that grow to 2.5 metres tall sporting very attractive heads of flowers. There are many cultivars of C. caudatus and some of these have become popular in the horticultural trade, especially in the Philippines and Malaysia. The seeds are viable in the appropriate climatic zones and are hitchhikers on clothing and animal fur.

C. caudatus is included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012). It is troublesome and difficult to control in the tropics. C. caudatus spreads by seed. This species will spread in disturbed areas and also invade undisturbed areas to a lesser extent.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Asterales
  •                         Family: Asteraceae
  •                             Genus: Cosmos
  •                                 Species: Cosmos caudatus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Asteraceae is one of the largest families of flowering plants with about 1620 genera and more than 23,600 species (Stevens 2012). Vegetatively the members of this family are extremely variable, but they are readily recognized by their flowers (florets) in heads (capitula) surrounded by an involucre of bracts. The small, single-seeded fruit (cypsela), often has a plumose pappus, that aid in wind dispersal (Stevens 2012), but not so in Cosmos, which belongs to a group of genera that have awns instead of fthe eathery pappus. 

Cosmos spp. were originally distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of the New World, especially North America. About 40 species are currently recognized, with the centre of diversity in Mexico. Several species have been introduced around the world and have become naturalized, and occasionally invasive. They are closely allied to the ‘beggars tick’ genera Coreopsis and Bidens and whose generic boundaries are currently in a state of flux.

Cosmos caudatus has cryptogenic origins in southern Mexico, Central America or the Antilles. A review by Melchert (1990) suggests that it is native to the gulf slopes of Mexico from Tamaulipas through Veracruz and the Yucatan Peninsula and perhaps further afield. It was first collected by von Humboldt and Bonpland, near Havana, Cuba in 1801. The type of Bidens berteroana is from Puerto Rico, collected by Bertero in 1818 (Sprengel, 1826). It is confusing that this species was described with yellow flowers (Kunth, 1818) although the current species concept has flowers pink to purple (Sherff, 1932, 1955, 1964; Melchert, 1990). For his circumscription, Kunth may have had only dried herbarium material with bleached flowers.

Melchert (1990) identified that the then concept of C. caudatus included a self-compatible tetraploid (C. caudatussens. Sherff) and a self-incompatible diploid, which he described as C. pacificus (C. caudatus var. exaristatus Sherff) with two varieties. Strother (1999) returned the second variety, C. pacifica var. chiapensis, to C. caudatus, however, there is no mention of the status of C. pacifica var. pacifica. Strother’s concept would then have C. caudatus with diploid and tetraploid populations. On the other hand, Kiger (2006) has kept Melchert’s concept as the tetraploid only (2n=48) and it is only the self-compatible tetraploid that has been reported as invasive.

The Malaysian common name ulam raja means "the King's salad”, referring to the edible nature of the plant.

Description

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Annual herb 0.3–2.5 m high, with a weak taproot. Stems erect, branched, glabrous or sparsely hispid. Leaves cauline, alternate, deeply lobed; petioles 10–70 mm long; blades 100–200 mm long; ultimate lobes 2–10 mm wide; margins spinulose-ciliate; apices acute, often mucronulate. Synflorescences 100–300 mm long, spreading with linear-subulate bractlets 6–10 mm long; apices acuminate. Capitula 5–15 mm diam.; involucral bracts erect, oblong-lanceolate, 7–11 mm long with apices acute to obtuse apices; ray florets rose-pink to purple; laminae oblong-oblanceolate, 5–15 mm long with obtusely 3-lobed apices; disc florets 5–6 mm long. Cypselae light brown, 12–35 mm long, glabrous or scabridulous proximally, setose distally; pappus 2–3 widely divergent to reflexed awns 3–5 mm long (description compiled from Pruski 1997; Beentje and Hind 2005; Kiger 2006; Puttock pers. obs.). 

Plant Type

Top of page Annual
Herbaceous
Seed propagated

Distribution

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There is no clear consensus of the origins of C. caudatus, however, it is generally assumed as native to southern Mexico, and appearing weedy wherever it occurs in Central America and the Antilles. It was present in Cuba and Puerto Rico by 1801 and 1818 respectively (Kunth 1820; Sprengel 1826). Melchert (1976) described C. caudatus in Guatemala as “a tropical weed occurring in damp roadside thickets, wet tropical grasslands, cultivated fields, etc.” and Robinson (2006) in Ecuador as widely cultivated and naturalized. Although D’Arcy (1975) described the species as native to Central America and the Antilles, he implies that all four species of Cosmos in Panama are introduced. It is also listed as introduced in Ecuador (Jørgensen and León-Yánez 1999).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

East TimorPresentIntroducedCouncil of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2014
IndiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014
-MaharashtraPresentIntroduced Invasive Flowers of India, 2014
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroduced Invasive Matthew, 1983
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Cultivated
-Nusa TenggaraPresentIntroducedCentre for Australian National Biodiversity Research, 2010West Timor
-SumatraPresentIntroducedSherff, 1932
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedSherff, 1932; USDA-ARS, 2014Cultivated
PhilippinesPresentIntroduced Invasive Merrill, 1925; Sherff, 1932; PIER, 2014
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014
VietnamPresentIntroducedSherff, 1932

Africa

MadagascarPresentIntroducedMadagascar Catalogue, 2014
MauritiusPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-ARS, 2014
RéunionPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-ARS, 2014
Rodriguez IslandPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-ARS, 2014
UgandaPresentIntroducedBeentje and Hind, 2005; USDA-ARS, 2014

North America

MexicoPresentNative Not invasive Melchert, 1990; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroduced Invasive Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2014
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
BelizePresentNativeBalick et al., 2000; USDA-ARS, 2014
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012Tortola, Virgin Gorda
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Costa RicaPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2014
CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
DominicaPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
El SalvadorPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
GrenadaPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
GuadeloupePresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
GuatemalaPresentNative Not invasive Melchert, 1976; USDA-ARS, 2014
HaitiPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
HondurasPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2014
JamaicaPresentSherff, 1932
MartiniquePresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
MontserratPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
NicaraguaPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2014
PanamaPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2014
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Saint LuciaPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012St. Croix, St. John, St. thomas

South America

BoliviaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014
BrazilPresentIntroducedSherff, 1932
-AlagoasPresentIntroducedForzza et al., 2014
-BahiaPresentIntroducedForzza et al., 2014
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroducedForzza et al., 2014
-PernambucoPresentIntroducedForzza et al., 2014
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedForzza et al., 2014
ColombiaPresentNative Not invasive Sherff, 1932; USDA-ARS, 2014
EcuadorPresentIntroduced Invasive Jorgensen and Leon-Yanez, 1999; USDA-ARS, 2014
French GuianaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014
GuyanaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014
ParaguayPresentIntroduced
PeruPresentIntroduced Invasive Brako and Zarucchi, 1993; USDA-ARS, 2014
SurinamePresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014
VenezuelaPresentNative Not invasive Funk et al., 2007

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced Invasive Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research, 2010Naturalised
FijiPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2014
PalauPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2014
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedPeekel, 1984; USDA-ARS, 2014

History of Introduction and Spread

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C. caudatus was brought by the Spanish from Mexico to southeast Asia, via the Philippines. It was present in Cuba in 1801 and Puerto Rico in 1818, as verified by the types of the two early names for this taxon. In Fiji it was reported as a weed “common everywhere, sometimes in pure stands on waste land in both islands up to 500 feet” (Greenwood 1943).

This species will spread in disturbed areas and also invade undisturbed areas to a lesser extent. It is commonly found around old settlements and weedy agricultural land, and open forest. It is classified as being an agricultural and environmental weed, commonly escaping cultivation and becoming naturalized. It is classified as an invasive weed in Florida, Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. 

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Malaysia Philippines 1800s Food (pathway cause) Yes
Philippines Mexico 1700s Yes

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of Cosmos caudatus is relatively high. This species is broadly dispersed by humans and has the potential to grow as a weed in ruderal areas, and agricultural and pasture lands. C. caudatus has been reported as a roadside and ruderal weed in Central and South America, Australia and southeast Asia. Consequently, this species has the potential to spread much further than it has to date.

Habitat

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C. caudatus occurs naturally in grassy slopes and banks and in monsoonal deciduous forests. It is a common weed in disturbed areas, pastures, and roadsides throughout central American and the Caribbean. In South America it is found on roadsides and in remnant dry forest and semideciduous secondary forest from 30 to 900 metres altitude (Robinson 2006). It occurs in similar habitats wherever it has become established in the Old World tropics.

In Fiji, it is found "occurring from sea level to about 200 m, sometimes cultivated but frequently naturalized as a weed in waste places and along roadsides” (Smith, 1991). In Queensland, it is found from near sea level to 800 m, and usually grows around old settlements or as a weed of agricultural land. Also found in open forest and sometimes in vine thickets and monsoon forest (Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research, 2010).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Principal habitat
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Principal habitat
Industrial / intensive livestock production systems Principal habitat
Disturbed areas Principal habitat
Rail / roadsides Principal habitat
Urban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Secondary/tolerated habitat
Riverbanks Principal habitat
Littoral
Coastal areas Principal habitat
Coastal dunes Principal habitat

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

C. caudatus is a self-compatible tetraploid with a chromosome number of 4n = 48 (Melchert 1968, 1990; Robinson et al., 1981). The report of 2n = 12 for a specimen from Michoacan, Mexico, by Keil et al. 1988 is likely to be of C. pacificus (= C. caudatus var. exaristatusSherff 1964).

Reproductive Biology

Flowers in C. caudatus are pollinated by hymenoptera (bees) and lepidoptera (butterflies). Arnold et al. (2014) report that the species is adapted for pollination by both honey bees and megachile bees, and that the narrow tubular flowers also makes them ideally adapted for butterflies. Species of butterflies and bees visiting the flowers when grown in Madhya Pradesh, India, are listed by Arnold et al. (2014).

Longevity and Phenology

C. caudatus is an annual herb and under favourable environmental conditions produces flowers and seeds in spring and summer months.           

Environmental Requirements

C. caudatus grows as a garden escape, roadside and ruderal weed. It needs full sunlight and moderate water availability to grow.  

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Preferred Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
15 15

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • shallow

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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C. caudatus spreads by seeds carried by animals and dropped locally. 

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Botanical gardens and zoosAttractive garden plant Yes Yes
Breeding and propagationAttractive garden plant Yes Yes
Cut flower tradeAttractive garden plant Yes Yes
Escape from confinement or garden escapeAttractive garden plant Yes
HitchhikerSmall seed contaminant Yes Yes
Internet salesPopular garden plant Yes Yes
Nursery tradePopular garden plant Yes Yes
Ornamental purposesPopular garden plant Yes Yes
Seed tradepopular garden plant Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Aircraft Yes
Clothing, footwear and possessions Yes Yes
Mail Yes
Plants or parts of plants Yes Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Reduced native biodiversity
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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C. caudatus was brought by the Spaniards from Mexico to Southeast Asia via the Philippines. The plant is edible and widely used as a Malay herbal salad vegetable. It is also regarded in Malaysia as having medicinal value. It contains high mineral content and possesses high antioxidant activity which may be beneficial in bone disorders such as postmenopausal osteoporosis. It is also traditionally used to promote blood circulation.

C. caudatus has economic importance as a horticultural plant, with numerous cultivars. 

Uses List

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General

  • Botanical garden/zoo

Human food and beverage

  • Vegetable

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Potted plant
  • Propagation material
  • Seed trade

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Arnold R; Tiwari S; Saxena A; Mishra RM; Anand P; Pandey R, 2014. Ecological Studies of Natural Populations of Cosmos caudatus, H. With Special Reference to Pollination, Seed Behavior and Biomass Distribution. Journal of Chemical, Biological and Physical Sciences, Section B: Biological Sciences, 4(1):324-328.

Auld B; Medd R, 1992. Weeds. An illustrated botanical guide to the weeds of Australia. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press.

Balick MJ; Nee M; Atha DE, 2000. Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 85:1-246.

Beentje HJ; Hind DJN, 2005. Cosmos. In: Flora of Tropical East Africa. Compositae (Part 3) [ed. by Beentje, H. J. \Jeffrey, C. \Hind, D. J. N.]. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Garden, Kew.

Bello Espinosa D, 1881. [English title not available]. (Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. Primera parte.) Anal. Soc. Española de Hist. Nat, 10:231-304.

Brako L; Zarucchi JL, 1993. Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard, 45:1-1286.

Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research, 2010. Australian tropical rainforest plants. http://www.anbg.gov.au/cpbr/cd-keys/rfk/index.html

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2014. Australia's virtual herbarium, Australia. http://avh.ala.org.au

D'Arcy WG, 1975. Coreopsidinae. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 62(4). [Flora of Panama. Part IX, Family 184. Compositae.]

Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of North America North of Mexico. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1

Flowers of India, 2014. Flowers of India. http://www.flowersofindia.net/

Forzza RC; Leitman PM; Costa AF; Carvalho Jr AA, et al. , 2014. List of species of the Flora of Brazil (Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br

Funk V; Hollowell T; Berry P; Kelloff C; Alexander SN, 2007. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 584 pp.

Greenwood W, 1943. The adventive and weed flora of the leeward coasts of Fiji. Proceedings of the Linnaean Society, 154:92-106.

Hnatiuk RJ, 1990. Census of Australian Vascular Plants. Australian Flora and Fauna Series Number 11. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Jørgensen PM; León-Yànez S, 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard, 75. i-viii, 1-1182.

Keil DJ; Luckow MA; Pinkava DJ, 1988. Chromosome studies in Asteraceae from the United States, Mexico, The West Indies, and South America. American Journal of Botany, 75(5):652-668.

Kiger RW, 2006. Cosmos. In: Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 21 [ed. by Flora of North America Editorial Committee]. New York and Oxford, USA and UK: Flora of North America Editorial Committee.

Kunth KS, 1818. Cosmos. In: Nova Genera et Species Plantarum (folio ed.). Vol. 4 [ed. by Bonpland, A. J. A. \Humboldt, F. W. H. A. von].

Madagascar Catalogue, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Madagascar. St. Louis, Missouri, USA and Antananarivo, Madagascar: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/project/mada

Matthew KM, 1983. The flora of the Tamilnadu Carnatic. Tiruchirapalli, India: Rapinat Herbarium, St. Josephs College.

Melchert TE, 1976. Cosmos. Fieldiana, 24:229-234. [Flora of Guatemala Part XII.]

Melchert TE, 1990. Cosmos caudatus (Asteraceae; Coreopsideae) in Mexico: a cytotaxonomic reappraisal. Phytologia, 69:200-215.

Merrill ED, 1925. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants. Manila, Philippines: Bureau of Printing.

Peekel PG, 1984. Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for naturalists. Lae, Papua New Guinea: Office of Forests, Division of Botany, 638 pp.

PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Pruski JF, 1997. Asteraceae. Flora of the Venezuelan Guyana, 3:177-393.

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Robinson H, 2006. Compositae-Heliantheae Part 1: Introduction, genera A-L. Flora of Ecuador, 77(1).

Robinson H; Powell AM; King RM; Weedin JF, 1981. Chromosome Numbers in Compositae, XII: Heliantheae. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 52:1-28.

Sherff EE, 1932. Revision of the genus Cosmos (Family Compositae). Field Museum of Natural History, Botany, 8:399-488.

Sherff EE, 1955. Cosmos. In: North American Flora, Series II [ed. by Sherff, E. E. \Alexander, E. J.]. 130-146.

Sherff EE, 1964. Some new or otherwise noteworthy Coreipsidinae from Mexico,Brittonia. Brittonia, 16:58-73.

Smith AC, 1991. Flora Vitiensis nova: A new flora of Fiji. Lawai, Kauai, Hawai`i. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Volume 5, 626 pp.

Sprengel CPJ, 1826. Systema Vegetabilium, editio decima sexta.

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Stevens WD; Ulloa UC; Pool A; Montiel OM; Arbala´ez AL; Cutaia DM; Hollowell VC, 2001. Flora de Nicaragua. Monographs in Systematic Botany, 85:946-1910.

Strother J, 1999. Flora of Chiapas. Part 5 Compositae-Heliantheae s.l., USA: California Academy of Sciences.

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

Links to Websites

Top of page
WebsiteURLComment
Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indieshttp://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global Compositae Checklisthttp://compositae.landcareresearch.co.nz/Default.aspx
PIERhttp://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Contributors

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03/10/2014 Original text by:

Christopher F. Puttock, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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