Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Youngia japonica
(oriental false hawksbeard)

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Datasheet

Youngia japonica (oriental false hawksbeard)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 June 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Youngia japonica
  • Preferred Common Name
  • oriental false hawksbeard
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Youngia japonica is a cosmopolitan herb that often grows as an agricultural and environmental weed. Native to temperate and tropical Asia and Australia, it has been introduced in Africa, the Canary Islands, the...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Youngia japonica (Oriental hawksbeard); flowers and seeds. Punakea Loop LZ Launiupoko, Maui.  March 31, 2009
TitleFlowers and seeds
CaptionYoungia japonica (Oriental hawksbeard); flowers and seeds. Punakea Loop LZ Launiupoko, Maui. March 31, 2009
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Youngia japonica (Oriental hawksbeard); flowers and seeds. Punakea Loop LZ Launiupoko, Maui.  March 31, 2009
Flowers and seedsYoungia japonica (Oriental hawksbeard); flowers and seeds. Punakea Loop LZ Launiupoko, Maui. March 31, 2009©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Youngia japonica (Oriental hawksbeard); habit. Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge, Florida, USA. September 26, 2009
TitleHabit
CaptionYoungia japonica (Oriental hawksbeard); habit. Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge, Florida, USA. September 26, 2009
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Youngia japonica (Oriental hawksbeard); habit. Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge, Florida, USA. September 26, 2009
HabitYoungia japonica (Oriental hawksbeard); habit. Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge, Florida, USA. September 26, 2009©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Youngia japonica (Oriental hawksbeard); flowers. Punakea Loop LZ Launiupoko, Maui.  March 31, 2009
TitleFlowers
CaptionYoungia japonica (Oriental hawksbeard); flowers. Punakea Loop LZ Launiupoko, Maui. March 31, 2009
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Youngia japonica (Oriental hawksbeard); flowers. Punakea Loop LZ Launiupoko, Maui.  March 31, 2009
FlowersYoungia japonica (Oriental hawksbeard); flowers. Punakea Loop LZ Launiupoko, Maui. March 31, 2009©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Youngia japonica (Asiatic hawksbeard); close-up of flowers. Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge, Florida, USA.  September 26, 2009
TitleFlowers
CaptionYoungia japonica (Asiatic hawksbeard); close-up of flowers. Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge, Florida, USA. September 26, 2009
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Youngia japonica (Asiatic hawksbeard); close-up of flowers. Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge, Florida, USA.  September 26, 2009
FlowersYoungia japonica (Asiatic hawksbeard); close-up of flowers. Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge, Florida, USA. September 26, 2009©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Youngia japonica (Asiatic hawksbeard); seeds and pappus. Punakea Loop LZ Launiupoko, Maui.  March 31, 2009
TitleSeeds and pappus
CaptionYoungia japonica (Asiatic hawksbeard); seeds and pappus. Punakea Loop LZ Launiupoko, Maui. March 31, 2009
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Youngia japonica (Asiatic hawksbeard); seeds and pappus. Punakea Loop LZ Launiupoko, Maui.  March 31, 2009
Seeds and pappusYoungia japonica (Asiatic hawksbeard); seeds and pappus. Punakea Loop LZ Launiupoko, Maui. March 31, 2009©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Youngia japonica (L.) DC.

Preferred Common Name

  • oriental false hawksbeard

Other Scientific Names

  • Chondrilla japonica (L.) Lam.
  • Chondrilla lyrata (Thunb.) Poir.
  • Chondrilla multiflora (Thunb.) Poir.
  • Crepis fastigiata (Blume) Sch.Bip.
  • Crepis formosana Hayata
  • Crepis japonica (L.) Benth.
  • Crepis lyrata (Poir.) Benth.
  • Crepis lyrata (Thunb.) C.B.Clarke
  • Crepis taquetii (H.Lév. & Vaniot) H.Lév.
  • Hieraciodes japonicum (L.) Kuntze
  • Ixeris lyrata (Thunb.) Miq.
  • Lactuca japonica (Thunb.) Regel
  • Lactuca microsperma K.Schum.
  • Lactuca taquetii H.Lév. & Vaniot
  • Lactuca taraxacum H.Lév. & Vaniot
  • Prenanthella japonica L.
  • Prenanthes lyrata Thunb.
  • Prenanthes multiflora Thunb.
  • Prenanthes striata Blume
  • Youngia ambigua DC.
  • Youngia fastigiata (Blume) DC.
  • Youngia formosana (Hayata) H.Hara
  • Youngia gracilis Miq.
  • Youngia integrifolia Cass.
  • Youngia lyrata . (Poir.) Cass
  • Youngia multiflora (Thunb.) DC.
  • Youngia napifera DC. ex Wight
  • Youngia paosa Steud.
  • Youngia poosia DC.
  • Youngia runcinata DC.
  • Youngia striata (Blume) DC.

International Common Names

  • English: Japanese hawkweed; asiatic hawksbeard; oriental hawksbeard
  • Chinese: huang an cai

Local Common Names

  • Cuba: yunga
  • Honduras: estrellita

Summary of Invasiveness

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Youngia japonica is a cosmopolitan herb that often grows as an agricultural and environmental weed. Native to temperate and tropical Asia and Australia, it has been introduced in Africa, the Canary Islands, the Americas and many Pacific Islands. It is commonly found in disturbed areas, wastelands, roadsides, abandoned pastures, lawns, cultivated fields and forest margins, but it is also able to penetrate into intact or minimally-disturbed natural areas. This species is a prolific seed producer and its seeds can be easily dispersed by wind and water or as contaminant in soil or crop and grass seeds. Y. japonica is adapted to grow in a wide range of climates and substrates and once it reaches a new area, it grows and spreads very quickly as new seeds are produced copiously.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Asterales
  •                         Family: Asteraceae
  •                             Genus: Youngia
  •                                 Species: Youngia japonica

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The genus Youngia comprises 30-40 species, distributed mostly in Asia. It is a heterogeneous and taxonomically confusing genus, mainly due to some of the species being weedy and highly polymorphic. Recent attempts to resolve the taxonomy by Tzvelev (2007) and Sennikov and Illarionova (2008) proposed three new genera based on carpological analyses: Crepidifolium, Sonchella, and Tibetoseris. Subsequently, a new genus called Pseudoyoungia was proposed by Maity and Maiti (2010), based on morphological characters. However, new analyses and molecular studies have only supported Sonchella as a separate genus, and have suggested that Crepidifolium should be treated as part of Crepidiastrum, Tibetoseris as part of Soroseris, and have reunited Pseudoyoungia with Youngia (Nakamura et al., 2013; Peng et al. 2013; 2014; Urbatsch et al. 2013; Zhang et al., 2013; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018).

Many subspecies and varieties have been suggested for Y. japonica, and some are even accepted, however all are treated here as Youngia japonica (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018).

Description

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The following description is adapted from Flora of China Editorial Committee (2018):

Herbs usually 10-150 cm tall, annual or biennial. Stems solitary or few, erect, branched from base, middle, or only apically, glabrous or basally often ± hairy, ± leafy or leafless. Basal leaves ± oblanceolate, to 15(-25) × 4(-6) cm, lyrately pinnatipartite or pinnatisect, rarely not divided; glabrous or somewhat hairy, base attenuate into a longer or shorter narrowly winged to ± unwinged petiole-like portion, margin sinuate-dentate; lateral lobes few to many, ovate, rhombic, or elliptic, gradually smaller toward leaf base; terminal lobe ovate, ovate-lanceolate, or obovate, much larger than lateral ones, apex rounded to acute. Stem leaves similar to basal leaves, abruptly or gradually reduced to bracts upward on stem. Synflorescence corymbiform to paniculiform-corymbiform, usually with many to numerous capitula. Capitula with 10-20 florets; peduncle capillaceous. Involucre cylindric, 4-7 mm. Phyllaries abaxially glabrous; outer phyllaries ovate to triangular, longest less than 1.5 mm, apex acute; inner phyllaries adaxially appressed pubescent, midvein subapically plane, margin ± white scarious, apex acute. Anther tube dark green. Style branches yellow upon drying. Achene light brown to dark reddish or purplish brown, fusiform, 1.5-2.5 mm, ribs finely spiculate, apex strongly attenuate. Pappus white, 2.5-3.5 mm.

Plant Type

Top of page Annual
Biennial
Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Seed propagated

Distribution

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Youngia japonica is considered a pantropical weed, probably originating from China from where it has extended into subtropical and tropical regions (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018). Currently, Y. japonica is listed as native in temperate and tropical Asia and Australia and as introduced in Africa, Canary Islands, North and South America, the Caribbean and on many islands in the Pacific region (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Davidse et al., 2018; Verloove, 2017; Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018; GRIIS, 2018; PIER, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 22 Jun 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

ComorosPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentIntroducedNaturalizedGRIIS (2018)
MadagascarPresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2018)
MauritiusPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)
RéunionPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)
SeychellesPresentIntroducedInvasiveGRIIS (2018)
South AfricaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedGRIIS (2018)

Asia

AfghanistanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
BhutanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
CambodiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
ChinaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
-AnhuiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)
-ChongqingPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)
-FujianPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)
-GansuPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)
-GuangdongPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)
-GuangxiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)
-GuizhouPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)
-HainanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)
-HebeiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)
-HenanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)
-HubeiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)
-HunanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)
-JiangsuPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)
-JiangxiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)
-ShaanxiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)
-ShandongPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)
-SichuanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)
-YunnanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)
-ZhejiangPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)
IndiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveReddy (2008); CABI Data Mining (2011); USDA-ARS (2018)
-Arunachal PradeshPresentIntroducedInvasiveSekar et al. (2012)
-AssamPresentIntroducedInvasiveSekar et al. (2012)
-Himachal PradeshPresentIntroducedInvasiveVikrant Jaryan et al. (2013); CABI Data Mining (2011); USDA-ARS (2018)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentIntroducedInvasiveSekar et al. (2012); USDA-ARS (2018)
-ManipurPresentIntroducedInvasiveSekar et al. (2012)
-MeghalayaPresentIntroducedInvasiveSekar et al. (2012)
-NagalandPresentIntroducedInvasiveSekar et al. (2012)
-PunjabPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
-SikkimPresentIntroducedInvasiveSekar et al. (2012)
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroducedInvasiveSekar et al. (2012)
-TripuraPresentIntroducedInvasiveSekar et al. (2012)
-Uttar PradeshPresentIntroducedInvasiveSingh et al. (2010); USDA-ARS (2018)
-UttarakhandPresentIntroducedInvasiveRastogi et al. (2015)
-West BengalPresentIntroducedInvasiveSekar et al. (2012)
JapanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018); CABI Data Mining (2011)
-HokkaidoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
-HonshuPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
-KyushuPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
-ShikokuPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
LaosPresentIntroducedLeuangkhamma and Vongsiharath (2005)A potentially invasive weed
MalaysiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
MyanmarPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
NepalPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
North KoreaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
PakistanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
PhilippinesPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
SingaporePresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)
South KoreaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2018)
TaiwanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)
ThailandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
VietnamPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)

Europe

SpainPresentIntroducedVerloove (2017)Introduced in the Canary Islands
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroducedVerloove (2017)

North America

BahamasPresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2018)
BarbadosPresentIntroducedNaturalizedBroome et al. (2007)
Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba
-SabaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedBroome et al. (2007)
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveFlora of the Cayman Islands (2018)
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedInvasiveGargiullo et al. (2008)Weed
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasiveOviedo Prieto and González-Oliva (2015)
DominicaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedBroome et al. (2007)
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedMir (2012)Weed
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (2018)
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (2018)
HaitiPresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2018)
HondurasPresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (2018)
JamaicaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2018)
MexicoPresentIntroducedInvasiveMexico, CONABIO (2007)Weed
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (2018)
PanamaPresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (2018)
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (2018)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)St Croix
United StatesPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS (2018); CABI Data Mining (2011)
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)Weed
-ArkansasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)Weed
-District of ColumbiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS (2018)Weed
-FloridaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)Weed
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)Weed
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)
-KentuckyPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)Weed
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)Weed
-MarylandPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS (2018)Weed
-MississippiPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)Weed
-New YorkPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)Weed
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS (2018)Weed
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)Weed
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)Weed
-TennesseePresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)Weed
-TexasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)Weed
-VirginiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)Weed

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroducedPIER (2018)
AustraliaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
-New South WalesPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
-QueenslandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
FijiPresentIntroducedInvasiveSmith (1991)
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveFlorence et al. (2013)
GuamPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER (2018)
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedInvasiveMacKee (1994)
NiuePresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER (2018)
PalauPresentIntroducedInvasiveSpace et al. (2003)
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018); PIER (2018)
TongaPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)

South America

BrazilPresentIntroducedNaturalizedRolim et al. (2015)Weed in Rio Grande do Sul
-Rio Grande do SulPresentIntroducedNaturalizedRolim et al. (2015)Weed
ColombiaPresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (2018)
GuyanaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2018)
ParaguayPresentIntroducedDavidse et al. (2018)
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2018)

History of Introduction and Spread

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Youngia japonica is a common environmental and agricultural weed that occurs in many warm-temperate, tropical and subtropical areas of the world, where it was probably introduced accidentally or as a contaminant in seeds of other crops (Hauber et al., 1989; USDA-NRCS, 2018). In the United States, the date of introduction is unknown, but the species was first reported as a “common weed” across the southeastern states in 1933 (Small, 1933). In the Pacific Islands, Y. japonica was first recorded in Hawaii in 1864 (Whistler, 1995). In the Canary Islands it was first recorded in 2010 in Tenerife and later in 2013 in Gran Canaria (Verloove, 2017). In Central America, Y. japonica is listed as a common weed, often occurring in coffee plantations (cafetales) and disturbed areas, and Davidse et al. (2018) described it as actively spreading across the region.

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Hawaii 1864 Yes No Whistler (1995)
Canary Islands 2010 Yes No Verloove (2017)

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of new introductions of Y. japonica is very high. It has small seeds that can be unintentionally dispersed as contaminants or hitch-hikers, and its current distribution is so widespread globally that introductions into new areas are highly likely.

Habitat

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Youngia japonica can be found growing on mountain slopes, mountain valleys, ravines, forest margins, grasslands, stream banks, trailsides, roadsides, curbs and open and disturbed places at elevations from below 100 m to 4500 m. It is also a common weed of gardens and lawns, field margins, pastures, coffee plantations and grassy areas near houses and orchards (Gargiullo et al., 2008; Davidse et al., 2018; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; India Biodiversity Portal, 2018).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Natural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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Youngia japonica is listed as a weed of coffee and sugarcane plantations (McIntyre, 1991; Vibrans, 2018; Davidse et al., 2018). In Nepal it is also reported as a weed of wheat (Dangol, 2015).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for Y. japonica is 2n=16 (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018).

Reproductive Biology

The floral morphology, physiology and phenology of Youngia japonica are all consistent with autogamy (Hauber et al., 1989). In this species fertile florets are perfect, and the androecium and pistil mature simultaneously. In controlled pollination experiments, high seed-set (80%) were achieved from bagged heads (inflorescences), and from the natural “open treatment” even when the rate of visits by pollinator (in this case flowers were visited by small bees) was very low (Hauber et al., 1989).

Physiology and Phenology

In China, Y. japonica been recorded flowering and fruiting from February to December (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018). In India, it produces flowers and fruits from October to April (India Biodiversity Portal, 2018). In the United States, it flowers in the spring–summer, but in southern states it often flowers all year-round (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018). In Central America, it flowers throughout the year (Davidse et al., 2018).

Longevity

Youngia japonica is an annual or biennial (USDA-NRCS, 2018).

Environmental Requirements

Youngia japonica is often associated with human activities and can be found growing in disturbed, waste and open areas. However, it also grows in shaded areas and in relatively undisturbed natural sites. It prefers moist conditions and has the potential to grow in a wide range of soil types including sandy, loamy and heavy clay soils (Useful Tropical Plants, 2018; PFAF, 2018).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
45 45

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 18 28

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall8002000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil reaction

  • acid

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionAgricultural weed Yes Yes Vibrans, 2018
DisturbanceEnvironmental weed. Often naturalized along roadsides, waste sites, open grounds, etc. Yes Yes Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018
Escape from confinement or garden escapeSeeds Yes USDA-NRCS, 2018
Garden waste disposalSeeds Yes USDA-NRCS, 2018
HitchhikerContaminant in crop and grass seeds or soil Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2018
HorticultureSometimes planted as ornamental Yes Yes Loewenstein and Loewenstein, 2005
Medicinal useUsed in traditional medicine Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants, 2018
Ornamental purposesSometimes planted as ornamental Yes Yes Loewenstein and Loewenstein, 2005

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2018
Soil, sand and gravelSeeds Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2018
WaterSeeds Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2018
WindSeeds Yes Yes USDA-NRCS, 2018

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive

Economic Impact

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Youngia japonica is an agricultural weed of coffee, sugarcane and wheat (McIntyre, 1991; Vibrans, 2018; Dangol, 2015; Davidse et al., 2018).

Environmental Impact

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Youngia japonica is an environmental weed invading both disturbed and undisturbed natural areas. In Hawaii, it has been reported occurring in nearly intact wet forests (Wagner et al., 1999). Across the Southeastern United States, this species has been described as “very common” and is spreading rapidly, invading intact or minimally-disturbed forests, prairies and coastal plains. This species grows well in response to human disturbance and is very common in areas such roadsides, cultivated fields, lawns, pastures and forest margins (Loewenstein and Loewenstein, 2005; Swearingen, 2005; Weakley, 2010; PIER, 2018; USDA-NRCS, 2018).

Impact: Biodiversity

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Youngia japonica has been reported invading protected natural areas within the Haleakala National Park in Hawaii and the Rock Creek National Park in Washington D.C. (Swearingen, 2005). In North Carolina, USA, it is invading primarily the Piedmont region and plains along the Atlantic coast where it is spreading relatively rapidly (Loewenstein and Loewenstein, 2005; Weakley, 2010).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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In Asia, the young leaves and young plants of Y. japonica are consumed as vegetable, either raw or cooked. All plant parts are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, such as angina, leucorrhea, mastitis, conjunctivitis and rheumatoid arthritis. It is also used in the treatment of boils and snakebites. Sometimes it is planted as ornamental (Loewenstein and Loewenstein, 2005; Useful Tropical Plants, 2018; PFAF, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity

Human food and beverage

  • Vegetable

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • garden plant

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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The seedlings and young plants of Y. japonica form a rosette resembling a small sowthistle (Sonchus spp.) or a dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), but its leaves are hairy and the upper leaves are more linear and lack a stalk, and a milky sap is emitted when leaves are torn (USDA-NRCS, 2018).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Physical/mechanical control

Young plants of Y. japonica can be easy pulled out, taking care to remove all roots and stems. As the plant gets older and more firmly rooted, they cannot be pulled out without breaking off the stems, which will then regrow. Plants which are mowed above soil level recover quickly (USDA-NRCS, 2018).

Chemical control

Different broad-spectrum herbicides have and are being used to control Y. japonica in different crops. However, this species has developed resistance to herbicides such diquat and paraquat in Japan since 1986 and in China since 2009 (Heap, 2018).

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Broome, R., Sabir, K., Carrington, S., 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. In: Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database , Barbados: University of the West Indies.http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Dangol DR, 2015. Journal of Natural History Museum, 17(27) . 132-78.

Davidse, G., Sousa-Sánchez, M., Knapp, S., Chiang, F., UUoa Ulloa, C., Pruski, J. F., 2018. Flora Mesoamericana, Volumen 5, Parte 2: Asteraceae, [ed. by Davidse, G., Sousa-Sánchez, M., Knapp, S., Chiang, F., UUoa Ulloa, C., Pruski, J. F.]. St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press.xix + 608 pp.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018. Flora of North America North of Mexico. In: Flora of North America North of Mexico St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1

Gargiullo, MB, Magnuson, BL, Kimball, LD, 2008. A field guide to plants of Costa Rica. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.544 pp.

GRIIS, 2018. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species. http://www.griis.org/

Hauber DP, Kuhnell RJ, Miller MK, 1989. Evidence for predominant autogamy in Youngia japonica (Asteraceae). The Southwestern Naturalist, 34(4), 557-9.

Heap I, 2018. The International Herbicide-Resistant Weed Database. Weed Science.http://www.weedscience.org/Home.aspx

India Biodiversity Portal, 2018. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity . http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Loewenstein, N. J., Loewenstein, E. F., 2005. Non-native plants in the understory of riparian forests across a land use gradient in the Southeast U.S. In: Emerging issues along urban/rural interfaces: linking science and society. Conference Proceedings, Hilton Atlanta, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 13-16 March 2005, [ed. by Laband, D. N. ]. Auburn, USA: Auburn University. 96-100.

MacKee, H. S., 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle.unpaginated.

Maity D, Maiti GG, 2010. Taxonomic delimitation of the genus Tibetoseris and the new genus Pseudoyoungia of the Compositae-Cichorieae from Eastern Himalaya. Compositae Newsletter, 48, 22–42.

McIntyre G, 1991. Weeds of sugarcane in Mauritius: their description and control. Rèduit, Mauritius: Mauritius Sugar Cane Research Institute.

Mexico, CONABIO, 2007. Invasive plant species. (Especies invasoras plantas). In: Especies invasoras plantas México DF, Mexico: Comisión nacional para el conocimiento y uso de la biodiversidad.http://www.conabio.gob.mx/conocimiento/info_especies/especies_invasoras/doctos/plantas.html

Nakamura, K., Kono, Y., Huang Chiun, Chung KuoFang, Peng ChingI, 2013. Correction of confusions regarding the identity and synonymy of Youngia (Asteraceae: tribe Cichorieae) in Taiwan. Systematic Botany, 38(2), 507-516. doi: 10.1600/036364413X666769

Oviedo Prieto, R., González-Oliva, L., 2015. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2015. (Lista nacional de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2015). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 9(Special Issue No. 2), 1-88. http://repositorio.geotech.cu/jspui/bitstream/1234/1476/4/Lista%20nacional%20de%20plantas%20invasoras%20de%20Cuba-2015.pdf

Peng YL, Gao XF, Peng L, 2013. Pollen morphology of Youngia and six related genera (Asteraceae: Cichorieae) and its systematic significance. Phytotaxa, 139, 39–62.

Peng YL, Zhang Y, Gao XF, Tong LJ, Li L, Li RY, Zhu ZM, Xian JR, 2014. A phylogenetic analysis and new delimitation of Crepidiastrum (Asteraceae, tribe Cichorieae). Phytotaxa, 159, 241–255.

PFAF, 2018. Plants For A Future Database. In: Plants For A Future Database Dawlish, UK: Plants For A Future.http://www.pfaf.org/USER/Default.aspx

PIER, 2018. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Rolim, R. G., Ferreira, P. M. A. de, Schneider, A. A., Overbeck, G. E., 2015. How much do we know about distribution and ecology of naturalized and invasive alien plant species? A case study from subtropical southern Brazil. Biological Invasions, 17(5), 1497-1518. doi: 10.1007/s10530-014-0811-1

Sekar, K. C., Manikandan, R., Srivastava, S. K., 2012. Invasive alien plants of Uttarakhand Himalaya. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences India. Section B, Biological Sciences, 82(3), 375-383. http://www.springerlink.com/content/p320x5877g574708/

Sennikov AN, Illarionova ID, 2008. Generic delimitation of the subtribe Ixeridinae newly segregated from Crepidiinae (Asteraceae-Lactuceae). Komarovia, 5(2), 57-115.

Singh, K. P., Shukla, A. N., Singh, J. S., 2010. State-level inventory of invasive alien plants, their source regions and use potential. Current Science, 99(1), 107-114. http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci

Small, J. K., 1933. Manual of the Southeastern Flora, Chapel Hill, NC, USA: The University of North Carolina Press.473.

Smith, A. C., 1991. Flora vitiensis nova. A new flora of Fiji, Vol. 5, Lawaii, Hawaii, USA: Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden.626 pp. doi:https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.44033

Swearingen JM, 2005. USA: USDA Mid-Atlantic Exotic Pest Plant Council.http://www.invasiveplantatlas.org/

Tzvelev NN, 2007. New taxa and new combinations of Asteraceae taxa from the Central Asia. Botanicheskii Zhurnal, 92, 1747–1757.

Urbatsch L, Pruski JF, Neubig KM, 2013. Youngia thunbergiana (Crepidinae, Cichorieae, Asteraceae), a species overlooked in the North American flora. 78, 330–337.

USDA-ARS, 2018. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2018. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team.https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Useful Tropical Plants, 2018. Useful tropical plants database. In: Useful tropical plants database : K Fern.http://tropical.theferns.info/

Verloove, F, 2017. New xenophytes from the Canary Islands (Gran Canaria and Tenerife; Spain). Acta Botanica, 76(2), 120-131.

Vibrans, H., 2018. Weeds of Mexico. (Malezas de México). In: Malezas de México . http://www.conabio.gob.mx/malezasdemexico/2inicio/home-malezas-mexico.htm

Vikrant Jaryan, Uniyal, S. K., Gupta, R. C., Singh, R. D., 2013. Alien flora of Indian Himalayan State of Himachal Pradesh. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185(7), 6129-6153. doi: 10.1007/s10661-012-3013-2

Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawai‘i Press/Bishop Museum Press.1919 pp.

Weakley AS, 2010. Flora of the southern and mid-Atlantic states. Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA: University of North Carolina Herbarium.

Whistler AW, 1995. Wayside plants of the islands. Hawaii, USA: Isle Britannica.

Zhang JW, Boufford DE, Sun H, 2013. Systematic significance of achene morphology in Soroseris, Syncalathium and Parasyncalathium (Asteraceae: Cichorieae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 173(3), 476-86.

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. In: Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

CABI Data Mining, 2011. Invasive Species Databases.,

Chong K Y, Tan H T W, Corlett R T, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Davidse G, Sousa-Sánchez M, Knapp S, Chiang F, UUoa Ulloa C, Pruski J F, 2018. Flora Mesoamericana, Volumen 5, Parte 2: Asteraceae. [ed. by Davidse G, Sousa-Sánchez M, Knapp S, Chiang F, UUoa Ulloa C, Pruski J F]. St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press. xix + 608 pp.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of the Cayman Islands, 2018. Virtual Herbarium. Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands: Queen Elizabeth II Botanic Park. http://www.caymanflora.org/

Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer J-Y, 2013. Nadeaud botanical database of the Herbarium of French Polynesia. (Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP))., https://nadeaud.ilm.pf/

Gargiullo MB, Magnuson BL, Kimball LD, 2008. A field guide to plants of Costa Rica., Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. 544 pp.

GRIIS, 2018. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species., http://www.griis.org/

Leuangkhamma T, Vongsiharath V, 2005. Forest invasive species in Lao PDR., Bangkok, Thailand: FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

MacKee H S, 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. unpaginated.

Mexico, CONABIO, 2007. Invasive plant species. (Especies invasoras plantas). In: Especies invasoras plantas, México DF, Mexico: Comisión nacional para el conocimiento y uso de la biodiversidad. http://www.conabio.gob.mx/conocimiento/info_especies/especies_invasoras/doctos/plantas.html

Mir C, 2012. [English title not available]. (Estrategia Nacional de especies exóticas invasoras realizado en el marco del Proyecto “Mitigando las amenazas de las especies exóticas invasoras en el Caribe Insular”)., Dominican Republic: Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales Santo Domingo.

Oviedo Prieto R, González-Oliva L, 2015. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2015. (Lista nacional de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2015). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 9 (Special Issue No. 2), 1-88. http://repositorio.geotech.cu/jspui/bitstream/1234/1476/4/Lista%20nacional%20de%20plantas%20invasoras%20de%20Cuba-2015.pdf

PIER, 2018. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Rastogi J, Rawat DS, Chandra S, 2015. Diversity of invasive alien species in Pantnagar flora. Tropical Plant Research. 2 (3), 282-287.

Reddy CS, 2008. Catalogue of invasive alien flora of India. In: Life Science Journal, 5 84-89.

Rolim R G, Ferreira P M A de, Schneider A A, Overbeck G E, 2015. How much do we know about distribution and ecology of naturalized and invasive alien plant species? A case study from subtropical southern Brazil. Biological Invasions. 17 (5), 1497-1518. DOI:10.1007/s10530-014-0811-1

Sekar K C, Manikandan R, Srivastava S K, 2012. Invasive alien plants of Uttarakhand Himalaya. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences India. Section B, Biological Sciences. 82 (3), 375-383. http://www.springerlink.com/content/p320x5877g574708/

Singh K P, Shukla A N, Singh J S, 2010. State-level inventory of invasive alien plants, their source regions and use potential. Current Science. 99 (1), 107-114. http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci

Smith A C, 1991. Flora vitiensis nova. A new flora of Fiji, Vol. 5. Lawaii, Hawaii, USA: Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden. 626 pp. DOI:https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.44033

Space JC, Waterhouse BM, Miles JE, Tiobech J, Rengulbai K, 2003. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern., Honolulu, USA: USDA Forest Service.

USDA-ARS, 2018. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2018. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Verloove F, 2017. New xenophytes from the Canary Islands (Gran Canaria and Tenerife; Spain). Acta Botanica. 76 (2), 120-131.

Vikrant Jaryan, Uniyal S K, Gupta R C, Singh R D, 2013. Alien flora of Indian Himalayan State of Himachal Pradesh. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 185 (7), 6129-6153. DOI:10.1007/s10661-012-3013-2

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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23/06/2018 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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