Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Youngia japonica
(oriental false hawksbeard)

Rojas-Sandoval J, 2020. Youngia japonica (oriental false hawksbeard). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.117921.20203483406

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Datasheet

Youngia japonica (oriental false hawksbeard)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 June 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Youngia japonica
  • Preferred Common Name
  • oriental false hawksbeard
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Youngia japonica is a cosmopolitan herb that often grows as an agricultural and environmental weed. Native to temperate and tropical Asia and Australia, it has been introduced in Africa, the Canary Islands, the Americas and many Pacific I...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Youngia japonica (Oriental hawksbeard); flowers and seeds. Punakea Loop LZ Launiupoko, Maui.  March 31, 2009
TitleFlowers and seeds
CaptionYoungia japonica (Oriental hawksbeard); flowers and seeds. Punakea Loop LZ Launiupoko, Maui. March 31, 2009
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2009. CC-BY-3.0
Youngia japonica (Oriental hawksbeard); flowers and seeds. Punakea Loop LZ Launiupoko, Maui.  March 31, 2009
Flowers and seedsYoungia japonica (Oriental hawksbeard); flowers and seeds. Punakea Loop LZ Launiupoko, Maui. March 31, 2009©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2009. CC-BY-3.0
Youngia japonica (Oriental hawksbeard); habit. Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge, Florida, USA. September 26, 2009
TitleHabit
CaptionYoungia japonica (Oriental hawksbeard); habit. Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge, Florida, USA. September 26, 2009
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2009. CC-BY-3.0
Youngia japonica (Oriental hawksbeard); habit. Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge, Florida, USA. September 26, 2009
HabitYoungia japonica (Oriental hawksbeard); habit. Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge, Florida, USA. September 26, 2009©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2009. CC-BY-3.0
Youngia japonica (Oriental hawksbeard); flowers. Punakea Loop LZ Launiupoko, Maui.  March 31, 2009
TitleFlowers
CaptionYoungia japonica (Oriental hawksbeard); flowers. Punakea Loop LZ Launiupoko, Maui. March 31, 2009
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2009. CC-BY-3.0
Youngia japonica (Oriental hawksbeard); flowers. Punakea Loop LZ Launiupoko, Maui.  March 31, 2009
FlowersYoungia japonica (Oriental hawksbeard); flowers. Punakea Loop LZ Launiupoko, Maui. March 31, 2009©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2009. CC-BY-3.0
Youngia japonica (Asiatic hawksbeard); close-up of flowers. Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge, Florida, USA.  September 26, 2009
TitleFlowers
CaptionYoungia japonica (Asiatic hawksbeard); close-up of flowers. Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge, Florida, USA. September 26, 2009
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2009. CC-BY-3.0
Youngia japonica (Asiatic hawksbeard); close-up of flowers. Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge, Florida, USA.  September 26, 2009
FlowersYoungia japonica (Asiatic hawksbeard); close-up of flowers. Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge, Florida, USA. September 26, 2009©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2009. CC-BY-3.0
Youngia japonica (Asiatic hawksbeard); seeds and pappus. Punakea Loop LZ Launiupoko, Maui.  March 31, 2009
TitleSeeds and pappus
CaptionYoungia japonica (Asiatic hawksbeard); seeds and pappus. Punakea Loop LZ Launiupoko, Maui. March 31, 2009
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2009. CC-BY-3.0
Youngia japonica (Asiatic hawksbeard); seeds and pappus. Punakea Loop LZ Launiupoko, Maui.  March 31, 2009
Seeds and pappusYoungia japonica (Asiatic hawksbeard); seeds and pappus. Punakea Loop LZ Launiupoko, Maui. March 31, 2009©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2009. CC-BY-3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Youngia japonica (L.) DC.

Preferred Common Name

  • oriental false hawksbeard

Other Scientific Names

  • Chondrilla japonica (L.) Lam.
  • Chondrilla lyrata (Thunb.) Poir.
  • Chondrilla multiflora (Thunb.) Poir.
  • Crepis fastigiata (Blume) Sch.Bip.
  • Crepis formosana Hayata
  • Crepis japonica (L.) Benth.
  • Crepis lyrata (Poir.) Benth.
  • Crepis lyrata (Thunb.) C.B.Clarke
  • Crepis taquetii (H.Lév. & Vaniot) H.Lév.
  • Hieraciodes japonicum (L.) Kuntze
  • Ixeris lyrata (Thunb.) Miq.
  • Lactuca japonica (Thunb.) Regel
  • Lactuca microsperma K.Schum.
  • Lactuca taquetii H.Lév. & Vaniot
  • Lactuca taraxacum H.Lév. & Vaniot
  • Prenanthella japonica L.
  • Prenanthes lyrata Thunb.
  • Prenanthes multiflora Thunb.
  • Prenanthes striata Blume
  • Youngia ambigua DC.
  • Youngia fastigiata (Blume) DC.
  • Youngia formosana (Hayata) H.Hara
  • Youngia gracilis Miq.
  • Youngia integrifolia Cass.
  • Youngia lyrata . (Poir.) Cass
  • Youngia multiflora (Thunb.) DC.
  • Youngia napifera DC. ex Wight
  • Youngia paosa Steud.
  • Youngia poosia DC.
  • Youngia runcinata DC.
  • Youngia striata (Blume) DC.

International Common Names

  • English: Japanese hawkweed; asiatic hawksbeard; oriental hawksbeard
  • Chinese: huang an cai

Local Common Names

  • Cuba: yunga
  • Honduras: estrellita

Summary of Invasiveness

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Youngia japonica is a cosmopolitan herb that often grows as an agricultural and environmental weed. Native to temperate and tropical Asia and Australia, it has been introduced in Africa, the Canary Islands, the Americas and many Pacific Islands. It is commonly found in disturbed areas, wastelands, roadsides, abandoned pastures, lawns, cultivated fields and forest margins, but it is also able to penetrate into intact or minimally-disturbed natural areas. This species is a prolific seed producer and its seeds can be easily dispersed by wind and water or as contaminant in soil or crop and grass seeds. Y. japonica is adapted to grow in a wide range of climates and substrates and once it reaches a new area, it grows and spreads very quickly as new seeds are produced copiously.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Asterales
  •                         Family: Asteraceae
  •                             Genus: Youngia
  •                                 Species: Youngia japonica

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The genus Youngia comprises 30-40 species, distributed mostly in Asia. It is a heterogeneous and taxonomically confusing genus, mainly due to some of the species being weedy and highly polymorphic. Recent attempts to resolve the taxonomy by Tzvelev (2007) and Sennikov and Illarionova (2008) proposed three new genera based on carpological analyses: Crepidifolium, Sonchella, and Tibetoseris. Subsequently, a new genus called Pseudoyoungia was proposed by Maity and Maiti (2010), based on morphological characters. However, new analyses and molecular studies have only supported Sonchella as a separate genus, and have suggested that Crepidifolium should be treated as part of Crepidiastrum, Tibetoseris as part of Soroseris, and have reunited Pseudoyoungia with Youngia (Nakamura et al., 2013; Peng et al. 2013; 2014; Urbatsch et al. 2013; Zhang et al., 2013; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018).

Many subspecies and varieties have been suggested for Y. japonica, and some are even accepted, however all are treated here as Youngia japonica (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018).

Description

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The following description is adapted from Flora of China Editorial Committee (2018):

Herbs usually 10-150 cm tall, annual or biennial. Stems solitary or few, erect, branched from base, middle, or only apically, glabrous or basally often ± hairy, ± leafy or leafless. Basal leaves ± oblanceolate, to 15(-25) × 4(-6) cm, lyrately pinnatipartite or pinnatisect, rarely not divided; glabrous or somewhat hairy, base attenuate into a longer or shorter narrowly winged to ± unwinged petiole-like portion, margin sinuate-dentate; lateral lobes few to many, ovate, rhombic, or elliptic, gradually smaller toward leaf base; terminal lobe ovate, ovate-lanceolate, or obovate, much larger than lateral ones, apex rounded to acute. Stem leaves similar to basal leaves, abruptly or gradually reduced to bracts upward on stem. Synflorescence corymbiform to paniculiform-corymbiform, usually with many to numerous capitula. Capitula with 10-20 florets; peduncle capillaceous. Involucre cylindric, 4-7 mm. Phyllaries abaxially glabrous; outer phyllaries ovate to triangular, longest less than 1.5 mm, apex acute; inner phyllaries adaxially appressed pubescent, midvein subapically plane, margin ± white scarious, apex acute. Anther tube dark green. Style branches yellow upon drying. Achene light brown to dark reddish or purplish brown, fusiform, 1.5-2.5 mm, ribs finely spiculate, apex strongly attenuate. Pappus white, 2.5-3.5 mm.

Plant Type

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Annual
Biennial
Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Seed propagated

Distribution

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Youngia japonica is considered a pantropical weed, probably originating from China from where it has extended into subtropical and tropical regions (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018). Currently, Y. japonica is listed as native in temperate and tropical Asia and Australia and as introduced in Africa, Canary Islands, North and South America, the Caribbean and on many islands in the Pacific region (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Davidse et al., 2018; Verloove, 2017; Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018; GRIIS, 2018; PIER, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

ComorosPresentIntroducedInvasive
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentIntroducedNaturalized
MadagascarPresentIntroducedNaturalized
MauritiusPresentIntroducedInvasive
RéunionPresentIntroducedInvasive
SeychellesPresentIntroducedInvasive
South AfricaPresentIntroducedNaturalized

Asia

AfghanistanPresentNative
BhutanPresentNative
CambodiaPresentNative
ChinaPresentNative
-AnhuiPresentNative
-ChongqingPresentNative
-FujianPresentNative
-GansuPresentNative
-GuangdongPresentNative
-GuangxiPresentNative
-GuizhouPresentNative
-HainanPresentNative
-HebeiPresentNative
-HenanPresentNative
-HubeiPresentNative
-HunanPresentNative
-JiangsuPresentNative
-JiangxiPresentNative
-ShaanxiPresentNative
-ShandongPresentNative
-SichuanPresentNative
-YunnanPresentNative
-ZhejiangPresentNative
IndiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Arunachal PradeshPresentIntroducedInvasive
-AssamPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Himachal PradeshPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Jammu and KashmirPresentIntroducedInvasive
-ManipurPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MeghalayaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-NagalandPresentIntroducedInvasive
-PunjabPresentNative
-SikkimPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroducedInvasive
-TripuraPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Uttar PradeshPresentIntroducedInvasive
-UttarakhandPresentIntroducedInvasive
-West BengalPresentIntroducedInvasive
IndonesiaPresent
JapanPresentNative
-HokkaidoPresentNative
-HonshuPresentNative
-KyushuPresentNative
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentNative
-ShikokuPresentNative
LaosPresentIntroducedA potentially invasive weed
MalaysiaPresentNative
MyanmarPresentNative
NepalPresentNative
North KoreaPresentNative
PakistanPresentNative
PhilippinesPresentNative
SingaporePresentIntroduced
South KoreaPresentNative
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedNaturalized
TaiwanPresentNative
ThailandPresentNative
VietnamPresentNative

Europe

SpainPresentIntroducedIntroduced in the Canary Islands
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroduced

North America

BahamasPresentIntroducedNaturalized
BarbadosPresentIntroducedNaturalized
Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba
-SabaPresentIntroducedNaturalized
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasive
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedInvasiveWeed
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasive
DominicaPresentIntroducedNaturalized
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedWeed
El SalvadorPresentIntroduced
GuatemalaPresentIntroduced
HaitiPresentIntroducedNaturalized
HondurasPresentIntroduced
JamaicaPresentIntroducedNaturalized
MexicoPresentIntroducedInvasiveWeed
NicaraguaPresentIntroduced
PanamaPresentIntroduced
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroduced
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedSt Croix
United StatesPresentIntroducedInvasive
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedWeed
-ArkansasPresentIntroducedWeed
-District of ColumbiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveWeed
-FloridaPresentIntroducedWeed
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedWeed
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasive
-KentuckyPresentIntroducedWeed
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedWeed
-MarylandPresentIntroducedInvasiveWeed
-MississippiPresentIntroducedWeed
-New YorkPresentIntroducedWeed
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedInvasiveWeed
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroducedWeed
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedWeed
-TennesseePresentIntroducedWeed
-TexasPresentIntroducedWeed
-VirginiaPresentIntroducedWeed

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroduced
AustraliaPresentNative
-New South WalesPresentNative
-QueenslandPresentNative
FijiPresentIntroducedInvasive
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
GuamPresentIntroducedInvasive
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroduced
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedInvasive
NiuePresentIntroducedInvasive
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroduced
PalauPresentIntroducedInvasive
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroduced
TongaPresentIntroducedInvasive

South America

BrazilPresentIntroducedNaturalizedWeed in Rio Grande do Sul
-Rio Grande do SulPresentIntroducedNaturalizedWeed
ColombiaPresentIntroduced
GuyanaPresentIntroducedNaturalized
ParaguayPresentIntroduced
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedNaturalized

History of Introduction and Spread

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Youngia japonica is a common environmental and agricultural weed that occurs in many warm-temperate, tropical and subtropical areas of the world, where it was probably introduced accidentally or as a contaminant in seeds of other crops (Hauber et al., 1989; USDA-NRCS, 2018). In the United States, the date of introduction is unknown, but the species was first reported as a “common weed” across the southeastern states in 1933 (Small, 1933). In the Pacific Islands, Y. japonica was first recorded in Hawaii in 1864 (Whistler, 1995). In the Canary Islands it was first recorded in 2010 in Tenerife and later in 2013 in Gran Canaria (Verloove, 2017). In Central America, Y. japonica is listed as a common weed, often occurring in coffee plantations (cafetales) and disturbed areas, and Davidse et al. (2018) described it as actively spreading across the region.

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Hawaii 1864 Yes No Whistler (1995)
Canary Islands 2010 Yes No Verloove (2017)

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of new introductions of Y. japonica is very high. It has small seeds that can be unintentionally dispersed as contaminants or hitch-hikers, and its current distribution is so widespread globally that introductions into new areas are highly likely.

Habitat

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Youngia japonica can be found growing on mountain slopes, mountain valleys, ravines, forest margins, grasslands, stream banks, trailsides, roadsides, curbs and open and disturbed places at elevations from below 100 m to 4500 m. It is also a common weed of gardens and lawns, field margins, pastures, coffee plantations and grassy areas near houses and orchards (Gargiullo et al., 2008; Davidse et al., 2018; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; India Biodiversity Portal, 2018).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Natural
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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Youngia japonica is listed as a weed of coffee and sugarcane plantations (McIntyre, 1991; Vibrans, 2018; Davidse et al., 2018). In Nepal it is also reported as a weed of wheat (Dangol, 2015).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Coffea arabica (arabica coffee)RubiaceaeMain
    Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane)PoaceaeMain
      Triticum aestivum (wheat)PoaceaeMain

        Growth Stages

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        Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

        Biology and Ecology

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        Genetics

        The chromosome number reported for Y. japonica is 2n=16 (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018).

        Reproductive Biology

        The floral morphology, physiology and phenology of Youngia japonica are all consistent with autogamy (Hauber et al., 1989). In this species fertile florets are perfect, and the androecium and pistil mature simultaneously. In controlled pollination experiments, high seed-set (80%) were achieved from bagged heads (inflorescences), and from the natural “open treatment” even when the rate of visits by pollinator (in this case flowers were visited by small bees) was very low (Hauber et al., 1989).

        Physiology and Phenology

        In China, Y. japonica been recorded flowering and fruiting from February to December (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018). In India, it produces flowers and fruits from October to April (India Biodiversity Portal, 2018). In the United States, it flowers in the spring–summer, but in southern states it often flowers all year-round (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018). In Central America, it flowers throughout the year (Davidse et al., 2018).

        Longevity

        Youngia japonica is an annual or biennial (USDA-NRCS, 2018).

        Environmental Requirements

        Youngia japonica is often associated with human activities and can be found growing in disturbed, waste and open areas. However, it also grows in shaded areas and in relatively undisturbed natural sites. It prefers moist conditions and has the potential to grow in a wide range of soil types including sandy, loamy and heavy clay soils (Useful Tropical Plants, 2018; PFAF, 2018).

        Climate

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        ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
        Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
        As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
        Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
        Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers

        Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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        Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
        45 45

        Air Temperature

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        Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
        Mean annual temperature (ºC) 18 28

        Rainfall

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        ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
        Mean annual rainfall8002000mm; lower/upper limits

        Rainfall Regime

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        Bimodal
        Summer
        Uniform
        Winter

        Soil Tolerances

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        Soil reaction

        • acid

        Soil texture

        • heavy
        • light
        • medium

        Pathway Causes

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        CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
        Crop productionAgricultural weed Yes Yes Vibrans (2018)
        DisturbanceEnvironmental weed. Often naturalized along roadsides, waste sites, open grounds, etc. Yes Yes Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2018)
        Escape from confinement or garden escapeSeeds Yes USDA-NRCS (2018)
        Garden waste disposalSeeds Yes USDA-NRCS (2018)
        HitchhikerContaminant in crop and grass seeds or soil Yes Yes USDA-NRCS (2018)
        HorticultureSometimes planted as ornamental Yes Yes Loewenstein and Loewenstein (2005)
        Medicinal useUsed in traditional medicine Yes Yes Useful Tropical Plants (2018)
        Ornamental purposesSometimes planted as ornamental Yes Yes Loewenstein and Loewenstein (2005)

        Pathway Vectors

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        Impact Summary

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        CategoryImpact
        Cultural/amenity Positive
        Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
        Environment (generally) Positive and negative
        Human health Positive

        Economic Impact

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        Youngia japonica is an agricultural weed of coffee, sugarcane and wheat (McIntyre, 1991; Vibrans, 2018; Dangol, 2015; Davidse et al., 2018).

        Environmental Impact

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        Youngia japonica is an environmental weed invading both disturbed and undisturbed natural areas. In Hawaii, it has been reported occurring in nearly intact wet forests (Wagner et al., 1999). Across the Southeastern United States, this species has been described as “very common” and is spreading rapidly, invading intact or minimally-disturbed forests, prairies and coastal plains. This species grows well in response to human disturbance and is very common in areas such roadsides, cultivated fields, lawns, pastures and forest margins (Loewenstein and Loewenstein, 2005; Swearingen, 2005; Weakley, 2010; PIER, 2018; USDA-NRCS, 2018).

        Impact: Biodiversity

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        Youngia japonica has been reported invading protected natural areas within the Haleakala National Park in Hawaii and the Rock Creek National Park in Washington D.C. (Swearingen, 2005). In North Carolina, USA, it is invading primarily the Piedmont region and plains along the Atlantic coast where it is spreading relatively rapidly (Loewenstein and Loewenstein, 2005; Weakley, 2010).

        Risk and Impact Factors

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        Invasiveness
        • Invasive in its native range
        • Proved invasive outside its native range
        • Has a broad native range
        • Abundant in its native range
        • Highly adaptable to different environments
        • Is a habitat generalist
        • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
        • Pioneering in disturbed areas
        • Tolerant of shade
        • Highly mobile locally
        • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
        • Fast growing
        • Has high reproductive potential
        • Gregarious
        • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
        Impact outcomes
        • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
        • Modification of successional patterns
        • Monoculture formation
        • Negatively impacts agriculture
        • Reduced amenity values
        • Reduced native biodiversity
        • Threat to/ loss of native species
        Impact mechanisms
        • Competition - monopolizing resources
        • Rapid growth
        Likelihood of entry/control
        • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
        • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
        • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
        • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
        • Difficult/costly to control

        Uses

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        In Asia, the young leaves and young plants of Y. japonica are consumed as vegetable, either raw or cooked. All plant parts are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, such as angina, leucorrhea, mastitis, conjunctivitis and rheumatoid arthritis. It is also used in the treatment of boils and snakebites. Sometimes it is planted as ornamental (Loewenstein and Loewenstein, 2005; Useful Tropical Plants, 2018; PFAF, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018).

        Uses List

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        Environmental

        • Amenity

        Human food and beverage

        • Vegetable

        Medicinal, pharmaceutical

        • Traditional/folklore

        Ornamental

        • garden plant

        Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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        The seedlings and young plants of Y. japonica form a rosette resembling a small sowthistle (Sonchus spp.) or a dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), but its leaves are hairy and the upper leaves are more linear and lack a stalk, and a milky sap is emitted when leaves are torn (USDA-NRCS, 2018).

        Prevention and Control

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        Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

        Physical/mechanical control

        Young plants of Y. japonica can be easy pulled out, taking care to remove all roots and stems. As the plant gets older and more firmly rooted, they cannot be pulled out without breaking off the stems, which will then regrow. Plants which are mowed above soil level recover quickly (USDA-NRCS, 2018).

        Chemical control

        Different broad-spectrum herbicides have and are being used to control Y. japonica in different crops. However, this species has developed resistance to herbicides such diquat and paraquat in Japan since 1986 and in China since 2009 (Heap, 2018).

        References

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        Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

        Broome, R., Sabir, K., Carrington, S., 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. In: Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database , Barbados: University of the West Indies.http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

        Dangol DR, 2015. Journal of Natural History Museum, 17(27) . 132-78.

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        Links to Websites

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        GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

        Contributors

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        23/06/2018 Original text by:

        Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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